Prevention of Groundwater-related Hazards in Geotechnical Engineering and Mining Engineering

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 July 2023) | Viewed by 17615

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Geotechnical and Structural Engineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan, China
Interests: water inrush; the filling type disaster structure; multi-source information fusion; risk control; dynamic adjustment

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Guest Editor
1. Geotechnical and Structural Engineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, China
2. School of Qilu Transportation, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, China
Interests: numerical analysis method; fluid-solid coupling; mechanism and control of groudwater disasters; prediction and control of geological disasters

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Guest Editor
Department of Resources Engineering, School of Mines, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221006, China
Interests: mining engineering; rock seepage mechanics; water inrush control; simultaneous exploitation of coal and geothermal energy; backfill mining
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The prevention and control of goundwater-related hazards and disasters in geotechnical engineering and mining engineering are major scientific and technological challenges. Goundwater-related hazards and disasters can lead to delays in construction or the termination of projects, resulting in huge economic losses. 

In this Special Issue, we aim to look into the latest progress on the prevention of goundwater-related hazards and disasters. Contributors are invited to share their original research papers focusing on the topic of the Special Issue.

Potential topics include the following:

  • Mechanisms of groundwater-related disasters
  • Numerical analysis method for fluid–solid coupling of rock and soil
  • Migration controls on groundwater
  • Behavior of groundwater in fractured rocks
  • Groundwater–rock interactions in geotechnical structures
  • Multi-source information identification of groundwater-related disasters
  • Disaster prediction and early warning techniques
  • Risk assessment and dynamic control for groundwater-related hazards

Prof. Dr. Shaoshuai Shi
Prof. Dr. Dan Ma
Prof. Dr. Zongqing Zhou
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • goundwater-related hazards and disasters
  • numerical analysis
  • geotechnical structures
  • multi-source information fusion
  • risk assessment
  • dynamic control

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 6686 KiB  
Article
Evolution of Water-Conducting Fracture in Weakly Cemented Strata in Response to Mining Activity: Insights from Experimental Investigation and Numerical Simulation
by Quanhui Liu, Chenyao Zhou, Dan Ma, Yong Liu, Guanshi Wang and Zhen Huang
Water 2023, 15(23), 4173; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15234173 - 2 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 965
Abstract
The accurate prediction of the vertical extent of water-conducting fracture (WCF) zones in weakly cemented strata is particularly significant in preventing and controlling water hazards in western coal mines. The evolution of fractures in weakly cemented strata affected by mining disturbances was comprehensively [...] Read more.
The accurate prediction of the vertical extent of water-conducting fracture (WCF) zones in weakly cemented strata is particularly significant in preventing and controlling water hazards in western coal mines. The evolution of fractures in weakly cemented strata affected by mining disturbances was comprehensively analyzed by physical similarity models, numerical simulations, and field investigations. Results indicated that the development progress of water-conducting fractures can be divided into three phases: initial slow generation, subsequent rapid development, and eventual stabilization. The numerical simulation results revealed that in the initial stage of working face mining, the development of the plastic zone is limited, and there is minimal failure in the overlying strata; therefore, fractures are slowly produced without penetrating through the strata. When the plastic zone fully encompasses the entire main roof, it triggers severe shear failure in the overlying strata, resulting in rapid fracture propagation and penetration. Once the fracture height reaches a stable state, there is no further increase in the maximum vertical displacement of key strata, indicating the extensive collapse and compaction of the overburden as well as the stabilization of the fracture heights. A modified prediction equation for WCF in weakly cemented strata was obtained by correcting the traditional empirical formula based on field investigations. This modified prediction equation enhances the accuracy in predicting fracture heights and provides a theoretical reference to address the issue of the inaccurate prediction of the water-conducting fracture height in western mine rock strata. Full article
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14 pages, 8896 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Parameter Calibration of an Analytical Model to Predict Transient Groundwater Inflow into a Tunnel
by Rui Zhu, Qiang Xia, Qiang Zhang, Cong Cao, Xiaoyu Zhang and Bangyan Mao
Water 2023, 15(15), 2702; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152702 - 27 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 988
Abstract
The use of either analytical or numerical models of groundwater inflow into a tunnel, ignoring the excavation process, will result in inaccurate prediction. More researchers have begun to study prediction methods with temporal and spatial variables, in accompaniment with the tunnel excavation progress. [...] Read more.
The use of either analytical or numerical models of groundwater inflow into a tunnel, ignoring the excavation process, will result in inaccurate prediction. More researchers have begun to study prediction methods with temporal and spatial variables, in accompaniment with the tunnel excavation progress. The hydrogeological parameters significantly affect tunnel inflow prediction; thus, it is always worthy to carry out an inversion analysis when the inflow rate observation is available for the excavated part of a tunnel. Based on a transient analytical model and the Trust Region Reflection (TRR) algorithm, this paper proposes a Dynamic Parameter Calibration (DPC) method to sequentially optimize parameters for a tunnel that is divided into several sectors. The results of two case studies indicate that the fitting effects by DPC are significantly improved compared with the empirical trial-and-error method, indicating good optimizations. The proposed scheme can conduct calibration simultaneously for multiple tunnel sectors and also several optimizations for the same sector. The parameter optimization results reflect the lithologic heterogeneity of different strata. Parameter sensitivity analysis proves that the hydraulic conductivity K has a greater influence on water inflow calculation than the specific storage coefficient S. Full article
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16 pages, 8876 KiB  
Article
Precise Judgment of Reverse Fault-Induced Water Inrush Hazard under Influence of Roof Goaf Water
by Minglei Zhai, Dan Ma, Haibo Bai, Zhenhua Li, Chen Wang, Yinlong Lu, Nan Zhou, Wen Zhong and Kun Wu
Water 2023, 15(12), 2191; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15122191 - 10 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1283
Abstract
Previous research recognized the threat of faults to safe mining and the importance of identifying fault failure patterns, and began to use theoretical research and numerical simulations to study the activation laws of faults during mining. Conventional wisdom may suggest that the height [...] Read more.
Previous research recognized the threat of faults to safe mining and the importance of identifying fault failure patterns, and began to use theoretical research and numerical simulations to study the activation laws of faults during mining. Conventional wisdom may suggest that the height of the fractured water-conducting zone (FWCZ) of the overburden strata over goaf will be increasingly caused by fault activation, thereby causing roof water inrush, in particular, goaf water existing in the roof of working face. Therefore, the FWCZ in the overburden strata make accurate judgments that are regarded as a key foundation to evaluate the safety of coal mining under water bodies. In view of this problem, the 15,103 working face of Wenzhuang Coal Mine in Shanxi Province were taken as the engineering background, the height of the FWCZ of the adjacent 15,100 working face was observed by drilling fluid leakage method and drilling television method, the observed results provided a reference for judgment of the height of the FWCZ of 15,103 working face. Additionally, the drilling method was adopted to conduct exploration on the terminal location of F6 reverse fault in overburden strata of No. 15 coal seam, the result showed that the disturbance range of F6 reverse fault was located in the FWCZ formed after mining the 15,103 working face. Furthermore, the method of numerical simulation analysis was used to study the failure height of overburden strata after mining the 15,103 working face through F6 reverse fault. The height of the FWCZ of F6 reversed fault was basically equal to that of the upper and lower plates, and F6 reverse fault had no influence on the height of the FWCZ after mining the 15,103 working face. There was a sufficient thick overburden strata between the maximal elevation of the fractured zone and the roof goaf water, and mining through F6 reverse fault under old goaf was safe and reliable. The research results can provide reference for the safe mining of passing through reverse faults under the influence of roof goaf water. Full article
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14 pages, 9250 KiB  
Article
A Dynamic Modeling Approach to Predict Water Inflow during Karst Tunnel Excavation
by Yang Bai, Zheng Wu, Tao Huang and Daoping Peng
Water 2022, 14(15), 2380; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152380 - 31 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1990
Abstract
During tunnel construction in strongly developed karst terrain, water inrush hazards often occur due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, which require accurate prediction of water inflow. In this study, a dynamic modeling approach for water inflow prediction of karst tunnels using the conduit [...] Read more.
During tunnel construction in strongly developed karst terrain, water inrush hazards often occur due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, which require accurate prediction of water inflow. In this study, a dynamic modeling approach for water inflow prediction of karst tunnels using the conduit flow process (CFP) is developed that considers both karst duality and changing boundary conditions of the tunnel. The CFP model has a good agreement with field-observed hydraulic head after calibration, and the Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency (NSE) for the CFP model is 97.3%. Numerical calculation of water inflow was conducted in a successive drilling scenario with permeability change of the surrounding rocks. Additionally, a modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW) has been applied to predict the water inflow, for comparison with the CFP model. The prediction results obtained from the CFP model are generally in close agreement with the field-observed results; the percentage errors were 13.3% and 5.4%, respectively. For the MODFLOW model, the percentage errors were 34.2% and 36.8%, respectively. The proposed CFP model is both closer to reality and more reasonable than the MODFLOW model in predictive analysis of water inflow into karst tunnels, reflecting the influence of karst conduits on the water inflow process. Full article
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14 pages, 3036 KiB  
Article
Advanced Grouting Model and Influencing Factors Analysis of Tunnels with High Stress and Broken Surrounding Rock
by Zhixiong Jiang, Dongjiang Pan, Shuhao Zhang, Zhiqiang Yin and Jianjun Zhou
Water 2022, 14(4), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040661 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2552
Abstract
Grouting can effectively seal and reinforce broken rock masses in deep geotechnical engineering, which have an important impact on groundwater-related disaster prevention and control. Based on multi-field coupling mechanics and rotational viscosity experiments, an advance grouting migration model of cement slurry in tunnels [...] Read more.
Grouting can effectively seal and reinforce broken rock masses in deep geotechnical engineering, which have an important impact on groundwater-related disaster prevention and control. Based on multi-field coupling mechanics and rotational viscosity experiments, an advance grouting migration model of cement slurry in tunnels with high-stress broken surrounding rock is built against the background of the Xianglushan Tunnel for water diversion in central Yunnan Province. The influence characteristics of water–cement ratio, grouting pressure, and initial permeability on the process of grouting material migration are analyzed by combining classical column theory and spherical theory. The results show the following: Overall, the growth rate of grouting radius is fast during the earlier 5 min and slows down later. At the fifth minute, the normal grouting ranges are 22 cm, 51 cm, and 58 cm, at water–cement ratios 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0, respectively, while the normal grouting ranges are 58 cm, 51 cm, and 36 cm at grouting pressures 2 MPa, 1 MPa, and 0.5 MPa, respectively; the normal grouting ranges are 58 cm, 24 cm, and 11 cm at initial permeabilities 5D, 0.5D, and 0.05D, respectively. At the 60th minute, the normal grouting ranges are 47 cm, 133 cm, and 155 cm at water–cement ratios 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0, respectively; the normal grouting ranges are 155 cm, 131 cm, and 96 cm at grouting pressures 2 MPa, 1 MPa, and 0.5 MPa, respectively; meanwhile, the normal grouting ranges are 155 cm, 63 cm, and 29 cm at initial permeabilities 5D, 0.5D, and 0.05D, respectively. This study can provide theoretical guidance for on-site grouting design in unfavorable geological treatment projects. Full article
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Review

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31 pages, 10058 KiB  
Review
Process Water Management and Seepage Control in Tailings Storage Facilities: Engineered Environmental Solutions Applied in Chile and Peru
by Carlos Cacciuttolo, Alvar Pastor, Patricio Valderrama and Edison Atencio
Water 2023, 15(1), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010196 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 8028
Abstract
In the past thirty years many mining projects in Chile and Peru have used: (i) polymeric geomembranes and (ii) design-and-build cutoff trenches, plastic concrete slurry walls, and grout curtain systems to control seepage at tailings storage facilities (TSFs). Geosynthetics are a viable alternative [...] Read more.
In the past thirty years many mining projects in Chile and Peru have used: (i) polymeric geomembranes and (ii) design-and-build cutoff trenches, plastic concrete slurry walls, and grout curtain systems to control seepage at tailings storage facilities (TSFs). Geosynthetics are a viable alternative at a TSF dam for clay cores or impermeable materials, mainly because of their marked advantages in cost, installation, and construction time. This article describes the use of geosynthetics liners and cutoff trench–plastic concrete slurry walls–grout curtain systems in TSF dams in Chile and Peru mining, with the objective to decrease seepage to the environment, considering different dam material cases such as: cycloned tailings sand dams, borrow dams, and mine waste rock dams. Finally, this article discusses aspects of geosynthetic technology acceptance in the local regulatory frameworks, lessons learned, and advances. It focuses on the use and implementation of geosynthetics in TSFs in Chile and Peru, which have some of the highest TSF dams in the world, as well as a wet environment, dry environment, extreme topography, and severe seismic conditions. These conditions constitute a challenge for manufacturers, engineers, and contractors, who must achieve optimal technical solutions, while being environmentally aware and economic. Full article
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