E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Water Networks Management: New Perspectives"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Vasilis Kanakoudis

Head of the Civil Engineering Department, Civil Engineering Department, University of Thessaly, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Interests: drinking water netwroks management; simulation and optimization; water quality; water and energy; water cost; water pricing; water resources management
Guest Editor
Dr. Stavroula Tsitsifli

Civil Engineering Department, University of Thessaly, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Interests: drinking water networks management; water networks performance evaluation; water quality; non-revenue water management; water pricing; environmental impact assessment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water scarcity and climate change are considered the main causes of water related problems around the globe. These problems get even worse due to the anthropogenic stresses put on water systems struggling to meet rapidly growing water demands. It is estimated that 20–40% of Europe’s available water is being wasted from leakages in the supply systems. This results in the inefficient use of water and energy resources, as well as negative economic, technical, social, and environmental impacts. Efficient and sustainable management of water distribution systems requires advanced tools and strategies for the analysis, monitoring, planning and operation of water distribution networks (WDNs). In such a context, the integration of ICT innovations in the water sector offers new opportunities for WDN management in urban areas, while exploiting the smart water networks paradigm. In this context, this Special Issue aims at providing insights on new perspectives on drinking water network management. Specific topics to be included are: Drinking Water Supply; Water Demand Forecast and Management; Simulation and Optimization Techniques of Water Pipe Networks; Water Pricing; and Water and Energy.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Vasilis Kanakoudis
Dr. Stavroula Tsitsifli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Drinking water
  • Water quality
  • simulation
  • optimization
  • energy

Published Papers (11 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-11
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research

Open AccessEditorial
Water Networks Management: New Perspectives
Water 2019, 11(2), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020239
Received: 15 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
PDF Full-text (159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Real water losses in water distribution systems may well be considered a potential water resource, as the significant water volumes being wasted through these physical losses should be replaced eventually. Advanced tools and strategies can be used for the efficient and sustainable management [...] Read more.
Real water losses in water distribution systems may well be considered a potential water resource, as the significant water volumes being wasted through these physical losses should be replaced eventually. Advanced tools and strategies can be used for the efficient and sustainable management of water resources toward circular economy. The present Special Issue presents new perspectives for water networks management. The 10 peer-reviewed papers collected in this Special Issue have been grouped in two categories—drinking water supply systems and water resources and irrigation systems. These papers are being briefly presented in this Editorial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Networks Management: New Perspectives)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle
Calculation Proposal for the Economic Level of Apparent Losses (ELAL) in a Water Supply System
Water 2018, 10(12), 1809; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121809
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 9 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The manuscript describes a simplified methodology with which to assess the economic level of apparent losses (ELAL) in a water utility. This economic point corresponds to the break-even point for which the marginal benefit of increasing the frequency of the apparent losses’ reduction [...] Read more.
The manuscript describes a simplified methodology with which to assess the economic level of apparent losses (ELAL) in a water utility. This economic point corresponds to the break-even point for which the marginal benefit of increasing the frequency of the apparent losses’ reduction activities equalizes the marginal cost of their implementation. For this calculation, each apparent loss component, as defined by the International Water Association, has been subdivided into two additional categories. These categories have been established depending on how periodic activities conducted by the water utility to reduce apparent losses—namely water meter replacement and customers’ connection inspections—may affect their magnitude. It has been found that the ELAL is influenced by intervention costs, the degradation rate of the accuracy of water meters and water tariffs. In addition, this work defines a set of performance indicators to benchmark the apparent loss’s performance relative to the minimum achievable and optimum levels of the losses. Finally, two case studies on how the proposed calculation should be applied have been added to the appendices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Networks Management: New Perspectives)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Statistical and Distributional Properties of Residential Water Demand at Fine Time Scales
Water 2018, 10(10), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101481
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (23829 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Residential water demand consists one of the most uncertain factors posing extra difficulties in the efficient planning and management of urban water systems. Currently, high resolution data from smart meters provide the means for a better understanding and modelling of this variable at [...] Read more.
Residential water demand consists one of the most uncertain factors posing extra difficulties in the efficient planning and management of urban water systems. Currently, high resolution data from smart meters provide the means for a better understanding and modelling of this variable at a household level and fine temporal scales. Having this in mind, this paper examines the statistical and distributional properties of residential water demand at a 15-minute and hourly scale, which are the temporal scales of interest for the majority of urban water modeling applications. Towards this, we investigate large residential water demand records of different characteristics. The analysis indicates that the studied characteristics of the marginal distribution of water demand vary among households as well as on the basis of different time intervals. Both month-to-month and hour-to-hour analysis reveal that the mean value and the probability of no demand exhibit high variability while the changes in the shape characteristics of the marginal distributions of the nonzero values are significantly less. The investigation of performance of 10 probabilistic models reveals that Gamma and Weibull distributions can be used to adequately describe the nonzero water demand records of different characteristics at both time scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Networks Management: New Perspectives)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Improving Water Distribution Systems Robustness through Optimal Valve Installation
Water 2018, 10(9), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091223
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2671 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study proposes a framework for improving the robustness of water distribution systems using the optimal valve installation approach with regard to system reinforcement. To improve the robustness in valve design, this study introduces critical segment selection technique and optimal valve location determination [...] Read more.
This study proposes a framework for improving the robustness of water distribution systems using the optimal valve installation approach with regard to system reinforcement. To improve the robustness in valve design, this study introduces critical segment selection technique and optimal valve location determination within the concept of segment. Using the segment finding algorithm, the segment and the unintentional isolation can be identified. To select the critical segment, a multicriteria decision technique is applied by considering the hydraulic, social and economic effect. Finally, the optimal valve locations and the number of additional valves is determined by pipe failure analysis through the trade-off relationship with the number of additional valves and the maximum damage under pipe failure situations. To verify the proposed technique, the real-world water distribution systems are applied and compared with the original design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Networks Management: New Perspectives)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Simulation of Urban Water Resources in Xiamen Based on a WEAP Model
Water 2018, 10(6), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060732
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 12 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (11506 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A water evaluation and planning model (WEAP) for Xiamen City was used to analyze trends in water use and demand between 2015 and 2050. This study was unique in that it considered the water resources of each of the city’s five districts’ separately, [...] Read more.
A water evaluation and planning model (WEAP) for Xiamen City was used to analyze trends in water use and demand between 2015 and 2050. This study was unique in that it considered the water resources of each of the city’s five districts’ separately, rather than the city as a whole. The water saving potential, water shortages, and water supply alternatives were analyzed under different simulated scenarios. The results show that future water consumption will greatly increase in Xiamen City, and that there will be a water shortage after 2030 without new water supplies. Water shortages will first occur in the Tongan and Xiangan districts, due to established water supply priorities and capacity. Industry restructuring (structural water-saving scenario, SWS) and advanced water-saving technology (technical water-saving scenario, TWS) can result in water saving potentials of 6.97% and 9.82% by 2050, respectively, while adopting both strategies (double water-saving scenario, DWS) can save 16.44%. The prevention of future water shortages requires the implementation of water-saving measures and the use of new water supplies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Networks Management: New Perspectives)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Towards Development of an Optimization Model to Identify Contamination Source in a Water Distribution Network
Water 2018, 10(5), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10050579
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 29 April 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1046 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Protection of the water system is paramount due to the negative consequences of contaminated water on the public health. Water resources are one of the critical infrastructures that must be preserved from deliberate and accidental attacks. Water qualities are examined at the treatment [...] Read more.
Protection of the water system is paramount due to the negative consequences of contaminated water on the public health. Water resources are one of the critical infrastructures that must be preserved from deliberate and accidental attacks. Water qualities are examined at the treatment plant. However, its quality can substantially be contaminated during transportation from the plant to the consumers’ taps. Contamination in water distribution networks (WDNs) is a danger that can have severe consequences on public health as well as an economic and social instability. Water distribution networks are immensely susceptible to deliberate or accidental attacks due to the complex nature of the system. Hence, contamination source identification (CSI) is a topical issue in water distribution systems that require immediate attention of researchers in order to protect mankind from the adverse effect of consuming contaminated water. Usually, a contaminant event can be detected by the water quality monitoring sensors or the contaminant warning system (CWS) installed on the network. Nevertheless, how to derive the source of the contamination from the collected information is a difficult task that must be tackled in order to evaluate the spread of the contamination and for immediate remedial strategies. In the past two decades, considerable efforts and advancement have been made by researchers applying various techniques in order to locate the source of the contamination in WDNs. Each of the techniques has certain limitations and applicability as reported in the literature. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the existing techniques with emphasis on their importance and technical challenges. Despite a series of investigations in this domain, the field is yet to be unified. Hence, open research areas are still available to explore. Consequently, improvement on the existing techniques is necessary and hereby suggested. More importantly, practical application of these techniques offer a major research gap that must be addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Networks Management: New Perspectives)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Optimizing Re-Chlorination Injection Points for Water Supply Networks Using Harmony Search Algorithm
Water 2018, 10(5), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10050547
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to achieve the required residual chlorine concentration at the end of a water network, the installation of a re-chlorination facility for a high-quality water supply system is necessary. In this study, the optimal re-chlorination facility locations and doses were determined for [...] Read more.
In order to achieve the required residual chlorine concentration at the end of a water network, the installation of a re-chlorination facility for a high-quality water supply system is necessary. In this study, the optimal re-chlorination facility locations and doses were determined for real water supply systems, which require maintenance in ord3r to ensure proper residual chlorine concentrations at the pipeline under the present and future conditions. The harmony search algorithm (HSA), which is a meta-heuristic optimization technique, was used for the optimization model. This method was applied to two water supply systems in South Korea and was verified through case studies using different numbers of re-chlorination points. The results show that the proposed model can be used as an efficient water quality analysis and decision making tool, which showed the optimal re-chlorination dose and little deviation in the spatial distribution. In addition, the HSA results are superior to those of the genetic algorithm (GA) in terms of the total injection mass with the same number of evaluations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Networks Management: New Perspectives)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Experimental Water Consumption Regression Model for Typical Administrative Buildings in the Czech Republic
Water 2018, 10(4), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040424
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (23653 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pressure management is the basic step of reducing water losses from water supply systems (WSSs). The reduction of direct water losses is reliably achieved by reducing pressure in the WSSs. There is also a slight decrease in water consumption in connected properties. Nevertheless, [...] Read more.
Pressure management is the basic step of reducing water losses from water supply systems (WSSs). The reduction of direct water losses is reliably achieved by reducing pressure in the WSSs. There is also a slight decrease in water consumption in connected properties. Nevertheless, consumption is also affected by other factors, the quantification of which is not trivial. However, there is still a lack of much relevant information to enter into this analysis and subsequent decision making. This article focuses on water consumption and its prediction, using regression models designed for an experiment regarding an administrative building in the Czech Republic (CZ). The variables considered are pressure and climatological factors (temperature and humidity). The effects of these variables on the consumption are separately evaluated, subsequently multidimensional models are discussed with the common inclusion of selected combinations of predictors. Separate evaluation results in a value of the N3 coefficient, according to the FAVAD concept used for prediction of changes in water consumption related to pressure. The statistical inference is based on the maximum likelihood method. The proposed regression models are tested to evaluate their suitability, particularly, the models are compared using a cross-validation procedure. The significance tests for parameters and model reduction are based on asymptotic properties of the likelihood ratio statistics. Pressure is confirmed in each regression model as a significant variable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Networks Management: New Perspectives)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Optimization Strategy for Improving the Energy Efficiency of Irrigation Systems by Micro Hydropower: Practical Application
Water 2017, 9(10), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100799
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (8494 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Analyses of possible synergies between energy recovery and water management are essential for achieving sustainable advances in the performance of pressurized irrigation networks. Nowadays, the use of micro hydropower in water systems is being analysed to improve the overall energy efficiency. In this [...] Read more.
Analyses of possible synergies between energy recovery and water management are essential for achieving sustainable advances in the performance of pressurized irrigation networks. Nowadays, the use of micro hydropower in water systems is being analysed to improve the overall energy efficiency. In this line, the present research is focused on the proposal and development of a novel optimization strategy for increasing the energy efficiency in pressurized irrigation networks by energy recovering. The recovered energy is maximized considering different objective functions, including feasibility index: the best energy converter must be selected, operating in its best efficiency conditions by variation of its rotational speed, providing the required flow in each moment. These flows (previously estimated through farmers’ habits) are compared with registered values of flow in the main line with very suitable calibration results, getting a Nash–Sutcliffe value above 0.6 for different time intervals, and a PBIAS index below 10% in all time interval range. The methodology was applied to a Vallada network obtaining a maximum recovered energy of 58.18 MWh/year (41.66% of the available energy), improving the recovered energy values between 141 and 184% when comparing to energy recovery considering a constant rotational speed. The proposal of this strategy shows the real possibility of installing micro hydropower machines to improve the water–energy nexus management in pressurized systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Networks Management: New Perspectives)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Establishment of an Inventory for the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Analysis of a Water Supply System
Water 2017, 9(8), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080592
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2953 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This paper aimed to develop an inventory that is necessary for the life cycle cost (LCC) analysis of a water supply system. Based on an established inventory system, data items for each asset category were defined. The water supply system was divided into [...] Read more.
This paper aimed to develop an inventory that is necessary for the life cycle cost (LCC) analysis of a water supply system. Based on an established inventory system, data items for each asset category were defined. The water supply system was divided into pipelines, pumps and distribution facilities. Pipeline facilities that account for the majority of water supply systems were grouped, according to the purposes and functions of pipes, into conveyance facilities, transmission facilities, distribution facilities and supply facilities. The inventory of water supply systems were divided into five levels, and the higher the level, the more detailed facilities were classified. Basically, 12 items and diagnosis results were included in the system to distinguish the characteristics of each asset, and it was ensured that administrators could add or change items later if necessary. The data used in this study were established based on real data from the Yeong-Wol (YW) pipeline systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Networks Management: New Perspectives)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Coordinated Operation of Weirs and Reservoirs on the Water Quality of the Geum River
Water 2017, 9(6), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060423
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 22 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5118 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multifunctional weirs can be used to maintain water supply during dry seasons and to improve downstream water quality during drought conditions through discharge based on retained flux. Sixteen multifunctional weirs were recently constructed in four river systems as part of the Four Rivers [...] Read more.
Multifunctional weirs can be used to maintain water supply during dry seasons and to improve downstream water quality during drought conditions through discharge based on retained flux. Sixteen multifunctional weirs were recently constructed in four river systems as part of the Four Rivers Restoration Project. In this study, three multifunctional weirs in the Geum River Basin were investigated to analyze the environmental effects of multifunctional weir operation on downstream flow. To determine seasonal vulnerability to drought, the basin was evaluated using the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Furthermore, the downstream flow regime and the effect on water quality improvement of a coordinated dam–multifunctional weir operation controlled by: (a) a rainfall–runoff model; (b) a reservoir optimization model; and (c) a water quality model, were examined. A runoff estimate at each major location in the Geum River Basin was performed using the water quality model, and examined variation in downstream water quality depending on the operational scenario of each irrigation facility such as dams and weirs. Although the water quality was improved by the coordinated operation of the dams and weirs, when the discharged water quality is poor, the downstream water quality is not improved. Therefore, it is necessary to first improve the discharged water quality on the lower Geum River. Improvement of the water quality of main stream in the Geum River is important, but water quality from tributaries should also be improved. By applying the estimated runoff data to the reservoir optimization model, these scenarios will be utilized as basic parameters for assessing the optimal operation of the river. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Networks Management: New Perspectives)
Figures

Figure 1

Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top