Special Issue "Permeable Pavement Systems: Advances and Challenges in Stormwater Management"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 7795

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Liseane Padilha Thives
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Paving Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Trindade, Florianópolis 88040-900, SC, Brazil
Interests: permeable pavements; stormwater harvesting; water consumption in buildings; water efficiency; rainwater use in buildings; sustainability; green roads, resilience of road infrastructure, solid waste reused in pavement
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Enedir Ghisi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario, Trindade, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900, Brazil
Interests: stormwater harvesting; water consumption in buildings; water efficiency; rainwater use in buildings; sustainability; permeable pavements; energy efficiency; buildings; climate change
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The rise in precipitation combined with cities’ disorderly urbanization process that leads to an increase in impervious surface areas is a challenge that researchers have to face. Moreover, drainage elements and stormwater disposal, in general, are not efficient when it comes to the rainfall intensity that each region requires. Based on these, it is necessary to provide infrastructure changes to minimize the excess of stormwater accumulated on surfaces. On the other hand, in many parts of the world, people suffer due to water scarcity, and harvesting stormwater from porous or permeable pavement systems emerges as an alternative water resource. Climate change, increasing water scarcity, population growth, and disorderly urbanization represent some of the problems to be solved. Research that involves water supply systems can result in many benefits to society and to the Earth. Stormwater and runoff collected from a porous or permeable pavement shows a high potential for use for non-potable water purposes in buildings.

The main focus of this Special Issue is porous, permeable or pervious pavement systems and their filtering capacity and harvesting alternatives. We call for contributions that investigate the main following issues: (i) how runoff or stormwater can be collected from permeable (porous or pervious) pavements; (ii) how the use of permeable pavements can contribute to changes in infrastructure in order to reduce floods; (iii) measurement of pollutants in stormwater harvested from permeable pavements; (iv) use of stormwater harvested from permeable pavements for non-potable water uses in buildings; (v) standards for water collected from permeable pavements; (vi) modeling of permeable pavements relative to clogging and end of life; and (vii) the life cycle of permeable pavements.

Prof. Dr. Liseane Padilha Thives
Prof. Dr. Enedir Ghisi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Porous asphalt pavements
  • Pervious concrete pavements
  • Permeable pavement systems
  • Stormwater harvesting
  • Runoff
  • Pollutants
  • Potable water savings in buildings
  • Non-potable use in buildings
  • Life cycle

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Article
Unlocking the Potential of Permeable Pavements in Practice: A Large-Scale Field Study of Performance Factors of Permeable Pavements in The Netherlands
Water 2022, 14(13), 2080; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14132080 - 29 Jun 2022
Viewed by 189
Abstract
Infiltrating pavements are potentially effective climate adaptation measures to counteract arising challenges related to flooding and drought in urban areas. However, they are susceptible to clogging causing premature degradation. As part of the Dutch Delta Plan, Dutch municipalities were encouraged to put infiltrating [...] Read more.
Infiltrating pavements are potentially effective climate adaptation measures to counteract arising challenges related to flooding and drought in urban areas. However, they are susceptible to clogging causing premature degradation. As part of the Dutch Delta Plan, Dutch municipalities were encouraged to put infiltrating pavements into practice. Disappointing experiences made a significant number of municipalities decide, however, to stop further implementation. A need existed to better understand how infiltrating pavements function in practice. Through 81 full-scale infiltration tests, we investigated the performance of infiltrating pavements in practice. Most pavements function well above Dutch and international standards. However, variation was found to be high. Infiltration rates decrease over time. Age alone, however, is not a sufficient explanatory factor. Other factors, such as environmental or system characteristics, are of influence here. Maintenance can play a major role in preserving/improving the performance of infiltrating pavements in practice. While our results provide the first indication of the functioning of infiltrating pavement in practice, only with multi-year measurements following a strict monitoring protocol can the longer-term effects of environmental factors and maintenance actually be determined, providing the basis for the development of an optimal maintenance schedule and associated cost–benefit assessments to the added value of this type of climate adaptation. Full article
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Article
The Climate Road—A Multifunctional Full-Scale Demonstration Road That Prevents Flooding and Produces Green Energy
Water 2022, 14(4), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040666 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 478
Abstract
This paper presents a multifunctional full-scale demonstration road, the Climate Road, which combines climate adaptation and mitigation in a single system. The Climate Road is located at Hedensted, Denmark and is 50 m long and 8 m wide, and the depth of the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a multifunctional full-scale demonstration road, the Climate Road, which combines climate adaptation and mitigation in a single system. The Climate Road is located at Hedensted, Denmark and is 50 m long and 8 m wide, and the depth of the roadbed is 1 m. Half of the Climate Road, i.e., 25 m, is paved with permeable asphalt and the remaining 25 m with traditional asphalt. All surface water drains into the roadbed, which stores up to 120 m3 of water, either directly through the permeable asphalt or by drain grates. In addition, 800 m of geothermal pipes are embedded in the roadbed, distributed over four 200 m w-loops, two buried 1 m below the asphalt and two similar loops at 0.5 m depth. The Climate Road was tested from May 2019 to May 2021. In the project period, a total precipitation value of 1654 mm was recorded, the mean temperature was 9.3 °C and the most intense rainfall was 40.3 mm/30 min. The long-term infiltration performance of the permeable asphalt shows that the overall infiltration capacity slowly reduces. The reduction can be hindered, but not completely prevented, with annual restorative cleaning. After two years of operation, the Climate Road still, by a large margin, fulfils the recommendations of the infiltration capacity of 97.2 mm/h for the vast majority of the road section. The total volume reduction capacity is estimated to be between 15 and 30%. Based on an analysis of 61 single rain events, the event detention time is found to range between 10 and 130 min, with an average of 35 min. During the project period, the Climate Road produced a total of 98 MWh for a nearby kindergarten, with an average coefficient of performance (COP) of 3.1. Full article
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Article
Stormwater Harvested from Permeable Pavements as a Means to Save Potable Water in Buildings
Water 2021, 13(14), 1896; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141896 - 08 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 994
Abstract
The main objective of this work is to analyse the potential for potable water savings in university buildings by using stormwater collected from permeable pavements. Six buildings located on the campus of the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC) were selected to obtain [...] Read more.
The main objective of this work is to analyse the potential for potable water savings in university buildings by using stormwater collected from permeable pavements. Six buildings located on the campus of the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC) were selected to obtain monthly water consumption patterns and parking lot areas. The same six buildings were then evaluated considering their location in eight different cities in Brazil, with different rainfall patterns. Simulations using the computer programme Netuno were run to obtain the potential for potable water savings in each building and city combined. The structural design of permeable pavements was also assessed using two methods available in the literature, that is, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) and Brazilian Portland Cement Association (ABCP). The hydrological-hydraulic design of the permeable pavement was also carried out. The designed thicknesses were compared with the thicknesses obtained using the computer programme Permeable Design Pro. The potential for potable water savings between 18.4% and 84.8% was obtained, depending on the city, building and non-potable water demand considered. For the structural design, the thicknesses obtained by using both methods were similar; however, it was observed that the AASHTO method better represents the pavement model. Regarding the hydrological-hydraulic design, the differences obtained show that the simplification performed for the pavement drainage was in favour of safety. In conclusion, the use of permeable pavements in stormwater harvesting systems is promising, aligning the drainage aid, structural capacity and potential for saving potable water. Full article
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Article
Numerical Study on the Hydrologic Characteristic of Permeable Friction Course Pavement
Water 2021, 13(6), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060843 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 767
Abstract
The hydrologic characteristic of a permeable friction course (PFC) pavement is dependent on the rainfall intensity, pavement geometric design, and porous asphalt properties. Herein, the hydrologic characteristic of PFC pavements of various lengths and slopes was determined via numerical analysis. A series of [...] Read more.
The hydrologic characteristic of a permeable friction course (PFC) pavement is dependent on the rainfall intensity, pavement geometric design, and porous asphalt properties. Herein, the hydrologic characteristic of PFC pavements of various lengths and slopes was determined via numerical analysis. A series of analyses was conducted using length values of 10, 15, 20, and 30 m and slope values of 0.5%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% for the equivalent water flow path. The PFC pavements were simulated for various values of rainfall intensity, which ranged from 10 to 120 mm/h, to determine the time taken for water to flow over the PFC pavement surface. The results show that the time for water overflow decreased when the pavement length or rainfall intensity increased, and it increased when the slope increased. Finally, a series of design charts was developed to determine the time taken for water to flow over the PFC pavement surface for given rainfall intensities. Since this study was conducted based on numerical analysis, further studies are recommended to verify experimentally the results presented. Full article
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Article
Reduction of Environmental Impacts Due to Using Permeable Pavements to Harvest Stormwater
Water 2020, 12(10), 2840; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102840 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
While rainwater harvesting can provide additional water resources, this approach is largely undertaken using water from roofs. More recently, the potential for using stormwater harvested from permeable pavements was recognised as a potential additional water resource. The objective of this study was to [...] Read more.
While rainwater harvesting can provide additional water resources, this approach is largely undertaken using water from roofs. More recently, the potential for using stormwater harvested from permeable pavements was recognised as a potential additional water resource. The objective of this study was to estimate the reduction of environmental impacts caused by traditional drainage systems and centralised water utilities if permeable pavement systems were used to harvest stormwater for nonpotable purposes in buildings. The lifecycle environmental impacts and costs associated with the proposed pavements and hydraulic systems were assessed. The city of Glasgow was chosen as a case study. We used the Netuno computer programme to estimate the potential for potable water savings considering the use of stormwater for nonpotable purposes and the SimaPro software to perform a lifecycle assessment (LCA). With the implementation of permeable pavements and stormwater utilisation, great reductions in lifecycle emissions (i.e., CO2-, SO2-, and PM2.5-equivalent emissions) were observed. The proposed system also proved to be economically feasible, i.e., a payback period equal to 16.9 years. The results show the economic and environmental feasibility of permeable pavements when used on a large scale, proving to be an important strategy to reduce water and environmental stresses caused by centralised water utilities and traditional drainage systems. Full article
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Article
Analysis of Infiltrating Water Characteristics of Permeable Pavements in a Parking Lot at Full Scale
Water 2020, 12(8), 2081; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082081 - 22 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 942
Abstract
Impermeable materials are used for parking lots at apartment complexes and large stores which are concentrated in urban areas. These materials increase the amount of surface runoff by blocking infiltration, resulting in flood damage, dry stream phenomena in rivers in urban watersheds, and [...] Read more.
Impermeable materials are used for parking lots at apartment complexes and large stores which are concentrated in urban areas. These materials increase the amount of surface runoff by blocking infiltration, resulting in flood damage, dry stream phenomena in rivers in urban watersheds, and the depletion of ground water. In this study, a parking lot plot was constructed to quantitatively evaluate the efficiency of pavements using various materials (impermeable concrete, permeable concrete, and permeable block pavement). Four scenarios of rainfall intensity were simulated using a rainfall simulator within each plot (36 mm h−1, 48 mm h−1, 60 mm h−1, 72 mm h−1). The flow was observed by monitoring the system with a bucket flow meter. The efficiency and flow characteristics of the permeable concrete and block pavement were analyzed. The results were used to calculate the ratio of the surface flow to the infiltrating flow between impermeable and permeable pavements. The permeable concrete had a ratio of 1:0.9, and the permeable block pavement had a ratio of 1:0.58. Full article
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Article
The Use of Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavement to Filter Stormwater for Non-Potable Uses in Buildings
Water 2020, 12(7), 2045; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12072045 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1279
Abstract
A reduction in potable water demand in buildings could be made by using non-potable water for certain uses, such as flushing toilets. This represents a sustainable strategy that results in potable water savings while also using an underutilised resource. This work assesses the [...] Read more.
A reduction in potable water demand in buildings could be made by using non-potable water for certain uses, such as flushing toilets. This represents a sustainable strategy that results in potable water savings while also using an underutilised resource. This work assesses the use of permeable interlocking concrete pavement to filter stormwater that could be used for non-potable purposes in buildings. Two pavement model systems were tested. One of the model systems presents a filter course layer with coarse sand and the other model system has no filter course layer. In order to evaluate the filtering capacity, the model systems were exposed to rain events. The amount of water infiltrated through the layers was measured to represent the potential quantity available for use. Stormwater runoff samples were collected from a parking lot paved with impermeable interlocked blocks and then, these were tested in both model systems. Water samples were subjected to quality tests according to the parameters recommended by the Brazilian National Water Agency. The model system with no filter course showed filtering capacity higher (88.1%) than the one with a filter course layer (78.8%). The model system with a filter course layer was able to reduce fecal coliforms (54.7%), total suspended solids (62.5%), biochemical oxygen demand (78.8%), and total phosphorus concentrations (55.6%). Biochemical oxygen demand (42.4%) and total phosphorus concentrations (44.4%) increased in the model system with no filter course layer. In conclusion, one can state that the filter course layer used in permeable interlocking concrete pavement can contribute to decreasing pollutants and can improve stormwater quality. The use of permeable interlocking concrete pavement showed to be a potential alternative for filtering stormwater prior to subsequent treatment for non-potable uses in buildings. Full article
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Article
The Link between Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavement (PICP) Design and Nutrient Removal
Water 2020, 12(6), 1714; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061714 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
The construction of ‘hard’ impermeable surfaces in urban areas results in the increased flow of stormwater runoff and its associated pollutants into downstream receiving waters. Permeable Pavement Systems (PPS) can help mitigate this. The most common type of PPS in South Africa is [...] Read more.
The construction of ‘hard’ impermeable surfaces in urban areas results in the increased flow of stormwater runoff and its associated pollutants into downstream receiving waters. Permeable Pavement Systems (PPS) can help mitigate this. The most common type of PPS in South Africa is permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP), but there is currently insufficient information available on the relative treatment performance of different PICP designs. This paper describes an investigation into the performance of ten different PICP systems constructed in the Civil Engineering Laboratory at the University of Cape Town for the treatment of various nutrients commonly found in stormwater runoff. It was found that removal efficiencies ranged from 27.5% to 78.7% for ammonia-nitrogen and from −37% to 11% for orthophosphate-phosphorus; whilst 4% to 20.2% more nitrite-nitrogen and 160% to 2580% more nitrate-nitrogen were simultaneously added. The presence of a geotextile resulted in higher ammonia-nitrogen removal efficiencies but also higher nitrate-nitrogen addition than those cells without—with small differences between various types. The cell with a permanently wet ‘sump’ had the highest nitrate-nitrogen addition of all. Lower pH results in higher nitrate-nitrogen concentrations, whilst the electrical conductivity strongly depends on the length of the periods between rainfall ‘seasons’, decreasing rapidly during wet periods but increasing during dry periods. Paver type also had a minor impact on nutrient removal. Full article
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