Special Issue "Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2022) | Viewed by 10304

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Lahcen Zouhri
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
AGHYLE, Institute Polytechnique UniLaSalle Beauvais, SFR Condorcet FR CNRS 341719 rue Pierre Waguet, CEDEX, F-60026 Beauvais, France
Interests: environmental impact assessment; water quality; sustainable development; water resources engineering
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Groundwater Assessment allows to knowledge the management and the governance of water resources. This assessment is based on the hydrogeological characterization of aquifers (porous media, fractured, karst, transboundary and coastal systems) that is coupled to industrial, environmental and social factors.  The groundwater assessment requires a development of methods and tools who have not stopped evolving according to the thematic assessments as marine intrusion, mining activities, supply of water, exploration of the new water resources.  Over the years, the degradation of the quantitative and qualitative of water resources are identified in the worldwide and due especially to the urbanization, drying of shallow wells, modification of the recharge area, intensive pumping resources in deeper wells, additions of new wells, intensive use particularly for industrial, agricultural activities and domestic water supply.

This Special Issue brings together emerging approaches related to the methods and tools of the groundwater assessment. This has led to emphasis on planned and optimal development in terms of quality and quantity of water resources, groundwater extraction assessments and groundwater quantity estimates in order to knowledge the comprehension of hydrogeological parameters that characterize the physics of groundwater flow in aquifers which are considered as an important stage for groundwater resource assessments, to assess the groundwater flow system including seasonal groundwater and discharge annual recharge. The present special issue draws from worldwide hydrogeological investigations in the fields, laboratory approaches, numerical simulations of groundwater flow and modelling of the contaminant transfer and multidisciplinary approaches which are conducted for a better assessment of resources in heterogeneous hydrogeological systems.

Dr. Lahcen Zouhri
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Groundwater
  • Assessment
  • Hydrogeological characterization
  • Recharge
  • Conaminants transfert
  • Hydrogeological modelling
  • Groundwater flow
  • Environmental impact

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Article
Vulnerability of a Tunisian Coastal Aquifer to Seawater Intrusion: Insights from the GALDIT Model
Water 2022, 14(7), 1177; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071177 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 695
Abstract
The Korba region in northwestern Tunisia has a coastal aquifer that is impacted by intensive irrigation, urban expansion, and sensitivity to SWI. We assessed the vulnerability extent of Korba’s GW to SWI. We utilized a parametric model for GW vulnerability assessment, the GALDIT, [...] Read more.
The Korba region in northwestern Tunisia has a coastal aquifer that is impacted by intensive irrigation, urban expansion, and sensitivity to SWI. We assessed the vulnerability extent of Korba’s GW to SWI. We utilized a parametric model for GW vulnerability assessment, the GALDIT, which considers six parameters to determine SWI effects. The GALDIT map has four rating categories (≥7.5, 7.5–5, 5–2.5, and <2.5), representing very high, high, moderate, and low vulnerability, respectively. Most of the region was found to be highly vulnerable (44.2% of the surface area), followed by areas characterized by very high (20.3%) and moderate (19.3%) vulnerability. Only 16.2% was found to have low vulnerability. A parameter sensitivity analysis showed that distance from shore and depth of GW represent the determining factors for SWI with variation index values of 24.12 and 18.02%, respectively. Inland advancement of seawater is causing GW salinity to rise, as indicated by a strong Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.75 between SWI indices and the electrical conductivity. Suitable areas for artificial recharge were mainly distributed in the alluvial plains, with a total area of 32.85 km2. Inhibiting SWI requires about 11.31 MCM of artificial recharge in the two most suitable recharge zones in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Article
Combined Modeling of Multivariate Analysis and Geostatistics in Assessing Groundwater Irrigation Sustenance in the Middle Cheliff Plain (North Africa)
Water 2022, 14(6), 924; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060924 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 613
Abstract
The assessment of groundwater irrigation using robust tools is essential for the sustenance of the agro-environment in arid and semi-arid regions. This study presents a reliable method consisting of a combination of multivariate analysis and geostatistical modeling to assess groundwater irrigation resources in [...] Read more.
The assessment of groundwater irrigation using robust tools is essential for the sustenance of the agro-environment in arid and semi-arid regions. This study presents a reliable method consisting of a combination of multivariate analysis and geostatistical modeling to assess groundwater irrigation resources in the Western Middle Cheliff (Algeria). For this goal, mean data from 87 wells collected during April to July 2017 were used. The hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) using the Q-mode approach revealed three distinct water types, with mineralization increasing from cluster 1 to cluster 3. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) utilizing the Varimax method approach allowed the extraction of three main components: the first and second (PC1, PC2), revealing that the geogenic process, have influenced the hydrogeochemical composition of groundwater. The pollution induced by agriculture activities has been related to PC3. Based on the combination of multivariate analysis and geostatistical modeling, the distribution maps were created by interpolating the factor distribution values acquired in the study region using the ordinary kriging (OK) interpolation method. The findings revealed that both natural processes and man-made activities have a substantial impact on the quality of groundwater irrigation. Cluster mapping, another often used combining approach, has shown its effectiveness in assisting groundwater resource management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Article
Integrated Groundwater Flow Modeling for Managing a Complex Alluvial Aquifer Case of Study Mio-Plio-Quaternary Plain of Kairouan (Central Tunisia)
Water 2022, 14(4), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040668 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 501
Abstract
In central Tunisia, anthropic activities, such as groundwater abstraction for irrigation, have resulted in excessive groundwater level declines of the Mio-Plio-Quaternary aquifer hosted in Kairouan Plain. Besides, the two dams El Houareb and Sidi Saad’s impoundment since the 1980s has deeply modified the [...] Read more.
In central Tunisia, anthropic activities, such as groundwater abstraction for irrigation, have resulted in excessive groundwater level declines of the Mio-Plio-Quaternary aquifer hosted in Kairouan Plain. Besides, the two dams El Houareb and Sidi Saad’s impoundment since the 1980s has deeply modified the natural process of aquifer recharge. Hence, some studies claim the dam’s instauration of this groundwater depletion; however, some other studies attribute this critical situation to an issue of groundwater management. A multidisciplinary study was carried out to retrace the groundwater flow dynamics for 48 years before and after the dams’ erection and to understand the main factors causing the groundwater depletion. Hence, a conceptual model was developed based on gathering all available data from 114 borehole logs, 10 seismic lines, and 08 petroleum wells. Based on this reconstructed geometry, the groundwater head was simulated using the numerical code Modflow. The model was calibrated in steady-state with reference to the piezometric levels measured in 1969 and in the transient state for the period 1970–2017 and validated for the period 2007–2017. The outputs of the calibrated model show a relevant finding of the decrease of the inflows coming from the rivers’ beds (Zeroud and Marguellil) from 1990 to 2017 by 48%; yet, the pumping rate has increased by 119%. The simulated scenario without dams and maintaining the same withdrawals has shown a groundwater level rise downstream of the plain; yet, in its upstream, the depletion was less intense compared to the current model. However, the case of doing without dams and raising withdrawals from the aquifer has generated a huge decline reaching 22 m near Draa Affane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Article
Identification of Hydrodynamic Dispersion Tensor by Optimization Algorithm Based LBM/CMA-ES Combination
Water 2022, 14(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010125 - 05 Jan 2022
Viewed by 387
Abstract
The hydrodynamic dispersion tensor (HDT) of a porous medium is a key parameter in engineering and environmental sciences. Its knowledge allows for example, to accurately predict the propagation of a pollution front induced by a surface (or subsurface) flow. This paper proposes a [...] Read more.
The hydrodynamic dispersion tensor (HDT) of a porous medium is a key parameter in engineering and environmental sciences. Its knowledge allows for example, to accurately predict the propagation of a pollution front induced by a surface (or subsurface) flow. This paper proposes a new mathematical model based on inverse problem-solving techniques to identify the HDT (noted D=) of the studied porous medium. We then showed that in practice, this new model can be written in the form of an integrated optimization algorithm (IOA). The IOA is based on the numerical solution of the direct problem (which solves the convection–diffusion type transport equation) and the optimization of the error function between the simulated concentration field and that observed at the application site. The partial differential equations of the direct model were solved by high resolution of (Δx=Δy=1 m) Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) whose computational code is named HYDRODISP-LBM (HYDRO-DISpersion by LBM). As for the optimization step, we opted for the CMA-ES (Covariance Matrix Adaptation-Evolution Strategy) algorithm. Our choice for these two methods was motivated by their excellent performance proven in the abundant literature. The paper describes in detail the operation of the coupling of the two computer codes forming the IOA that we have named HYDRODISP-LBM/CMA-ES. Finally, the IOA was applied at the Beauvais experimental site to identify the HDT D=. The geological analyzes of this site showed that the tensor identified by the IOA is in perfect agreement with the characteristics of the geological formation of the site which are connected with the mixing processes of the latter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Article
Rainwater Harvesting to Address Current and Forecasted Domestic Water Scarcity: Application to Arid and Semi-Arid Areas
Water 2021, 13(24), 3583; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243583 - 14 Dec 2021
Viewed by 776
Abstract
This paper discusses the effectiveness of rooftops rainwater harvesting (RRWH) in addressing domestic water scarcity, emphasizing the West Bank (Palestine) as an example of arid to semi-arid areas with limited water resources. The paper deals with the actual and future water demand by [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the effectiveness of rooftops rainwater harvesting (RRWH) in addressing domestic water scarcity, emphasizing the West Bank (Palestine) as an example of arid to semi-arid areas with limited water resources. The paper deals with the actual and future water demand by considering climate-change impact and urban growth. The analysis is based on the evaluation of (i) the supply–demand balance index (SDBI), which designates the ratio between the total water supply (TWS) and total water demand (TWD), and (ii) the potential of RRWH. Applying this methodology to the West Bank shows that the potential RRWH can contribute by about 40 million cubic meters/year in 2020, which is approximately the same amount of water as the municipal water supply (42 million cubic meters/year). This contribution can effectively reduce the suffering governorates from 64% to 27% in 2020. Furthermore, it can support water-related decision-makers in the arid to semi-arid areas in formulating efficient and sustainable water resources strategies. The analysis also shows that the domestic water scarcity in 2050 will be worse than in 2020 for all governorates. For example, 73% of the West Bank governorates are expected to suffer from extreme to acute water scarcity in 2050 compared to 64% in 2020. Thus, RRWH appears to be highly efficient in mitigating the current and future domestic water scarcity in the West Bank. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Article
Identification of Preferential Runoff Belts in Jinan Spring Basin Based on Hydrological Time-Series Correlation
Water 2021, 13(22), 3255; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223255 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 488
Abstract
The Jinan karst system is one of the typical karst systems in North China. The karst springs in Jinan are important historical heritage in China. However, in recent years, due to urbanization and the excessive exploitation of groundwater resources in Jinan City, the [...] Read more.
The Jinan karst system is one of the typical karst systems in North China. The karst springs in Jinan are important historical heritage in China. However, in recent years, due to urbanization and the excessive exploitation of groundwater resources in Jinan City, the rate of spring flow has decreased tremendously. Preferential runoff belts are channels of karst aquifers where fractures and conduits are well-developed and serve as the main pathways for groundwater movement and solute transport. In view of this, a study was conducted in the Jinan Spring Basin to identify preferential runoff belts based on hydrological time-series correlation. Firstly, through cross wavelet transform and Pearson correlation coefficient, the time-lag and correlation of spring water level and precipitation were analyzed, the result show that the precipitation in the areas of Xinglong, Donghongmiao, Qiujiazhuang, Xiying, Yanzishan and Liubu stations has a greater impact on spring water level. In addition, combined with the hydrogeological conditions of the Jinan Spring Basin, the above stations meet the characteristics of the preferential runoff belt. In conclusion, the above stations are most likely to be located on the preferential runoff belt. The results of this study can serve as great reference points for building a correct hydrogeological conceptual model, and for the future planning of spring protection measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Article
Characterization of Regional Groundwater System Based on Aquifer Response to Recharge–Discharge Phenomenon and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis
Water 2021, 13(18), 2535; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182535 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 992
Abstract
The investigations of groundwater hydrograph reasonably reflect the aquifer response to recharge–discharge phenomenon and its characteristics. A better understanding of aquifer characteristics such as regional aquifer classification, recharge and discharge patterns, aquifer geology and flow patterns are the surface indicators that may be [...] Read more.
The investigations of groundwater hydrograph reasonably reflect the aquifer response to recharge–discharge phenomenon and its characteristics. A better understanding of aquifer characteristics such as regional aquifer classification, recharge and discharge patterns, aquifer geology and flow patterns are the surface indicators that may be more effective and less costly for interpreting basic regional hydrogeological conditions and assessments. This study deals with the application of Hierarchical Clustering Analysis to understand the groundwater spatio-temporal patterns and to visualize/classify the nature of the aquifer in the regional area of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Groundwater level fluctuation patterns and slopes of rising and recession limbs are used to identify the pumping effects and classify aquifers. The results of clustering analysis show that the groundwater observation wells in the study area can be divided into five major characteristics along with the upstream to downstream of Kaoping River. The clusters are consistent with basic lithology distribution and age of sedimentary, which represents the characteristics of groundwater level fluctuation. The identified groundwater hydrographs patterns provide newer insights related to aquifer response to recharge–discharge phenomenon, types of aquifers and their behaviors. The knowledge of water level fluctuations in the observation wells provides a piece of prior information about the abstraction of groundwater. The proposed aquifer classification and pumping effect have great potential for applied use in groundwater management e.g., save drilling cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Article
Parameter Identification by High-Resolution Inverse Numerical Model Based on LBM/CMA-ES: Application to Chalk Aquifer (North of France)
Water 2021, 13(11), 1574; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111574 - 02 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1098
Abstract
The present paper proposes the numerical solution of an inverse problem in groundwater flow (Darcy’s equation). This solution was achieved by combining a high-resolution new code HYSFLO-LBM (Hydrodynamic of Subsurface Flow by Lattice Boltzmann Method), based on LBM, to solve the direct problem, [...] Read more.
The present paper proposes the numerical solution of an inverse problem in groundwater flow (Darcy’s equation). This solution was achieved by combining a high-resolution new code HYSFLO-LBM (Hydrodynamic of Subsurface Flow by Lattice Boltzmann Method), based on LBM, to solve the direct problem, and the metaheuristic optimization algorithm CMA-ES ES (Covariance Matrix Adaptation-Evolution Strategy) to solve the optimization step. The integrated optimization algorithm which resulted from this combination, HYSFLO-LBM/CMA-ES, was applied to the hydrogeological experimental site of Beauvais (Northern France), instrumented by a set of sensors distributed over 20 hydrogeological wells. Hydrogeological parameters measured by the sensors are necessary to understand the aquifer functioning and to serve as input data for the identification of the transmissivity field by the HYSFLO-LBM/CMA-ES code. Results demonstrated an excellent concordance between the integrated optimization algorithm and hydrogeological applied methods (pumping test and magnetic resonance sounding). The spatial distribution of the transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity are related to the heterogeneous distribution of aquifer formations. The LBM and CMA-ES were chosen for their proven excellent performance and lesser cost, in terms of both money and time, unlike the geophysical survey and pumping test. The model can be used and developed as a decision support tool for integrated water resources management in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Article
Transmissivity Estimates by Specific Capacity Data of Some Fractured Italian Carbonate Aquifers
Water 2021, 13(10), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101374 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 693
Abstract
Transmissivity estimates can be obtained by different approaches, mainly analytical and empirical. The application of analytical methods requires checking non-linear well losses due to turbulence and vertical flow related to partial penetration. The empirical approach relates transmissivity values to specific capacity data measured [...] Read more.
Transmissivity estimates can be obtained by different approaches, mainly analytical and empirical. The application of analytical methods requires checking non-linear well losses due to turbulence and vertical flow related to partial penetration. The empirical approach relates transmissivity values to specific capacity data measured in the same well. The interpretation of available pumping tests highlights porous media solutions’ applicability in most of the step-drawdown curves analyzed. Double or triple porosity approaches are more appropriate only for wells located close to fault systems. In this work, a new relationship to estimate transmissivity by specific capacity data in some Italian carbonate aquifers is proposed. The comparison with other relationships available in the literature for similar aquifers worldwide confirms the validity of a general equation for carbonate aquifers, helping the spatial characterization of aquifer transmissivity in scarce data regions. Nonetheless, the use of equations of the same kind with different coefficients allows good results on our set of data. Results can improve the knowledge of fractured–karst aquifers by also including data from Central Italy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Article
The Effects of Exchange Flow on the Karst Spring Hydrograph under the Different Flow Regimes: A Synthetic Modeling Approach
Water 2021, 13(9), 1189; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091189 - 25 Apr 2021
Viewed by 685
Abstract
In this study, a synthetic modeling approach is proposed to quantify the effect of the amount and direction of the exchange flow on the karstic spring discharge fluctuations under different hydrologic conditions corresponding to high and low flow conditions. We hypothesis that the [...] Read more.
In this study, a synthetic modeling approach is proposed to quantify the effect of the amount and direction of the exchange flow on the karstic spring discharge fluctuations under different hydrologic conditions corresponding to high and low flow conditions. We hypothesis that the spring discharge fluctuations constitute a valuable proxy to understand the internal processes of the karst system. An ensemble of spring hydrographs was synthetically produced to highlight the effect of exchange flow by exploring the plausible range of variability of coefficients of exchange flow, conduit diameter, and matrix hydraulic conductivity. Moreover, the change of the rate of point recharge through the karst conduit allows for the quantifying of the sensibility of the spring hydrograph to the directions of exchange flow. We show that increasing the point recharge lies to a remarkable linear recession coefficient (β) as an indication of the conduit flow regime. However, a reduction in and/or lack of the point recharge caused the recession coefficient to change to exponential (α) due to the dominant effect of the matrix restrained flow regime and/or conduit-influenced flow regime. The simulations highlight that the exchange flow process from the conduit to the matrix occurred in a short period and over a restricted part of the conduit flow regime (CFR). Conversely, the exchange flow dumped from the matrix to the conduit occurs as a long-term process. A conceptual model is introduced to compare spring hydrographs’ characteristics (i.e., the peak discharge, the volume of baseflow, and the slope of the recession curve) under the various flow conditions with the directions of the exchange flow between the conduit and the matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Article
Predicting Groundwater Vulnerability to Geogenic Fluoride Risk: A Screening Method for Malawi and an Opportunity for National Policy Redefinition
Water 2020, 12(11), 3123; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113123 - 07 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1240
Abstract
Fluoride concentrations in Malawi’s groundwater are primarily controlled by geogenic sources that are highly variable and may cause a heterogeneous fluoride occurrence and local-to-regional variations in fluorosis health risks posed. Our aim was to address the challenge of developing a national solution to [...] Read more.
Fluoride concentrations in Malawi’s groundwater are primarily controlled by geogenic sources that are highly variable and may cause a heterogeneous fluoride occurrence and local-to-regional variations in fluorosis health risks posed. Our aim was to address the challenge of developing a national solution to predicting groundwater vulnerability to geogenic fluoride risk in the country of Malawi where incidences of fluorosis are reported and typical developing world problems of limited data and resources abound. Previously there have only been sporadic, local-scale studies linking fluoride occurrence with health risks in Malawi with no attempts to tackle the issue nationally. We hence develop a screening method for predicting groundwater vulnerability to geogenic fluoride in the form of detailed risk maps developed from statistical relationships shown between groundwater fluoride occurrence and known geogenic fluoride sources. The approach provides for dynamic update and informed acquisition of new data and hence on-going improving capacity to manage fluoride risks in Malawi. Our screening method provides a technical basis for redefining national fluoride policy to ensure commensurate management of health risks posed. Specifically, the approach provides a pathway for stepped progression from the current 6 mg/L Malawian standard for fluoride in drinking water to adoption of the World Health Organisation 1.5 mg/L guideline standard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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