Special Issue "Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Lahcen Zouhri
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
AGHYLE, Institut Polytechnique UniLaSalle Beauvais, SFR Condorcet FR CNRS 341719 rue Pierre Waguet, F-60026 Beauvais Cedex, France
Interests: environmental impact assessment, water quality, sustainable development, water resources engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Groundwater Assessment allows to knowledge the management and the governance of water resources. This assessment is based on the hydrogeological characterization of aquifers (porous media, fractured, karst, transboundary and coastal systems) that is coupled to industrial, environmental and social factors.  The groundwater assessment requires a development of methods and tools who have not stopped evolving according to the thematic assessments as marine intrusion, mining activities, supply of water, exploration of the new water resources.  Over the years, the degradation of the quantitative and qualitative of water resources are identified in the worldwide and due especially to the urbanization, drying of shallow wells, modification of the recharge area, intensive pumping resources in deeper wells, additions of new wells, intensive use particularly for industrial, agricultural activities and domestic water supply.

This Special Issue brings together emerging approaches related to the methods and tools of the groundwater assessment. This has led to emphasis on planned and optimal development in terms of quality and quantity of water resources, groundwater extraction assessments and groundwater quantity estimates in order to knowledge the comprehension of hydrogeological parameters that characterize the physics of groundwater flow in aquifers which are considered as an important stage for groundwater resource assessments, to assess the groundwater flow system including seasonal groundwater and discharge annual recharge. The present special issue draws from worldwide hydrogeological investigations in the fields, laboratory approaches, numerical simulations of groundwater flow and modelling of the contaminant transfer and multidisciplinary approaches which are conducted for a better assessment of resources in heterogeneous hydrogeological systems.

Dr. Lahcen Zouhri
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Groundwater
  • Assessment
  • Hydrogeological characterization
  • Recharge
  • Conaminants transfert
  • Hydrogeological modelling
  • Groundwater flow
  • Environmental impact

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Parameter Identification by High-Resolution Inverse Numerical Model Based on LBM/CMA-ES: Application to Chalk Aquifer (North of France)
Water 2021, 13(11), 1574; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111574 - 02 Jun 2021
Viewed by 472
Abstract
The present paper proposes the numerical solution of an inverse problem in groundwater flow (Darcy’s equation). This solution was achieved by combining a high-resolution new code HYSFLO-LBM (Hydrodynamic of Subsurface Flow by Lattice Boltzmann Method), based on LBM, to solve the direct problem, [...] Read more.
The present paper proposes the numerical solution of an inverse problem in groundwater flow (Darcy’s equation). This solution was achieved by combining a high-resolution new code HYSFLO-LBM (Hydrodynamic of Subsurface Flow by Lattice Boltzmann Method), based on LBM, to solve the direct problem, and the metaheuristic optimization algorithm CMA-ES ES (Covariance Matrix Adaptation-Evolution Strategy) to solve the optimization step. The integrated optimization algorithm which resulted from this combination, HYSFLO-LBM/CMA-ES, was applied to the hydrogeological experimental site of Beauvais (Northern France), instrumented by a set of sensors distributed over 20 hydrogeological wells. Hydrogeological parameters measured by the sensors are necessary to understand the aquifer functioning and to serve as input data for the identification of the transmissivity field by the HYSFLO-LBM/CMA-ES code. Results demonstrated an excellent concordance between the integrated optimization algorithm and hydrogeological applied methods (pumping test and magnetic resonance sounding). The spatial distribution of the transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity are related to the heterogeneous distribution of aquifer formations. The LBM and CMA-ES were chosen for their proven excellent performance and lesser cost, in terms of both money and time, unlike the geophysical survey and pumping test. The model can be used and developed as a decision support tool for integrated water resources management in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Article
Transmissivity Estimates by Specific Capacity Data of Some Fractured Italian Carbonate Aquifers
Water 2021, 13(10), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101374 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 355
Abstract
Transmissivity estimates can be obtained by different approaches, mainly analytical and empirical. The application of analytical methods requires checking non-linear well losses due to turbulence and vertical flow related to partial penetration. The empirical approach relates transmissivity values to specific capacity data measured [...] Read more.
Transmissivity estimates can be obtained by different approaches, mainly analytical and empirical. The application of analytical methods requires checking non-linear well losses due to turbulence and vertical flow related to partial penetration. The empirical approach relates transmissivity values to specific capacity data measured in the same well. The interpretation of available pumping tests highlights porous media solutions’ applicability in most of the step-drawdown curves analyzed. Double or triple porosity approaches are more appropriate only for wells located close to fault systems. In this work, a new relationship to estimate transmissivity by specific capacity data in some Italian carbonate aquifers is proposed. The comparison with other relationships available in the literature for similar aquifers worldwide confirms the validity of a general equation for carbonate aquifers, helping the spatial characterization of aquifer transmissivity in scarce data regions. Nonetheless, the use of equations of the same kind with different coefficients allows good results on our set of data. Results can improve the knowledge of fractured–karst aquifers by also including data from Central Italy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Article
The Effects of Exchange Flow on the Karst Spring Hydrograph under the Different Flow Regimes: A Synthetic Modeling Approach
Water 2021, 13(9), 1189; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091189 - 25 Apr 2021
Viewed by 350
Abstract
In this study, a synthetic modeling approach is proposed to quantify the effect of the amount and direction of the exchange flow on the karstic spring discharge fluctuations under different hydrologic conditions corresponding to high and low flow conditions. We hypothesis that the [...] Read more.
In this study, a synthetic modeling approach is proposed to quantify the effect of the amount and direction of the exchange flow on the karstic spring discharge fluctuations under different hydrologic conditions corresponding to high and low flow conditions. We hypothesis that the spring discharge fluctuations constitute a valuable proxy to understand the internal processes of the karst system. An ensemble of spring hydrographs was synthetically produced to highlight the effect of exchange flow by exploring the plausible range of variability of coefficients of exchange flow, conduit diameter, and matrix hydraulic conductivity. Moreover, the change of the rate of point recharge through the karst conduit allows for the quantifying of the sensibility of the spring hydrograph to the directions of exchange flow. We show that increasing the point recharge lies to a remarkable linear recession coefficient (β) as an indication of the conduit flow regime. However, a reduction in and/or lack of the point recharge caused the recession coefficient to change to exponential (α) due to the dominant effect of the matrix restrained flow regime and/or conduit-influenced flow regime. The simulations highlight that the exchange flow process from the conduit to the matrix occurred in a short period and over a restricted part of the conduit flow regime (CFR). Conversely, the exchange flow dumped from the matrix to the conduit occurs as a long-term process. A conceptual model is introduced to compare spring hydrographs’ characteristics (i.e., the peak discharge, the volume of baseflow, and the slope of the recession curve) under the various flow conditions with the directions of the exchange flow between the conduit and the matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Article
Predicting Groundwater Vulnerability to Geogenic Fluoride Risk: A Screening Method for Malawi and an Opportunity for National Policy Redefinition
Water 2020, 12(11), 3123; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113123 - 07 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 656
Abstract
Fluoride concentrations in Malawi’s groundwater are primarily controlled by geogenic sources that are highly variable and may cause a heterogeneous fluoride occurrence and local-to-regional variations in fluorosis health risks posed. Our aim was to address the challenge of developing a national solution to [...] Read more.
Fluoride concentrations in Malawi’s groundwater are primarily controlled by geogenic sources that are highly variable and may cause a heterogeneous fluoride occurrence and local-to-regional variations in fluorosis health risks posed. Our aim was to address the challenge of developing a national solution to predicting groundwater vulnerability to geogenic fluoride risk in the country of Malawi where incidences of fluorosis are reported and typical developing world problems of limited data and resources abound. Previously there have only been sporadic, local-scale studies linking fluoride occurrence with health risks in Malawi with no attempts to tackle the issue nationally. We hence develop a screening method for predicting groundwater vulnerability to geogenic fluoride in the form of detailed risk maps developed from statistical relationships shown between groundwater fluoride occurrence and known geogenic fluoride sources. The approach provides for dynamic update and informed acquisition of new data and hence on-going improving capacity to manage fluoride risks in Malawi. Our screening method provides a technical basis for redefining national fluoride policy to ensure commensurate management of health risks posed. Specifically, the approach provides a pathway for stepped progression from the current 6 mg/L Malawian standard for fluoride in drinking water to adoption of the World Health Organisation 1.5 mg/L guideline standard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Tools for Assessment of Groundwater)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Assessing groundwater vulnerability to seawater intrusion using GALDIT method and effect of artificial recharge in Chiba coastal aquifer of Tunisia

Adel Zghibi 1,*, Amira Merzougui 2, Mohamed Haythem Msaddek 1, Ali Mirchi 3,
Lahcen Zouhri 4, Jean-Denis Taupin 5, Anis Chekirbane 6, and Jamila Tarhouni 2

1   University of Tunis El Manar, Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, Department of Geology, LR18 ES37 Geo-dynamics, Geo-numerics and Geo-materials Laboratory, 2092, Tunis–El Manar, Tunisia; [email protected] (A.Z.); [email protected] (M.H.M.)

2   University of Carthage, National Institute of Agronomy, 1082, Tunis, Tunisia; [email protected] (A.M.); [email protected] (J.T.)

3   Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Oklahoma State University, 111 Agricultural Hall, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA; [email protected] (A.M)

4   AGYLE, SFR Condorcet FR CNRS 3417, Polytechnic Institute UniLaSalle Beauvais, 19 Pierre Waguet Street, 60026, Beauvais, France ; [email protected] (L.Z)

5   HSM, Univ. Montpellier, IRD, CNRS, 34090, Montpellier, France; [email protected] (J-D.T)

6   Georesources Laboratory, Water Research and Technology Centre, Borj Cedria Ecopark 8, P.O. Box 273, 8020, Soliman, Tunisia; [email protected] (A.C)

*   Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +216 20818146

 Abstract: Excessive groundwater pumping is a global problem which severely affects the dry areas where surface water is scant or inexistent. The Chiba coastal area of Cap-Bon peninsula (NE of Tunisia) are primarily concerned because groundwater over-pumping results in seawater intrusion (SWI) and causes degradation of the unique renewable water resource. Despite the implementation of several measures, such as the diffusion of water-saving technology, freezing on drilling new wells, and water importation via the Medjerda Cap-Bon Canal, groundwater levels continue to decline and SWI is steadily progressing in most of the coastal areas. In addition, it is needed a study on intrinsic groundwater vulnerability assessment to SWI in this stressed area. GALDIT is an index-based SWI vulnerability model that is increasingly being used in many parts of the world to identify regions that are vulnerable to various types of SWI based on six major parameters and also to analyse the impact of artificial recharge in minimizing the SWI for coastal aquifers. Thematic maps of factors influencing SWI and artificial recharge were prepared and overlaid using Geographical Information System (GIS). Based on GALDIT Index, the aquifer vulnerability index mapping was carried out. The intrinsic vulnerability rate which classified from GALDIT index were very high in the areas close to the Mediterranean sea, high in the centre part, moderate to low in the northeast area. Further, the vulnerable areas are reclassified into two zones: good and poor potential recharge areas. The influence of artificial recharge in pushing the freshwater-seawater interface towards the sea was simulated. For different options of surface water availability and artificial recharge, the possibility of remedial measures of SWI is estimated.

Keywords: Aquifer vulnerability index; GALDIT Index; Artificial recharge; seawater intrusion (SWI)

 

2.  Coupling of the SHSLBM method and the evolutionary algorithm for transmissivity identification of aquifers: Application to the Beauvais site (Oise, France)

Hassan Smaoui, Sami Kaidi and Lahcen Zouhri

Abstract: The paper we are proposing concerns the implementation of a new variant of the Boltzmann lattice method called “SHSLBM” (Simplified and Highly Stable Lattice Boltzmann Method) for the hydrodynamics numerical modeling of the Beauvais aquifer (Oise, France). The developed model will be coupled with an optimization module of the evolutionary algorithm type to identify in a precise and robust way the transmissivity coefficient field which characterizes the flow of the studied groundwater.

3. Coupling of the SHSLBM method and the evolutionary algorithm for transmissivity identification of aquifers: Application to the Beauvais site (Oise, France)

Hassan Smaoui, Sami Kaidi and Lahcen Zouhri

Abstract: The paper we are proposing concerns the implementation of a new variant of the Boltzmann lattice method called “SHSLBM” (Simplified and Highly Stable Lattice Boltzmann Method) for the hydrodynamics numerical modeling of the Beauvais aquifer (Oise, France). The developed model will be coupled with an optimization module of the evolutionary algorithm type to identify in a precise and robust way the transmissivity coefficient field which characterizes the flow of the studied groundwater.

 

4. *Title*: Transmissivity estimates by specific capacity data of fractured carbonate aquifers (Umbria Region, Central Italy)

*Authors*: Lucio Di Matteo, Costanza Cambi, Roberto Checucci, Daniela Valigi.

*Short abstract*: Transmissivity estimates can be obtained by different approaches, mainly analytical and empirical. The application of analytical methods requires corrections for non-linear well losses due to turbulence and vertical flow due to partial penetration. The empirical approach relates transmissivity (T) values to specific capacity (Sc) data measured in the same well. Several studies in the literature presented T = f(Sc) relationships for different aquifer types (fractured rocks, sandstones, alluvial, etc.). Among these, Fabbri (1997), Mace (1997), and Hsu and Chou, (2019) analyzed fractured and karst rocks. The present work shows a new relationship to estimate T by Sc data. Results are compared with other relationships for similar aquifers worldwide, improving the knowledge of fractured-karst aquifers, also considering data from Central Italy. 

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