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Water, Volume 14, Issue 4 (February-2 2022) – 168 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Water distribution system monitoring needs advanced real-time control technologies to achieve maximum operational efficiency. This work proposes a state estimation methodology that enables inferring the operating speed of the system’s pumping stations from the monitored pressure and flow rate measurements across the system. The approach uses graph convolutional neural network theory linked to hydraulic models that generate a digital twin of the water system. It is validated on two benchmark hydraulic networks, where the proposed model effectively predicts the system’s state. The results of the evaluation metrics reflect a high predictive ability and that the prediction results adequately represent real data. View this paper
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Article
A Rapid Method to Estimate the Different Components of the Water Balance in Mediterranean Watersheds
Water 2022, 14(4), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040677 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 631
Abstract
The sustainable management of water resources, whether surface or underground, requires the identification of the flows involved and the possibility of achieving the water balance of the water resource. These require knowledge of the main flow components with a sufficient level of accuracy. [...] Read more.
The sustainable management of water resources, whether surface or underground, requires the identification of the flows involved and the possibility of achieving the water balance of the water resource. These require knowledge of the main flow components with a sufficient level of accuracy. Hydrological simulation models are valuable tools for studying flow at the watershed scale but rely on data that are rarely available; therefore, they require the implementation of field investigations. There is thus a need for simple and practical tools for studying the functioning of a watershed and identifying the different components of the flows. In this paper, a method that uses only weather data, volumes of water abstraction by pumping or diversion, and flows measured at the outlet is proposed. The use of cumulative multi-year curves of measured flows or rainfall provides an assessment of the unknown flows that can take place in the watershed, as well as the order of the respective magnitudes of fast and slow flows. Its application to 20 French Mediterranean watersheds shows that it is possible to properly estimate the order of magnitude of losses or gains linked to karst flows and irrigation input. External inflows or outflows can represent up to 150% of the flow measured at the outlet. The annual volumes estimated by using this method are indeed very close (R2 = 93%) to those provided by existing knowledge. The proposed method can constitute a first approach for the quantification of flows and help to guide the implementation of field investigations and more sophisticated approaches such as hydrological modelling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Concept Paper
The Marine Influence Index (MII): A Tool to Assess Estuarine Intertidal Mudflat Environments for the Purpose of Foraminiferal Biomonitoring
Water 2022, 14(4), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040676 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 820 | Correction
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a marine influence index (MII), which is thought to give an integrated quantitative description of the complex of the environmental parameters controlling the foraminiferal fauna in estuarine intertidal mudflats. The MII contains three components, as follows: (1) the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a marine influence index (MII), which is thought to give an integrated quantitative description of the complex of the environmental parameters controlling the foraminiferal fauna in estuarine intertidal mudflats. The MII contains three components, as follows: (1) the relative distance along the salinity gradient, (2) the emergence time relative to a reference tidal cycle, and (3) the relative importance of river outflow in the 30 days before sampling the foraminiferal fauna. Although these three parameters all have a strong relation with salinity, they also implicitly include other environmental parameters, such as the introduction of marine and continental organic matter and biota, hydrodynamic energy, or temperature. In order to show the functioning of this new index, MII is calculated for 28 stations in the Auray and Vie estuaries, for two different periods. The next step will be to compare the MII with faunal data sets. Ideally, this comparison should allow us to find strong correlations between some characteristics of the foraminiferal assemblages and the MII. If such strong correlations were indeed found, any major deviation of this relationship could then be interpreted as being due to strong anthropogenic disturbance. Full article
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Article
Drip Irrigation Reduced Fertilizer Nitrogen Loss from Lettuce Field—A Case Study Based on 15N Tracing Technique
Water 2022, 14(4), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040675 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 469
Abstract
Nitrogen losses under different irrigation modes have been evaluated by many studies, yet it is not very clear whether the lost N sources are from the soil or fertilizer. In order to quantitatively investigate the effects of different irrigation modes on fertilizer N [...] Read more.
Nitrogen losses under different irrigation modes have been evaluated by many studies, yet it is not very clear whether the lost N sources are from the soil or fertilizer. In order to quantitatively investigate the effects of different irrigation modes on fertilizer N loss, we used the 15N-labeledurea (15N abundance of 19.6%) as fertilizer and the lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. angustana iris) as the plant material to conduct a field experiment under three different lower limits of drip irrigation, including 75% (DR1), 65% (DR2) and 55% (DR3), accounting for the field water capacity. A furrow irrigation treatment (FI) with the same irrigation regime as DR2 was used as the control. The fate and balance of 15N under these treatments were studied. The results showed that, after the lettuce harvest, 36.9–48.8% of the applied fertilizer 15N remained in 0–80-cm soil, 32.6–39.4% was absorbed by plants, and 18.6–26.3% was lost via pathways such as volatilization or leaching. Under the same irrigation regime, 15N loss caused by FI (26.3%) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that byDR2 (18.9%). Moreover, FI increased the amount of total 15N, mineral 15N and organic 15N in the deeper soil layers (60 cm depth and below), leading to a potential risk of 15N leaching. The soil 15N residue was relatively lower under DR1, while the crop-absorbed 15N or 15N loss was atthe highest level among the three drip irrigation treatments. The correlation analysis results showed that increasing the total irrigation amount or increasing the irrigation frequency might increase the 15N loss. We concluded that using drip irrigation instead of furrow irrigation with controlling the lower irrigation limit at 65% is conducive to improving crop 15N utilization and reducing 15N loss from lettuce fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollution and Restoration of Agricultural Soil and Water Resources)
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Article
Automated Customer Complaint Processing for Water Utilities Based on Natural Language Processing—Case Study of a Dutch Water Utility
Water 2022, 14(4), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040674 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 754
Abstract
Most water utilities have to handle a substantial number of customer complaints every year. Traditionally, complaints are handled by skilled staff who know how to identify primary issues, classify complaints, find solutions, and communicate with customers. The effort associated with complaint processing is [...] Read more.
Most water utilities have to handle a substantial number of customer complaints every year. Traditionally, complaints are handled by skilled staff who know how to identify primary issues, classify complaints, find solutions, and communicate with customers. The effort associated with complaint processing is often great, depending on the number of customers served by a water utility. However, the rise of natural language processing (NLP), enabled by deep learning, and especially the use of deep recurrent and convolutional neural networks, has created new opportunities for comprehending and interpreting text complaints. As such, we aim to investigate the value of the use of NLP for processing customer complaints. Through a case study about the Water Utility Groningen in the Netherlands, we demonstrate that NLP can parse language structures and extract intents and sentiments from customer complaints. As a result, this study represents a critical and fundamental step toward fully automating consumer complaint processing for water utilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Integrated Urban Water Management)
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Article
Effect of Different Water Treatments in Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum Based on Intelligent Weighing Systems
Water 2022, 14(4), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040673 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 521
Abstract
In order to meet the needs of dynamic continuous monitoring of soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC), a new soil, plant, atmosphere analysis system has been established based on an intelligent weighing system (IWS). Four types of irrigation treatments (90%, 80%, 70%, and 60% of field [...] Read more.
In order to meet the needs of dynamic continuous monitoring of soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC), a new soil, plant, atmosphere analysis system has been established based on an intelligent weighing system (IWS). Four types of irrigation treatments (90%, 80%, 70%, and 60% of field capacity (FC)) were conducted on lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. ramosa Hort.) for two-season planting experiments. Regarding the soil, the relative system weight of IWS showed a significant linear correlation with the soil volumetric moisture content (SWC) (R2 = 0.64–0.94). When the SWC increased by 1.00%, the soil weight increased by 56–62 g. Regarding plants, the IWS also clearly reflected the changes in plant weight gain, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance at different growth stages. After verification, the relative errors of the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance measured by the IWS were −9.60–22.30% and −7.20–22.20%, respectively. Regarding the atmospheric environment, the variation trend of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) based on the IWS and the reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) calculated with meteorological parameters were consistent. However, the numerical difference was in the uncertainty of the crop coefficient (Kc). The ETc of lettuce under the 80% FC treatment was the highest. Accordingly, a daily online measurement method for Kc was established. The Kc values of lettuce at different growth stages were 0.88, 1.22, and 2.43, respectively. The growth, yield, and water use efficiency (WUE) of crops under 80% FC treatment compared with other treatments significantly increased by 11.07–21.05%, 0.91–9.89%, and 2.16–15.80%, respectively. Therefore, the 80% FC was adopted as the irrigation low limit of potted lettuce. The experimental results provide a theoretical basis for further guiding crop irrigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Modeling of Water Flow, Nutrients and Sediment Transport)
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Article
Behavior of Porewater Pressures in an Earth Dam by Principal Component Analysis
Water 2022, 14(4), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040672 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 392
Abstract
This study deals with the utilization of the pore pressure meter for evaluating the stability of a dam through the correlation between the porewater pressure installed in the fill dam and the water level of the dam. To this end, principal components analysis [...] Read more.
This study deals with the utilization of the pore pressure meter for evaluating the stability of a dam through the correlation between the porewater pressure installed in the fill dam and the water level of the dam. To this end, principal components analysis was performed on a total of 18 porewater pressure meters, and the main components were classified into three groups: internal (Group A), external (Group B), and upper (Group C), on the basis of the seepage line formed within the dam body. The coefficient of correlation between the porewater pressure and water level was found to be 0.86 to 1.00, indicating a strong positive linear relationship. This means that the maintenance of the dam is possible through the pore pressure meter present in Group A. Furthermore, the regression analysis for porewater pressures and water levels resulted in a linear regression model with the coefficient of determination (R2) of Group A being between 0.74 and 0.99. In particular, R2 between the power water pressure installed at the base of the dam and the water level was more than 0.99. Therefore, it was shown that the prediction of the porewater pressure is possible by using the relationships with the water level, making it possible to determine the safety of the dam by comparing it with the currently measured values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety Evaluation of Dam and Geotechnical Engineering)
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Article
Long-Term 10 m Resolution Water Dynamics of Qinghai Lake and the Driving Factors
Water 2022, 14(4), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040671 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 587
Abstract
As the largest inland saltwater lake in China, Qinghai Lake plays an important role in regional sustainable development and ecological environment protection. In this study, we adopted a spatial downscaling model for mapping lake water at 10 m resolution through integrating Sentinel-2 and [...] Read more.
As the largest inland saltwater lake in China, Qinghai Lake plays an important role in regional sustainable development and ecological environment protection. In this study, we adopted a spatial downscaling model for mapping lake water at 10 m resolution through integrating Sentinel-2 and Landsat data, which was applied to map the water extent of Qinghai Lake from 1991 to 2020. This was further combined with the Hydroweb water level dataset to establish an area-level relationship to acquire the 30-year water level and water volume. Then, the driving factors of its water dynamics were analyzed based on the grey system theory. It was found that the lake area, water level, and water volume decreased from 1991 to 2004, but then showed an increasing trend afterwards. The lake area ranges from 4199.23 to 4494.99 km2. The water level decreased with a speed of ~0.05 m/a before 2004 and then increased with a speed of 0.22 m/a thereafter. Correspondingly, the water volume declined by 5.29 km3 in the first 13 years, and rapidly increased by 15.57 km3 thereafter. The correlation between climatic factors and the water volume of Qinghai Lake is significant. Precipitation has the greatest positive impact on the water volume variation with the relational grade of 0.912, while evaporation has a negative impact. Full article
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Article
Hydrogeomorphic Scaling and Ecohydraulics for Designing Rescaled Channel and Floodplain Geometry in Regulated Gravel–Cobble Bed Rivers for Pacific Salmon Habitat
Water 2022, 14(4), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040670 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Societies are increasingly restoring and/or rehabilitating rivers below dams for keystone species such as salmon. A fundamental concept for rehabilitating river morphology below dams for salmon is that a rescaled version of the river corridor synchronized to the regulated flow regime can restore [...] Read more.
Societies are increasingly restoring and/or rehabilitating rivers below dams for keystone species such as salmon. A fundamental concept for rehabilitating river morphology below dams for salmon is that a rescaled version of the river corridor synchronized to the regulated flow regime can restore habitat quantity and quality. Downscaled and resized hydrographs have been shown to provide environmental benefits to fish communities including salmon as well as riparian vegetation communities. However, less research exists on how this can be achieved through the topographic rescaling of heavily modified and regulated river corridors. The goal of this paper is to review analytical methods to determine initial of size of rescaled channel and floodplain mesohabitat units in regulated gravel–cobble bed rivers for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) habitat using hydrogeomorphic scaling and ecohydraulics. Hydrogeomorphic flow scaling is the prediction of river morphology and geometry using empirical and analytical relationships. Ecohydraulic scaling refers to the use of ecohydrology, habitat suitability curves, and fish density relationships to determine the size of mesohabitat units for ecologically relevant flows. In practice, these are complimentary first order estimates of channel and floodplain configurations followed by iterative design in a hierarchical manner. This review advances the science of river design by synthesizing these complimentary ideologies for Pacific salmon habitat restoration in regulated rivers. Following the review, the layout of features is briefly discussed followed by a discussion of important considerations beyond the physical and topographic rescaling of river corridors for salmonid habitat restoration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluvial Hydraulics and Applications)
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Article
Hydrochemical Characteristics of Arsenic in Shallow Groundwater in Various Unconsolided Sediment Aquifers: A Case Study in Hetao Basin in Inner Mongolia, China
Water 2022, 14(4), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040669 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 463
Abstract
This study focused on the entire Hetao Basin, which can fall into four hydrogeological units, the Houtao Plain, Sanhuhe Plain, Hubao Plain, and South Bank Plain of the Yellow River, all of which are under different geological and environmental conditions. To systematically investigate [...] Read more.
This study focused on the entire Hetao Basin, which can fall into four hydrogeological units, the Houtao Plain, Sanhuhe Plain, Hubao Plain, and South Bank Plain of the Yellow River, all of which are under different geological and environmental conditions. To systematically investigate the hydrochemical characteristics and spatial distribution of high-As groundwater (As > 10 μg/L), 974 samples were collected from shallow groundwater. As indicated from the results, high-As groundwater had an extensive distribution, and its spatial distribution in the four hydrogeological units exhibited significant variability. Three concentrated distribution areas were reported with high-As groundwater, which were all in the discharge areas of groundwater, and the arsenic contents in the groundwater were found to exceed 50 μg/L. The hydrochemical types of high-As groundwater in the HT Plain and the SHH Plain consisted of HCO3 SO4·Cl for anions and Na for cations, while those in the other two plains included HCO3 for anions as well as Na·Mg·Ca for cations. According to the pH values, the groundwater was weakly alkaline in the areas with high-As groundwater, and arsenic primarily existed as arsenite. Furthermore, high-As groundwater in the Hetao Basin was characterized by high contents of Fe (mean value of 2.77 mg/L) and HCO3 (mean value of 460 mg/L) and a low relative concentration of SO42− (average value of 310 mg/L). This study did not identify any significant correlation between groundwater arsenic and other ions (e.g., Fe2+, Fe3+, HCO3, SO42, NO2 and NO3) in the entire Hetao Basin over a wide range of hydrogeological units. The results remained unchanged after the four hydrogeological units were analyzed. The special sedimentary environment evolution of the Hetao Basin was found as the prerequisite for the formation of high-arsenic groundwater. Furthermore, groundwater runoff conditions and hydrogeochemical processes in the basin were indicated as the factors controlling the formation of high-arsenic groundwater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Quality and Public Health)
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Article
Integrated Groundwater Flow Modeling for Managing a Complex Alluvial Aquifer Case of Study Mio-Plio-Quaternary Plain of Kairouan (Central Tunisia)
Water 2022, 14(4), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040668 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 562
Abstract
In central Tunisia, anthropic activities, such as groundwater abstraction for irrigation, have resulted in excessive groundwater level declines of the Mio-Plio-Quaternary aquifer hosted in Kairouan Plain. Besides, the two dams El Houareb and Sidi Saad’s impoundment since the 1980s has deeply modified the [...] Read more.
In central Tunisia, anthropic activities, such as groundwater abstraction for irrigation, have resulted in excessive groundwater level declines of the Mio-Plio-Quaternary aquifer hosted in Kairouan Plain. Besides, the two dams El Houareb and Sidi Saad’s impoundment since the 1980s has deeply modified the natural process of aquifer recharge. Hence, some studies claim the dam’s instauration of this groundwater depletion; however, some other studies attribute this critical situation to an issue of groundwater management. A multidisciplinary study was carried out to retrace the groundwater flow dynamics for 48 years before and after the dams’ erection and to understand the main factors causing the groundwater depletion. Hence, a conceptual model was developed based on gathering all available data from 114 borehole logs, 10 seismic lines, and 08 petroleum wells. Based on this reconstructed geometry, the groundwater head was simulated using the numerical code Modflow. The model was calibrated in steady-state with reference to the piezometric levels measured in 1969 and in the transient state for the period 1970–2017 and validated for the period 2007–2017. The outputs of the calibrated model show a relevant finding of the decrease of the inflows coming from the rivers’ beds (Zeroud and Marguellil) from 1990 to 2017 by 48%; yet, the pumping rate has increased by 119%. The simulated scenario without dams and maintaining the same withdrawals has shown a groundwater level rise downstream of the plain; yet, in its upstream, the depletion was less intense compared to the current model. However, the case of doing without dams and raising withdrawals from the aquifer has generated a huge decline reaching 22 m near Draa Affane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Review
Research Characteristics on Cyanotoxins in Inland Water: Insights from Bibliometrics
Water 2022, 14(4), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040667 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 515
Abstract
Eutrophication is a long-standing ecological and environmental problem, and the severity of harmful algal blooms continues to increase, causing large economic losses globally. One of the most important hazards created by harmful algal blooms is the production of cyanotoxins. This study aimed to [...] Read more.
Eutrophication is a long-standing ecological and environmental problem, and the severity of harmful algal blooms continues to increase, causing large economic losses globally. One of the most important hazards created by harmful algal blooms is the production of cyanotoxins. This study aimed to analyze the characteristics and development trends of cyanotoxin research through bibliometric analysis. A total of 3265 publications from 1990 to 2020 on cyanotoxins were retrieved from the Science Citation Index (SCI) Expanded database, Web of Science. Over the past 30 years, most research has been concentrated in China (21.4%) and the USA (21.3%). Throughout the study period, microcystin was the focus of the research, accounting for 86% of the total number of publications. A word frequency analysis revealed that as people became more aware of drinking water safety and the construction of large-scale water conservation facilities, “reservoirs” and “rivers” became hot words for researchers, while “lakes” have always been important research objects. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis of studies from the five countries with the largest numbers of publications showed that Chinese researchers typically associate eutrophication with Microcystis, while research subjects in other countries are more extensive and balanced. The development of cyanotoxin research around the world is not even, and we need to push for more research on major lakes that are outside of North America, Europe and China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
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Article
The Climate Road—A Multifunctional Full-Scale Demonstration Road That Prevents Flooding and Produces Green Energy
Water 2022, 14(4), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040666 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 533
Abstract
This paper presents a multifunctional full-scale demonstration road, the Climate Road, which combines climate adaptation and mitigation in a single system. The Climate Road is located at Hedensted, Denmark and is 50 m long and 8 m wide, and the depth of the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a multifunctional full-scale demonstration road, the Climate Road, which combines climate adaptation and mitigation in a single system. The Climate Road is located at Hedensted, Denmark and is 50 m long and 8 m wide, and the depth of the roadbed is 1 m. Half of the Climate Road, i.e., 25 m, is paved with permeable asphalt and the remaining 25 m with traditional asphalt. All surface water drains into the roadbed, which stores up to 120 m3 of water, either directly through the permeable asphalt or by drain grates. In addition, 800 m of geothermal pipes are embedded in the roadbed, distributed over four 200 m w-loops, two buried 1 m below the asphalt and two similar loops at 0.5 m depth. The Climate Road was tested from May 2019 to May 2021. In the project period, a total precipitation value of 1654 mm was recorded, the mean temperature was 9.3 °C and the most intense rainfall was 40.3 mm/30 min. The long-term infiltration performance of the permeable asphalt shows that the overall infiltration capacity slowly reduces. The reduction can be hindered, but not completely prevented, with annual restorative cleaning. After two years of operation, the Climate Road still, by a large margin, fulfils the recommendations of the infiltration capacity of 97.2 mm/h for the vast majority of the road section. The total volume reduction capacity is estimated to be between 15 and 30%. Based on an analysis of 61 single rain events, the event detention time is found to range between 10 and 130 min, with an average of 35 min. During the project period, the Climate Road produced a total of 98 MWh for a nearby kindergarten, with an average coefficient of performance (COP) of 3.1. Full article
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Editorial
Soil–Water Conservation, Erosion and Landslide
Water 2022, 14(4), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040665 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 441
Abstract
In the wake of climate change, extreme storm events, catastrophic disasters (including soil erosion, debris and landslide formation, loss of life, etc [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil–Water Conservation, Erosion, and Landslide)
Article
Evaluation of the Potential Release Risk of Internal N and P from Sediments—A Preliminary Study in Two Freshwater Reservoirs in South China
Water 2022, 14(4), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040664 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 502
Abstract
Growing evidence has demonstrated the influence of internal nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on harmful algae blooms in eutrophic freshwater ecosystems. However, the main controlling factors for internal N and P release risks, and whether these factors vary as environmental conditions change, remains [...] Read more.
Growing evidence has demonstrated the influence of internal nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on harmful algae blooms in eutrophic freshwater ecosystems. However, the main controlling factors for internal N and P release risks, and whether these factors vary as environmental conditions change, remains poorly understood. We evaluated potential release risks of N and P from sediments in two freshwater reservoirs in Beihai City, southern China, by evaluating apparent nutrient fluxes during simulated static incubation experiments at two temperatures (15 °C and 25 °C). Sediments were analyzed to determine their basic properties as well as N and P fractions. Results showed that the main controlling factors of the apparent fluxes in dissolved total P, soluble reactive P, total N, and ammonium were related to sediment adsorption properties, redox properties, and microbial-mediated properties (e.g., water-extractable P, total inorganic N, redox-sensitive P, total organic carbon, organic P). The primary controlling factors for apparent N and P fluxes were dependent on the form of N and P and changed with temperature. The results suggest that care should be taken when simply using total N and P contents in sediments to evaluate their internal nutrient release risks. Full article
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Article
Practitioners’ Perspective on the Prevalent Water Quality Management Practices for Legionella Control in Large Buildings in the United States
Water 2022, 14(4), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040663 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1061
Abstract
Managing building water systems is complicated by the need to maintain hot water temperatures high enough to control the growth of Legionella spp. while minimizing the risk of scalding. This study assessed water quality management practices in large buildings in the United States. [...] Read more.
Managing building water systems is complicated by the need to maintain hot water temperatures high enough to control the growth of Legionella spp. while minimizing the risk of scalding. This study assessed water quality management practices in large buildings in the United States. Surveys conducted with building water quality managers found that more than 85% of buildings have hot water temperatures that are consistent with scald risk mitigation guidelines (i.e., <122 °F/50 °C). However, nearly two thirds and three quarters of buildings do not comply with the common temperature guidance for opportunistic pathogen control, i.e., water heater setpoint > 140 °F (60 °C) and recirculation loop > 122 °F (50 °C), respectively; median values for both setpoint and recirculation loop temperatures are 10 °F (6 °C) or more below temperatures recommended for opportunistic pathogen control. These observations suggest that many buildings are prone to Legionella spp. risk. The study also found that 27% of buildings do not comply with guidelines for time to equilibrium hot water temperature, over 33% fail to monitor temperature in the recirculation loop, more than 70% fail to replace or disinfect showerheads, more than 40% lack a written management plan, and only a minority conduct any monitoring of residual disinfectant levels or microbiological quality. Given the rise in Legionellosis infections in recent years, coupled with highlighted water quality concerns because of prolonged water stagnation in plumbing, such as in buildings closed due to COVID-19, current management practices, which appear to be focused on scald risk, may need to be broadened to include greater attention to control of opportunistic pathogens. To accomplish this, there is a need for formal training and resources for facility managers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality in Buildings)
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Article
Analytical Framework for Understanding the Differences between Technical Standards Originating from Various Regions to Improve International Hydropower Project Delivery
Water 2022, 14(4), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040662 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 461
Abstract
The international hydropower construction market is continuously growing during the past decade. The existing literature points out that contractors are facing ongoing difficulties in achieving the objectives of developing international hydropower projects, which largely arise from the misunderstanding and poor use of international [...] Read more.
The international hydropower construction market is continuously growing during the past decade. The existing literature points out that contractors are facing ongoing difficulties in achieving the objectives of developing international hydropower projects, which largely arise from the misunderstanding and poor use of international technical standards. However, there is a lack of a coherent framework to help systematically analyze the differences between technical standards originating from various regions. This study establishes an analytical framework that incorporates the essential factors of technical standards, namely philosophy of standards, logical structure, completeness of standards, calculation method, equipment and material requirements, test method, construction method, and application conditions of standards, and demonstrates their relationships from a holistic perspective. With support of the data collected from Chinese contractors, the results revealed the application status of various technical standards and their differences. Hierarchical cluster analysis demonstrates that unfamiliarity with the differences between domestic and international technical standards can cause multiple problems in international hydropower project delivery, concerning applying international standards, integrated project management, design, procurement, and construction, which have broad theoretical and practical implications. The outcomes of this study can not only help contractors improve their capabilities of applying international standards for achieving superior international hydropower project performance, but also facilitate mutual recognition of the standards from various regions, thereby maximizing the effectiveness of global resources such as expertise, technologies, methods, and products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulic Engineering Management)
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Article
Advanced Grouting Model and Influencing Factors Analysis of Tunnels with High Stress and Broken Surrounding Rock
Water 2022, 14(4), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040661 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 640
Abstract
Grouting can effectively seal and reinforce broken rock masses in deep geotechnical engineering, which have an important impact on groundwater-related disaster prevention and control. Based on multi-field coupling mechanics and rotational viscosity experiments, an advance grouting migration model of cement slurry in tunnels [...] Read more.
Grouting can effectively seal and reinforce broken rock masses in deep geotechnical engineering, which have an important impact on groundwater-related disaster prevention and control. Based on multi-field coupling mechanics and rotational viscosity experiments, an advance grouting migration model of cement slurry in tunnels with high-stress broken surrounding rock is built against the background of the Xianglushan Tunnel for water diversion in central Yunnan Province. The influence characteristics of water–cement ratio, grouting pressure, and initial permeability on the process of grouting material migration are analyzed by combining classical column theory and spherical theory. The results show the following: Overall, the growth rate of grouting radius is fast during the earlier 5 min and slows down later. At the fifth minute, the normal grouting ranges are 22 cm, 51 cm, and 58 cm, at water–cement ratios 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0, respectively, while the normal grouting ranges are 58 cm, 51 cm, and 36 cm at grouting pressures 2 MPa, 1 MPa, and 0.5 MPa, respectively; the normal grouting ranges are 58 cm, 24 cm, and 11 cm at initial permeabilities 5D, 0.5D, and 0.05D, respectively. At the 60th minute, the normal grouting ranges are 47 cm, 133 cm, and 155 cm at water–cement ratios 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0, respectively; the normal grouting ranges are 155 cm, 131 cm, and 96 cm at grouting pressures 2 MPa, 1 MPa, and 0.5 MPa, respectively; meanwhile, the normal grouting ranges are 155 cm, 63 cm, and 29 cm at initial permeabilities 5D, 0.5D, and 0.05D, respectively. This study can provide theoretical guidance for on-site grouting design in unfavorable geological treatment projects. Full article
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Article
Spatio-Temporal Interpolation and Bias Correction Ordering Analysis for Hydrological Simulations: An Assessment on a Mountainous River Basin
Water 2022, 14(4), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040660 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 812
Abstract
Triggering hydrological simulations with climate change gridded datasets is one of the prevailing approaches in climate change impact assessment at a river basin scale, with bias correction and spatio-temporal interpolation being functions routinely used on the datasets preprocessing. The research object is to [...] Read more.
Triggering hydrological simulations with climate change gridded datasets is one of the prevailing approaches in climate change impact assessment at a river basin scale, with bias correction and spatio-temporal interpolation being functions routinely used on the datasets preprocessing. The research object is to investigate the dilemma arisen when climate datasets are used, and shed light on which process—i.e., bias correction or spatio-temporal interpolation—should go first in order to achieve the maximum hydrological simulation accuracy. In doing so, the fifth generation of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Reanalysis v5 (ERA5) temperature and precipitation products of 9 × 9 km spatial resolution, which are considered as the reference data, are initially compared with the same hindcast variables of a regional climate model of 12.5 × 12.5 km spatial resolution over a specific case study basin and for a 10-year period (1991–2000). Thereafter, the climate model’s variables are (a) bias corrected followed by their spatial interpolation at the reference resolution of 9 × 9 km with the use of empirical quantile mapping and spatio-temporal kriging methods respectively, and (b) spatially downscaled and then bias corrected by using the same methods as before. The derived outputs from each of the produced dataset are not only statistically analyzed at a climate variables level, but they are also used as forcings for the hydrological simulation of the river runoff. The simulated runoffs are compared through statistical performance measures, and it is established that the discharges attributed to the bias corrected climate data followed by the spatio-temporal interpolation present a high degree of correlation with the reference ones. The research is considered a useful roadmap for the preparation of gridded climate change data before being used in hydrological modeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Statistical Methods and Hydroinformatics Applied in Water Resources)
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Article
A Preliminary Assessment of Young Water Fractions in Groundwater from Alluvial Aquifers Facing the Northern Italian Apennines
Water 2022, 14(4), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040659 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 537
Abstract
This study sums up the first estimates of the young water fraction (Fyw; here understood as the percentage proportion of groundwater passing through the well’s screen and younger than approximately 2–3 months) from groundwater collected in 75 wells from alluvial fans [...] Read more.
This study sums up the first estimates of the young water fraction (Fyw; here understood as the percentage proportion of groundwater passing through the well’s screen and younger than approximately 2–3 months) from groundwater collected in 75 wells from alluvial fans facing the northern Italian Apennines of Italy. The Fyw estimates were based on a monthly dataset of water-stable isotopes (oxygen-18 (18O)) from surficial water (9 rivers), while the dataset of groundwater (75 wells) consisted of three-monthly isotopic data. In the cases of surficial water and stable isotopes, these lasted over the period of January 2003 to December 2007, while in the case of groundwater, the data were collected from January 2005 to December 2007. The values of Fyw were estimated by means of a sine-wave fitting technique; the results made evident the presence of unexpectedly reduced differences between groundwater. In particular, shallower groundwater hosted in aquifers from the apical parts of the alluvial fans (i.e., aquifers characterized by the coarsest materials such as gravels and sands, and closest to the recharge areas) showed similar values of Fyw to the deepest aquifers from the distal parts; however, former studies mentioned here evidenced the existence of poorly recharged old groundwater. Our results seem to confirm a complex behavior of these aquifers compared with what had previously been thought. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Residence Times by Isotopic Techniques)
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Article
Effects of Ambient Microbiota on the Gut Microbiota of Macrobrachium rosenbergii
Water 2022, 14(4), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040658 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 591
Abstract
The gut microbiota (GM) compositions of aquatic animals are influenced by microorganisms in ambient water and sediment. However, the extent to which environmental microorganisms can affect shrimp GM composition is unknown. We analyzed the impact of water and sediment microorganisms on the GM [...] Read more.
The gut microbiota (GM) compositions of aquatic animals are influenced by microorganisms in ambient water and sediment. However, the extent to which environmental microorganisms can affect shrimp GM composition is unknown. We analyzed the impact of water and sediment microorganisms on the GM of Macrobrachium rosenbergii at different growth stages. We collected water, sediment, and M. rosenbergii gut samples at the early, middle, and late stages of an M. rosenbergii culture and analyzed the microbiota composition. The shrimps’ body weight differed significantly between sampling stages. The shrimp GM composition differed significantly from that of the ambient water and sediment, and these differences were remarkably stronger than those between the shrimp GM at different sampling times and in different ponds. The proportion of sediment bacteria in the shrimp GM was approximately three times higher than that of water bacteria, which changed among ponds and over sampling time. These results provide important reference information for a deeper understanding of the impact of environmental microorganisms on the composition of shrimp GM. Moreover, the results also provide reference information for increasing the production of shrimp culture as well as ensuring a good health status of the culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Microorganisms in Aquatic Environments)
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Article
Experimental Study of Forces Influencing Vertical Breakwater under Extreme Waves
Water 2022, 14(4), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040657 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 513
Abstract
In order to understand the extreme wave acting on the vertical breakwater, a series of experiments were constructed in the wave tank to measure the variations of pressure on the front, rear faces, and below the caisson due to overtopping waves. The front [...] Read more.
In order to understand the extreme wave acting on the vertical breakwater, a series of experiments were constructed in the wave tank to measure the variations of pressure on the front, rear faces, and below the caisson due to overtopping waves. The front and backward horizontal forces and the uplift forces were estimated by integrating the dynamic wave pressure distributions. The COBRAS numerical model was also used to calculate the wave loads under various overtopping waves. The measured wave pressures and wave forces were compared with the predictions of numerical results and showed good agreement. It was found that the forces acting on the backward side of the vertical structure induced by the wave overtopping should be considered. From the experimental data, new semi-empirical equations for calculating the maximum wave forces are proposed using a least squares approximation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on the Interaction of Water Waves and Ocean Structures)
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Article
Combined Multilevel Monitoring and Wavelet Transform Analysis Approach for the Inspection of Ground and Surface Water Dynamics in Shallow Coastal Aquifer
Water 2022, 14(4), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040656 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 666
Abstract
In this paper, we present an approach based on the simultaneous use of multilevel monitoring systems for the ground and surface water and wavelet-based analysis of the time series observed to detect the main mechanisms influencing the water level, electrical conductivity (EC) and [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present an approach based on the simultaneous use of multilevel monitoring systems for the ground and surface water and wavelet-based analysis of the time series observed to detect the main mechanisms influencing the water level, electrical conductivity (EC) and temperature (T) in ground and surface water of the river Neretva coastal aquifer system. Although the area of interest is under significant impact of seawater intrusion, the presented approach enabled the insight to transient response of the system to external loadings like precipitation and irrigation system primarily. The capacity of the monitoring system has been demonstrated on two different subareas, respectively, Diga and Jasenska. While the Diga area is shown to be under significant influence of the seawater, the Jasenska area shows sensitivity to precipitation and pumping station (PS) Modric operative regime. Groundwater parameters as observed during dry periods at Jasenska show the presence of stratification. Wavelet-based analysis enabled the determination of the interdependence of the variables of interest as well as their temporal dependence. Determined regimes of the surface water, as found within the Jasenska channel, are additionally supported by the in situ profiling results, thus strengthening the findings of the study. Our findings reflect the capacity of the approach to capture for the stratification of the groundwater parameters induced by seawater intrusion and external loadings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salt Intrusion in Coastal Areas)
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Article
Application of Electrocoagulation in Street Food Wastewater
Water 2022, 14(4), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040655 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 685
Abstract
Street food is commonly known as ready-to-eat and go foods and beverages, which is very famous in Thailand and other Asian countries. The street food daily generates high organic content and oily wastewater from washing and rinsing plates. The discharge of street food [...] Read more.
Street food is commonly known as ready-to-eat and go foods and beverages, which is very famous in Thailand and other Asian countries. The street food daily generates high organic content and oily wastewater from washing and rinsing plates. The discharge of street food wastewater to public drains leads to a clogged drain line and unpleasant smell. In this work, an electrocoagulation (EC) system with monopolar aluminum (Al) electrodes was developed to treat two well-known street foods; Hainanese chicken rice (HC) and noodles and dumplings (ND). The results revealed that excellent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and fat, oil, and grease (FOG) removals were achieved under a specific operating condition (i.e., an electric current of 20 mA/cm2 and electrolytic time of 10 min). The initial COD of HC wastewater decreased from 40.6 g/L to 1.9 g/L, approximately 95%, whereas the FOG decreased from 310 mg/L to 50 mg/L, approximately 84%. The lower initial COD and FOG concentrations of ND wastewater obtained approximately 98% for COD removal and 86% for FOG removal; the effluent contained 0.5 g/L of COD and 25 mg/L of FOG. In addition, a relatively low Al concentration of 0.02–0.08 mg/L was observed in the effluents. The appropriate design factors together with ease of use and fast pollutants removal were significant advantages of this study; the EC system has potential to apply to on-site street food treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Environmental Technologies)
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Article
Proposal of a Water-Quality Index for High Andean Basins: Application to the Chumbao River, Andahuaylas, Peru
Water 2022, 14(4), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040654 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1098
Abstract
The water from the high Andean rivers is peculiar due to its composition and the geomorphology of its sources, and naturally or anthropogenically contamination is not discarded along its course. This water is used for agriculture and human consumption, therefore knowing its quality [...] Read more.
The water from the high Andean rivers is peculiar due to its composition and the geomorphology of its sources, and naturally or anthropogenically contamination is not discarded along its course. This water is used for agriculture and human consumption, therefore knowing its quality is important. This research aimed to proposing and formulate a water-quality index for high Andean basins through the Delphi method, and its application in the Chumbao River located in Andahuaylas-Peru. Forty-three water-quality parameters were evaluated through the Delphi method, and the water-quality index (WQIHA) was formulated with a weighted average of the weights of the selected parameters, it was compared with the WQI Dinius. For this purpose, ten sampling points were considered along the Chumbao River located between 4274 and 2572 m of altitude and the WQIHA was applied. In addition, field and laboratory analyses were carried out in 2018, 2019, and 2021, in dry and rainy seasons. Twenty parameters were grouped in the physicochemical sub-index (SIPC), heavy metals sub-index (SIHM), and organic matter sub-index (SIOM). Each group contributed with weights of 0.30, 0.30, and 0.40, respectively, for the WQIHA formulation. The SIPC and SIOM showed that the areas near the head of the basin presented excellent and good quality, while the urbanized areas were qualified as marginal to poor; SIHM reported good quality in all points and seasons. Regarding the WQIHA, the index shows good quality in the zones above 3184 m of altitude, contrasting with poor quality downstream, decreasing notably in both seasons, suggesting continuous degradation of the water body. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
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Article
Meteorological and Hydrological Drought Risk Assessment Using Multi-Dimensional Copulas in the Wadi Ouahrane Basin in Algeria
Water 2022, 14(4), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040653 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 641
Abstract
A persistent precipitation deficiency (meteorological drought) could spread to surface water bodies and produce a hydrological drought. Meteorological and hydrological droughts are thus closely related, even though they are separated by a time lag. For this reason, it is paramount for water resource [...] Read more.
A persistent precipitation deficiency (meteorological drought) could spread to surface water bodies and produce a hydrological drought. Meteorological and hydrological droughts are thus closely related, even though they are separated by a time lag. For this reason, it is paramount for water resource planning and for drought risk analysis to study the connection between these two types of drought. With this aim, in this study, both meteorological and hydrological drought were analyzed in the Wadi Ouahrane Basin (Northwest Algeria). In particular, data from six rainfall stations and one hydrometric station for the period 1972–2018 were used to evaluate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Runoff Index (SRI) at multiple timescales (1, 2, 3, 4, …, 12 months). By means of a copula function, the conditional return period for both types of drought was evaluated. Results evidenced that runoff is characterized by high level of temporal correlation in comparison to rainfall. Moreover, the composite index JDHMI (Joint Deficit Hydro-meteorological Index) was evaluated. This index is able to reflect the simultaneous hydrological and meteorological behavior at different timescales of 1–12 months well and can present the probability of a common hydrological and meteorological deficit situation more accurately and realistically compared to precipitation or runoff-based indicators. It was found that, over the analyzed basin, the average severity of combined hydro-meteorological drought (JDHMI) was 10.19, with a duration of 9 months and a magnitude of 0.93. Full article
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Article
Incorporating the Filling–Spilling Feature of Depressions into Hydrologic Modeling
Water 2022, 14(4), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040652 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 466
Abstract
Surface depressions are one of the important impact factors of hydrologic processes and catchment responses. However, in many hydrologic models, the influence of depressions is often simulated in a lumped manner, which results in the insufficient characterization of the filling–spilling–merging–splitting dynamics of depressions [...] Read more.
Surface depressions are one of the important impact factors of hydrologic processes and catchment responses. However, in many hydrologic models, the influence of depressions is often simulated in a lumped manner, which results in the insufficient characterization of the filling–spilling–merging–splitting dynamics of depressions and the threshold behavior of the overland flow. The objective of the research reported in this paper is to improve the simulation of depression-influenced hydrologic processes by capturing the threshold control of depressions. To achieve this objective, a Depression-oriented Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT-D) is developed. Specifically, the intrinsic changing patterns of contributing area and depression storage are first determined and further incorporated into the SWAT to simulate the filling–spilling of depressions and depression-influenced overland flow dynamics. The SWAT-D was applied to a depression-dominated watershed in the Prairie Pothole Region to evaluate its performance and capability. The simulated and observed hydrographs at the watershed outlet showed good agreement, with only a 7% deviation between the simulated and observed volumes of discharges in 2004. The NSE values for the simulated monthly average discharges during calibration and validation periods were 0.78 and 0.71, respectively, indicating the ability of the SWAT-D in reproducing the depression-influenced catchment responses. In addition, the SWAT-D was compared with other depression-oriented modeling techniques (i.e., the lumped depression approach and probability distribution models), and the comparisons emphasized the improvement of the SWAT-D and the importance of the research reported in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Article
Assessing the Influences of Land Use Change on Groundwater Hydrochemistry in an Oasis-Desert Region of Central Asia
Water 2022, 14(4), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040651 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 491
Abstract
Land use change greatly affects groundwater hydrochemical cycling and thereby food and ecosystem security in arid regions. Spatiotemporal distribution of groundwater hydrochemistry is vital to understand groundwater water-salt migration processes in the context of land use change, while it is not well known [...] Read more.
Land use change greatly affects groundwater hydrochemical cycling and thereby food and ecosystem security in arid regions. Spatiotemporal distribution of groundwater hydrochemistry is vital to understand groundwater water-salt migration processes in the context of land use change, while it is not well known in the oasis-desert region of arid inland basins. Here, to investigate the influences of land use change on groundwater hydrochemistry and suggest sustainable management, 67 water samples were obtained in the Luntai Oasis, a typical oasis desert of Central Asia. Stable isotopes and chemical components of samples were analyzed. Piper and Gibbs plots were used to elaborate the chemical type and major mechanisms controlling water chemistry, respectively. The results showed that cultivated land area has markedly expanded in the Luntai Oasis over the last 20 years (increasing by 121.8%). Groundwater seasonal dynamics and groundwater–surface water interaction were altered dramatically by farmland expansion and groundwater exploitation. Specifically, the spatial heterogeneity and seasonal variability of groundwater hydrochemistry were significant. Compared with the desert area, the δ18O and TDS of river water and shallow groundwater in the oasis cropland exhibited lower values but greater seasonal variation. Higher TDS was observed in autumn for river water, and in spring for shallow groundwater. The chemical evolution of phreatic water was mainly controlled by the evaporation-crystallization process and rock dominance, with a chemical type of Cl-SO4-Na-Mg. Significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity of groundwater hydrochemistry demonstrated the influence of climatic, hydrogeological, land use, and anthropogenic conditions. Groundwater overexploitation would cause phreatic water leakage into confined water, promoting groundwater quality deterioration due to fresh saltwater mixing. Improving agricultural drainage ditches in conjunction with restricting farmland expansion and groundwater extraction is an effective way to alleviate groundwater environment deterioration and maintain oasis-desert ecosystems in arid regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Studies on Ecohydrological Processes in the Arid Area)
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Article
Flow Discharge Prediction Study Using a CFD-Based Numerical Model and Gene Expression Programming
Water 2022, 14(4), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040650 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 639
Abstract
The significance of spillways is to allow the flood to be safely discharged from downstream. There is a strong correlation between the poor design of spillways and the failures of dams. In order to address this concern, the present study investigates the flow [...] Read more.
The significance of spillways is to allow the flood to be safely discharged from downstream. There is a strong correlation between the poor design of spillways and the failures of dams. In order to address this concern, the present study investigates the flow over the Nazloo-ogee spillway using the CFD 3D numerical model and an artificial intelligence method called Gene Expression Programming (GEP). In a physical model, discharge and flow depths were calculated for 21 different total heads. Among different turbulence models, the RNG turbulence model achieved the maximum compatibility in computational fluid dynamic simulation. In addition, GEP was used to estimate Q, in which 70% of collected data was dedicated to training and 30% to testing. R2, RMSE, and MAE were obtained as performance criteria, and the new mathematical equation for the prediction of discharge was obtained using this model. Finally, the numerical model and GEP outputs were compared with the experimental data. According to the results, the numerical model and GEP exhibited a high level of correspondence in simulating flow over an ogee-crested spillway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Modelling of Single and Multi-Phase Flow)
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Editorial
Modelling of River Flows, Sediment and Contaminants Transport
Water 2022, 14(4), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040649 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Economic development projects in river basins, involving mining, forestry, agriculture and urban developments, invariably impact the aquatic ecosystems of the basin [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling of River Flows, Sediment and Contaminants Transport)
Article
Assessing the Groundwater Reserves of the Udaipur District, Aravalli Range, India, Using Geospatial Techniques
Water 2022, 14(4), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040648 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1342
Abstract
Population increase has placed ever-increasing demands on the available groundwater (GW) resources, particularly for intensive agricultural activities. In India, groundwater is the backbone of agriculture and drinking purposes. In the present study, an assessment of groundwater reserves was carried out in the Udaipur [...] Read more.
Population increase has placed ever-increasing demands on the available groundwater (GW) resources, particularly for intensive agricultural activities. In India, groundwater is the backbone of agriculture and drinking purposes. In the present study, an assessment of groundwater reserves was carried out in the Udaipur district, Aravalli range, India. It was observed that the principal aquifer for the availability of groundwater in the studied area is quartzite, phyllite, gneisses, schist, and dolomitic marble, which occur in unconfined to semi-confined zones. Furthermore, all primary chemical ingredients were found within the permissible limit, including granum. We also found that the average annual rainfall days in a year in the study area was 30 from 1957 to 2020, and it has been found that there are chances to receive surplus rainfall once in every five deficit rainfall years. Using integrated remote sensing, GIS, and a field-based spatial modeling approach, it was found that the dynamic GW reserves of the area are 637.42 mcm/annum, and the total groundwater draft is 639.67 mcm/annum. The deficit GW reserves are 2.25 mcm/annum from an average rainfall of 627 mm, hence the stage of groundwater development is 100.67% and categorized as over-exploited. However, as per the relationship between reserves and rainfall events, surplus reserves are available when rainfall exceeds 700 mm. We conclude that enough static GW reserves are available in the studied area to sustain the requirements of the drought period. For the long-term sustainability of groundwater use, controlling groundwater abstraction by optimizing its use, managing it properly through techniques such as sprinkler and drip irrigation, and achieving more crop-per-drop schemes, will go a long way to conserving this essential reserve, and create maximum groundwater recharge structures. Full article
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