Previous Issue
Volume 11, November

Table of Contents

Polymers, Volume 11, Issue 12 (December 2019)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Modification of Poly(Ethylene 2,5-Furandicarboxylate) with Poly(Ethylene glycol) for Biodegradable Copolyesters with Good Mechanical Properties and Spinnability
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2105; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122105 (registering DOI) - 14 Dec 2019
Abstract
Using 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, ethylene glycol, and poly(ethylene glycol) as raw materials and ethylene glycol antimony as a catalyst, poly(ethylene furandicarboxylate) (PEF) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) copolymers (PEGFs) were synthesized by transesterification by changing the molecular weight of PEG (from 600 to 10,000 g/mol) [...] Read more.
Using 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, ethylene glycol, and poly(ethylene glycol) as raw materials and ethylene glycol antimony as a catalyst, poly(ethylene furandicarboxylate) (PEF) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) copolymers (PEGFs) were synthesized by transesterification by changing the molecular weight of PEG (from 600 to 10,000 g/mol) and the PEG content (from 10 to 60 wt %). The thermal, hydrophilic, degradation, and spinnility characteristics of these copolymers were then investigated. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that PEGF is thermally stable at 62 °C, much lower than the temperature for PEF. The intrinsic viscosity of the obtained copolyester was between 0.67 and 0.99 dL/g, which is higher than the viscosity value of PEF. The contact angle experiment shows that the hydrophilicity of PEGFs is improved (the surface contact angle is reduced from 91.9 to 63.3°), which gives PEGFs a certain degradability, and the maximum mass loss can reach approximately 15%. Melt spinning experiments show that the PEGF polymer has poor spinnability, but the mechanical properties of the polymer monofilament are better. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Bio-Based Polymers)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Chemically Denatured Structures of Porcine Pepsin using Small-Angle X-ray Scattering
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2104; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122104 (registering DOI) - 14 Dec 2019
Abstract
Porcine pepsin is a gastric aspartic proteinase that reportedly plays a pivotal role in the digestive process of many vertebrates. We have investigated the three-dimensional (3D) structure and conformational transition of porcine pepsin in solution over a wide range of denaturant urea concentrations [...] Read more.
Porcine pepsin is a gastric aspartic proteinase that reportedly plays a pivotal role in the digestive process of many vertebrates. We have investigated the three-dimensional (3D) structure and conformational transition of porcine pepsin in solution over a wide range of denaturant urea concentrations (0–10 M) using Raman spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. Furthermore, 3D GASBOR ab initio structural models, which provide an adequate conformational description of pepsin under varying denatured conditions, were successfully constructed. It was shown that pepsin molecules retain native conformation at 0–5 M urea, undergo partial denaturation at 6 M urea, and display a strongly unfolded conformation at 7–10 M urea. According to the resulting GASBOR solution models, we identified an intermediate pepsin conformation that was dominant during the early stage of denaturation. We believe that the structural evidence presented here provides useful insights into the relationship between enzymatic activity and conformation of porcine pepsin at different states of denaturation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Polymer Analysis)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Evolution of Interfacial Friction Angle and Contact Area of Polymer Pellets during the Initial Stage of Ultrasonic Plasticization
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2103; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122103 (registering DOI) - 14 Dec 2019
Abstract
Interfacial friction heating is one of the leading heat generation mechanisms during the initial stage of ultrasonic plasticization of polymer pellets, which has a significant influence on the subsequent viscoelastic heating according to our previous study. The interfacial friction angle and contact area [...] Read more.
Interfacial friction heating is one of the leading heat generation mechanisms during the initial stage of ultrasonic plasticization of polymer pellets, which has a significant influence on the subsequent viscoelastic heating according to our previous study. The interfacial friction angle and contact area of polymer pellets are critical boundary conditions for the analysis of interfacial frictional heating of polymer pellets. However, the duration of the interfacial friction heating is extremely short in ultrasonic plasticization, and the polymer pellets are randomly distributed in the cylindrical barrel, resulting in the characterization of the distribution of the interfacial friction angle and contact area to be a challenge. In this work, the interfacial friction angle of the polymer pellets in the partially plasticized samples of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polypropylene (PP), and nylon66 (PA66) were characterized by a super-high magnification lens zoom 3D microscope. The influence of trigger pressure, plasticizing pressure, ultrasonic amplitude, and vibration time on the interfacial friction angle and the contact area of the polymer pellets were studied by a single factor experiment. The results show that the compaction degree of the plasticized samples could be enhanced by increasing the level of the process parameters. With the increasing parameter level, the proportion of interfacial friction angle in the range of 0–10° and 80–90° increased, while the proportion in the range of 30–60° decreased accordingly. The proportion of the contact area of the polymer pellets was increased up to 50% of the interfacial friction area which includes the upper, lower, and side area of the cylindrical plasticized sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology of Polymers)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Thiol–Ene Click Reaction Initiated Rapid Gelation of PEGDA/Silk Fibroin Hydrogels
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2102; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122102 (registering DOI) - 14 Dec 2019
Abstract
In this work, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) molecules were grafted to silk fibroin (SF) molecules via a thiol–ene click reaction under 405 nm UV illumination for the fabrication of a PEGDA/SF composite hydrogel. The composite hydrogels could be prepared in a short and [...] Read more.
In this work, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) molecules were grafted to silk fibroin (SF) molecules via a thiol–ene click reaction under 405 nm UV illumination for the fabrication of a PEGDA/SF composite hydrogel. The composite hydrogels could be prepared in a short and controllable gelation time without the use of a photoinitiator. Features relevant to the drug delivery of the PEGDA/SF hydrogels were assessed, and the hydrogels were characterized by various techniques. The results showed that the prepared PEGDA/SF hydrogels demonstrated a good sustained-release performance with limited swelling behavior. It was found that a prior cooling step can improve the compressive strength of the hydrogels effectively. Additionally, the MTT assay indicated the prepared PEGDA/SF hydrogel is non-cytotoxic. Subcutaneous implantation of the PEGDA/SF hydrogel in Kunming mice did not induce an obvious inflammation, which revealed that the prepared PEGDA/SF hydrogel possessed good biocompatibility. Furthermore, the mechanism of the gelation process was discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biopolymers)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Development of Multi-Functional Graphene Polymer Composites Having Electromagnetic Interference Shielding and De-Icing Properties
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2101; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122101 (registering DOI) - 14 Dec 2019
Abstract
We developed a multi-functional graphene composite with electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding and de-icing properties. Two-dimensional graphene fillers were homogeneously dispersed in a polymer by three-roll milling. The electrical properties and percolation threshold of the graphene composites were measured with various graphene contents. The [...] Read more.
We developed a multi-functional graphene composite with electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding and de-icing properties. Two-dimensional graphene fillers were homogeneously dispersed in a polymer by three-roll milling. The electrical properties and percolation threshold of the graphene composites were measured with various graphene contents. The variation in the EMI shielding properties of the graphene composites with respect to the filler content was measured. The shielding efficiency improved with increasing graphene filler content. Furthermore, we conducted electrical heating tests on the graphene composites. The composites could be heated rapidly to 200 °C by electrical Joule heating with low electric power because of the high electrical conductivity of the composite. Moreover, the composite film was suitable for application in a de-icing unit because of its rapid and homogenous heating performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanomaterial-Modified Polymer Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Examination of Poly (Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene)-Modified Asphalt Performance in Bonding Modified Aggregates Using Parallel Plates Method
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2100; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122100 (registering DOI) - 14 Dec 2019
Abstract
Although asphalt-aggregate bonding provides contacting strength for hot mix asphalt (HMA), it is still ignorant in dynamic shear test, due to the only use of metal parallel plate. Modified parallel plates cored from different types of aggregate were provided to simulate aggregate-asphalt-aggregate (AAA) [...] Read more.
Although asphalt-aggregate bonding provides contacting strength for hot mix asphalt (HMA), it is still ignorant in dynamic shear test, due to the only use of metal parallel plate. Modified parallel plates cored from different types of aggregate were provided to simulate aggregate-asphalt-aggregate (AAA) sandwich in HMA, aiming at the comprehensive interpretation on bonding’s influence. This study began with an experimental design, aggregate plates, and joint clamps were processed to be installed into the rheometer. Aggregate type and loading conditions were set as essential variables. Subsequently, microscopic tests were utilized to obtain chemical components of aggregate, micro morphology of interface, and roughness of plates. The shearing tests for poly (styrene-butadiene-styrene)-modified asphalt were conducted in bonding with aggregate plates. Meanwhile, contrasting groups adopting metal plates followed the same experimental procedures. The results indicate that the influence of aggregate type on binder’s rheological characteristics is dependent on the experimental variables, and microscopic characteristics and component differences should be taken into consideration when selecting aggregates in designing asphalt mixtures. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Development of Injection-Molded Polylactide Pieces with High Toughness by the Addition of Lactic Acid Oligomer and Characterization of Their Shape Memory Behavior
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2099; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122099 (registering DOI) - 14 Dec 2019
Abstract
This work reports the effect of the addition of an oligomer of lactic acid (OLA), in the 5–20 wt% range, on the processing and properties of polylactide (PLA) pieces prepared by injection molding. The obtained results suggested that the here-tested OLA mainly performs [...] Read more.
This work reports the effect of the addition of an oligomer of lactic acid (OLA), in the 5–20 wt% range, on the processing and properties of polylactide (PLA) pieces prepared by injection molding. The obtained results suggested that the here-tested OLA mainly performs as an impact modifier for PLA, showing a percentage increase in the impact strength of approximately 171% for the injection-molded pieces containing 15 wt% OLA. A slight plasticization was observed by the decrease of the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PLA of up to 12.5 °C. The OLA addition also promoted a reduction of the cold crystallization temperature (Tcc) of more than 10 °C due to an increased motion of the biopolymer chains and the potential nucleating effect of the short oligomer chains. Moreover, the shape memory behavior of the PLA samples was characterized by flexural tests with different deformation angles, that is, 15°, 30°, 60°, and 90°. The obtained results confirmed the extraordinary effect of OLA on the shape memory recovery (Rr) of PLA, which increased linearly as the OLA loading increased. In particular, the OLA-containing PLA samples were able to successfully recover over 95% of their original shape for low deformation angles, while they still reached nearly 70% of recovery for the highest angles. Therefore, the present OLA can be successfully used as a novel additive to improve the toughness and shape memory behavior of compostable packaging articles based on PLA in the new frame of the Circular Economy. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Progress in the Synthesis of Bifunctionalized Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2098; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122098 (registering DOI) - 14 Dec 2019
Abstract
Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) has been considered as one of the most promising nanofillers in academic and industrial research due to its unique multifunctional nanostructure, easy functionalization, hybrid nature, and high processability. The progress of POSS has been extensive, particularly applications based on [...] Read more.
Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) has been considered as one of the most promising nanofillers in academic and industrial research due to its unique multifunctional nanostructure, easy functionalization, hybrid nature, and high processability. The progress of POSS has been extensive, particularly applications based on single- or multiple-armed POSS. In polymer hybrids, in order to enhance the properties, bifunctional POSS has been incorporated into the backbone chain of the polymer. This review summarizes recent developments in the synthesis, modification, and application of bifunctional POSS-containing composite materials. This includes amino-POSS, hydroxyl-POSS, aromatic ring-POSS, ether-POSS, and vinyl groups-POSS and their applications, exemplified by polyurethanes (PUs) and polyimides (PIs). In addition, the review highlights the enhancement of thermal, mechanical, and optical properties of the composites. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
A Novel Class of Cost Effective and High Performance Composites Based on Terephthalate Salts Reinforced Polyether Ether Ketone
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2097; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122097 (registering DOI) - 14 Dec 2019
Abstract
Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK)-based nanocomposites have been realized with incorporation (0–30 wt %) of anhydrous calcium terephthalate salts (CATAS), synthetized by reaction of terephtalic acid with the metal (Ca) oxide, by means of a melt processing. Their structure, morphology, thermal, and mechanical properties [...] Read more.
Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK)-based nanocomposites have been realized with incorporation (0–30 wt %) of anhydrous calcium terephthalate salts (CATAS), synthetized by reaction of terephtalic acid with the metal (Ca) oxide, by means of a melt processing. Their structure, morphology, thermal, and mechanical properties have been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy observations confirmed homogeneous dispersion of nanometer-sized fillers and a toughened fracture morphology even at the higher content, while thermal characterization confirmed an unvaried thermal stability and unmodified crystalline structure of the reference PEEK matrix. A negligible nucleating effect was evidenced, while a blocking effect of the amorphous phase fraction provide composites with increased stiffness, confirmed by enhanced values of G’ and shifts of glass transition peak to higher temperatures, for restriction in chain mobility imposed by CATAS. The proposed solutions aimed to enlarge the application range of high performance costly PEEK-based composites, by using thermally stable nanofillers with limited costs and easily controllable synthesis phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Polymer Analysis)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Plasticization of Cottonseed Protein/Polyvinyl Alcohol Blend Films
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2096; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122096 (registering DOI) - 14 Dec 2019
Abstract
The use of waste plant protein obtained from underutilized and non-food-producing plants may be a promising strategy in the development of bioactive packaging. A series of blend films were prepared by casting from cottonseed protein (CP) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and modified with [...] Read more.
The use of waste plant protein obtained from underutilized and non-food-producing plants may be a promising strategy in the development of bioactive packaging. A series of blend films were prepared by casting from cottonseed protein (CP) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and modified with different plasticizers. The morphology, structure, and crystallinity of each of the blend films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. CP and PVA were found to be compatible in the appropriate ratios, and the CP/PVA blend films were partially crystalline. We compared the effects that four plasticizers, i.e., glycerol, triethanolamine (TEA), ethylene glycol, and polyethylene glycol, had on the performance of the CP/PVA blend films. Plasticizers altered the degree of interaction between CP and PVA, which changed the secondary structure of the CP but had little effect on the crystallinity of CP/PVA blend films. Among the different plasticizers tested, TEA was the most efficient at improving the elongation at the break, tensile strength, and oxygen barrier properties of the CP/PVA blend films. Such CP/PVA blend films plasticized using TEA can, therefore, be considered emerging and promising plastics for potential applications in food packaging and flower planting applications. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Cellular Orientation on Repeatedly Stretching Gelatin Hydrogels with Supramolecular Cross-Linkers
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2095; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122095 (registering DOI) - 14 Dec 2019
Viewed by 31
Abstract
The cytocompatibility of biological and synthetic materials is an important issue for biomaterials. Gelatin hydrogels are used as biomaterials because of their biodegradability. We have previously reported that the mechanical properties of gelatin hydrogels are improved by cross-linking with polyrotaxanes, a supramolecular compound [...] Read more.
The cytocompatibility of biological and synthetic materials is an important issue for biomaterials. Gelatin hydrogels are used as biomaterials because of their biodegradability. We have previously reported that the mechanical properties of gelatin hydrogels are improved by cross-linking with polyrotaxanes, a supramolecular compound composed of many cyclic molecules threaded with a linear polymer. In this study, the ability of gelatin hydrogels cross-linked by polyrotaxanes (polyrotaxane–gelatin hydrogels) for cell cultivation was investigated. Because the amount of polyrotaxanes used for gelatin fabrication is very small, the chemical composition was barely altered. The structure and wettability of these hydrogels are also the same as those of conventional hydrogels. Fibroblasts adhered on polyrotaxane–gelatin hydrogels and conventional hydrogels without any reduction or apoptosis of adherent cells. From these results, the polyrotaxane–gelatin hydrogels have the potential to improve the mechanical properties of gelatin without affecting cytocompatibility. Interestingly, when cells were cultured on polyrotaxane–gelatin hydrogels after repeated stress deformation, the cells were spontaneously oriented to the stretching direction. This cellular response was not observed on conventional hydrogels. These results suggest that the use of a polyrotaxane cross-linking agent can not only improve the strength of hydrogels but can also contribute to controlling reorientation of the gelatin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Gelatin)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Dual Crosslinked Collagen/Chitosan Film for Potential Biomedical Applications
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2094; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122094 (registering DOI) - 14 Dec 2019
Viewed by 49
Abstract
The application of polymeric biomaterial scaffolds utilizing crosslinking strategy has become an effective approach in these days. In the present study, the development and characterization of collagen–chitosan hydrogel film has been reported on using dual crosslinking agent’s, i.e., tannic acid and genipin simultaneously. [...] Read more.
The application of polymeric biomaterial scaffolds utilizing crosslinking strategy has become an effective approach in these days. In the present study, the development and characterization of collagen–chitosan hydrogel film has been reported on using dual crosslinking agent’s, i.e., tannic acid and genipin simultaneously. Incorporation of genipin imparts a greenish-blue color to the polymeric film. The effect of dual crosslinking and their successful interaction within the matrix was evaluated by infrared analysis spectroscopy. The porosity of the film was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results of TGA determine the intermediate thermal degradation. Further, the crosslinking phenomenon has found primary impact on the strength of the films. Enzymatic degradation for the films was performed with lysozyme and lipase. The cell adhesion and proliferation was also accomplished using mouse embryonic cell lines wherein the cells cultured on the dual crosslinked film. The thriving utilization of such dual crosslinked polymeric film finds their applications in ophthalmology especially as an implant for temporary injured cornea and skin tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Biointerfaces)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Antibacterial Films Based on PVA and PVA–Chitosan Modified with Poly(Hexamethylene Guanidine)
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2093; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122093 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 128
Abstract
In this study, thin, polymeric films consisting of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chitosan (Ch) with the addition of poly(hexamethylene guanidine) (PHMG) were successfully prepared. The obtained materials were analyzed to determine their physicochemical and biocidal properties. In order to confirm the structure of [...] Read more.
In this study, thin, polymeric films consisting of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chitosan (Ch) with the addition of poly(hexamethylene guanidine) (PHMG) were successfully prepared. The obtained materials were analyzed to determine their physicochemical and biocidal properties. In order to confirm the structure of PHMG, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) was applied, while in the case of the obtained films, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform (FTIR-ATR) was used. The surface morphology of the polymer films was evaluated based on atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, the mechanical properties, color changes, and thermal stability of the obtained materials were determined. Microbiological tests were performed to evaluate the biocidal properties of the new materials with and without the addition of PHMG. These analyses confirmed the biocidal potential of films modified by PHMG and allowed for comparisons of their physicochemical properties with the properties of native films. In summary, films consisting of PVA and PHMG displayed higher antimicrobial potentials against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria in comparison to PVA:Ch-based films with the addition of PHMG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials with Antibacterial Activity)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Structural Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Milled Wood Lignin from Xylose Residue and Corncob
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2092; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122092 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 119
Abstract
Xylose residue (XR), after diluted acid treatment of corncob, consists of cellulose and lignin. However, structural changes of XR lignin have not been investigated comprehensively, and this has seriously hindered the efficient utilization of lignin. In this study, corncob milled wood lignin (CC [...] Read more.
Xylose residue (XR), after diluted acid treatment of corncob, consists of cellulose and lignin. However, structural changes of XR lignin have not been investigated comprehensively, and this has seriously hindered the efficient utilization of lignin. In this study, corncob milled wood lignin (CC MWL), and xylose residue milled wood lignin (XR MWL) were isolated according to the modified milled wood lignin (MWL) method. The structural features of two lignin fractions were thoroughly investigated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy techniques. XR MWL with higher yield and lower bound carbohydrate contents presented more phenolic OH contents than CC MWL due to partial cleavage of β-O-4. Furthermore, the molecular weights of XR MWL were increased, possibly because of condensation of the lignin during the xylose production. A study on antioxidant activity showed that XR lignin had better radical scavenging ability than that of 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methyl-phenol (BHT) and CC MWL. The results suggested that the lignin in xylose residue, showing great antioxidant properties, has potential applications in food additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Properties, Applications and Perspectives of Lignin)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
A Porous Polymer-Based Solid Acid Catalyst with Excellent Amphiphilicity: An Active and Environmentally Friendly Catalyst for the Hydration of Alkynes
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2091; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122091 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 89
Abstract
Developing efficient solid acid catalysts for aqueous organic reactions is of great importance for the development of sustainable chemistry. In this work, a porous polymeric acid catalyst was synthesized via a solvothermal copolymerization and a successive ion-exchange method. Physicochemical characterizations suggested that the [...] Read more.
Developing efficient solid acid catalysts for aqueous organic reactions is of great importance for the development of sustainable chemistry. In this work, a porous polymeric acid catalyst was synthesized via a solvothermal copolymerization and a successive ion-exchange method. Physicochemical characterizations suggested that the prepared polymers possessed large Brunauer‐Emmett‐Teller (BET) surface areas, a hierarchically porous structure, excellent surface amphiphilicity, and nice swelling properties. Notably, an activity test in phenylacetylene hydration indicated that the prepared solid acid exhibited high catalytic activity in water, which outperformed commercial amberlyst-15, sulfuric acid, and benzenesulfonic acid. Moreover, the prepared solid acid can be easily recovered and reused at least four times. Additionally, a variety of aromatic and aliphatic alkynes could be effectively transformed into corresponding ketones under optimal reaction conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Polymer Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Recent Innovation of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Carbon Dioxide Photocatalytic Reduction
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2090; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122090 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 101
Abstract
The accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) pollutants in the atmosphere begets global warming, forcing us to face tangible catastrophes worldwide. Environmental affability, affordability, and efficient CO2 metamorphotic capacity are critical factors for photocatalysts; metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are one of the [...] Read more.
The accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) pollutants in the atmosphere begets global warming, forcing us to face tangible catastrophes worldwide. Environmental affability, affordability, and efficient CO2 metamorphotic capacity are critical factors for photocatalysts; metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are one of the best candidates. MOFs, as hybrid organic ligand and inorganic nodal metal with tailorable morphological texture and adaptable electronic structure, are contemporary artificial photocatalysts. The semiconducting nature and porous topology of MOFs, respectively, assists with photogenerated multi-exciton injection and adsorption of substrate proximate to void cavities, thereby converting CO2. The vitality of the employment of MOFs in CO2 photolytic reaction has emerged from the fact that they are not only an inherently eco-friendly weapon for pollutant extermination, but also a potential tool for alleviating foreseeable fuel crises. The excellent synergistic interaction between the central metal and organic linker allows decisive implementation for the design, integration, and application of the catalytic bundle. In this review, we presented recent MOF headway focusing on reports of the last three years, exhaustively categorized based on central metal-type, and novel discussion, from material preparation to photocatalytic, simulated performance recordings of respective as-synthesized materials. The selective CO2 reduction capacities into syngas or formate of standalone or composite MOFs with definite photocatalytic reaction conditions was considered and compared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conjugated Oligomers and Polymer Nanomaterials)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Lignin Plasticization on Physico-Mechanical Properties of Lignin/Poly(Lactic Acid) Composites
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2089; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122089 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 105
Abstract
Kraft lignin (KL) or plasticized KL (PKL)/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites, containing different lignin contents and with and without the coupling agent, were prepared in this study using twin-screw extrusion at 180 °C. Furthermore, ε-caprolactone and polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (pMDI) were used as a [...] Read more.
Kraft lignin (KL) or plasticized KL (PKL)/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites, containing different lignin contents and with and without the coupling agent, were prepared in this study using twin-screw extrusion at 180 °C. Furthermore, ε-caprolactone and polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (pMDI) were used as a plasticizer of KL and a coupling agent to improve interfacial adhesion, respectively. It was found that lignin plasticization improved lignin dispersibility in the PLA matrix and increased the melt flow index due to decrease in melt viscosity. The tensile strength of KL or PKL/PLA composites was found to decrease as the content of KL and PKL increased in the absence of pMDI, and increased due to pMDI addition. The existence of KL and PKL in the composites decreased the thermal degradation rate against the temperature and increased char residue. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient of water in the composites was also found to decrease due to KL or PKL addition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Properties, Applications and Perspectives of Lignin)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Eco-Friendly Cellulose Nanocrystals on Physical Properties of Cement Mortars
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2088; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122088 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 95
Abstract
Nanocellulose, being a material with nanodimensions, is characterized by high tensile strength, high modulus of elasticity, low thermal expansion, and relatively low density, as well as exhibiting very good electrical conductivity properties. The paper presents the results of research on cement mortars with [...] Read more.
Nanocellulose, being a material with nanodimensions, is characterized by high tensile strength, high modulus of elasticity, low thermal expansion, and relatively low density, as well as exhibiting very good electrical conductivity properties. The paper presents the results of research on cement mortars with the addition of nanocrystals cellulose, applied in three different amounts (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) by weight of cement, including: physical and mechanical properties, frost resistance and resistance against the detrimental effect of salt, and microstructure examination (SEM). Along with an increase in amount of admixture, the weight loss following frost resistance and salt crystallization tests is reduced. Studies have shown that the addition of nanocrystalline cellulose improves the compressive and flexural strength by 27.6% and 10.9%, respectively. After 50 freezing and thawing (F–T) cycles for the mortars with 1.5% nanocellulose admixture, an improvement in frost resistance by 98% was observed. In turn, the sulfate crystallization tests indicated a 35-fold decrease in weight loss following 1.5% nanopolymer addition to the mortar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eco-Friendly Polymeric Materials: A New Chance for Our Future)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Study on Some Thermal and Electrical Properties of Basalt Fabric Modified with Metal and Ceramics as a Result of Magnetron Sputtering
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2087; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122087 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 88
Abstract
The main aim of the research was to compare the values of some thermal and electrical parameters obtained for a basalt fabric modified with the metal and ceramics coatings. The surface modification of basalt fabric was made by using a magnetron sputtering technique. [...] Read more.
The main aim of the research was to compare the values of some thermal and electrical parameters obtained for a basalt fabric modified with the metal and ceramics coatings. The surface modification of basalt fabric was made by using a magnetron sputtering technique. Chrome and zirconium(IV) oxide coatings were deposited on the fabric surface. The thermal and electrical properties of selected fabrics were determined. In order to assess the comfort properties of fabrics, the thermal resistance of materials was analyzed. Instrumental color measurement was used for an assessment of the surface of modified and unmodified basalt fabric. Using a non-contact digital color imaging system, DigiEye, an original method of samples surface analysis was presented. As a result of research, the modification of basalt fabric surface for applications in a hot work environment enabled the improvement of thermal properties in relation to the references samples. The first level of protection against contact heat for a contact temperature of 100 °C was obtained for the zirconium(IV) oxide-modified basalt fabric. The first level of protection against radiant heat was obtained for all samples. The highest value for the heat radiant resistance was obtained for the chrome-modified basalt fabric. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Insulating and Fire-Resistant Polymer Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
GC-MS Screening for the Identification of Potential Migrants Present in Polymeric Coatings of Food Cans
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2086; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122086 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 89
Abstract
The coatings used in cans can release complex chemical mixtures into foodstuffs. Therefore, it is important to develop analytical methods for the identification of these potential migrant compounds in packaged food to guarantee the compliance with European food packaging legislation and ensure consumer [...] Read more.
The coatings used in cans can release complex chemical mixtures into foodstuffs. Therefore, it is important to develop analytical methods for the identification of these potential migrant compounds in packaged food to guarantee the compliance with European food packaging legislation and ensure consumer safety. In the present work, the type of coating in a total of twelve cans collected in Santiago de Compostela (Spain) were evaluated using an ATR (attenuated total reflectance)-FTIR spectrometer. These samples were analysed after extraction with acetonitrile in order to identify potential migrants through a screening method by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of forty-seven volatile and semi-volatile compounds were identified in these samples, including plasticizers, photoinitiators, antioxidants, lubricants, etc. Then, in a second step, a targeted analysis was carried out for the simultaneous determination of 13 compounds, including bisphenols (BPA, BPB, BPC, BPE, BPF, BPG) and BADGEs (BADGE, BADGE.H2O, BADGE.2H2O, BADGE.HCl, BADGE.2HCl, BADGE.H2O.HCl, cyclo-di-BADGE) by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) source. Among all the bisphenols analysed, only the bisphenol A was detected in four samples; while cyclo-di-BADGE was the predominant compound detected in all the samples analysed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Polymer Coatings)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Perspectives of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer-Based Drug Delivery Systems in Cancer Therapy
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2085; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122085 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 95
Abstract
Despite the considerable effort made in the past decades, multiple aspects of cancer management remain a challenge for the scientific community. The severe toxicity and poor bioavailability of conventional chemotherapeutics, and the multidrug resistance have turned the attention of researchers towards the quest [...] Read more.
Despite the considerable effort made in the past decades, multiple aspects of cancer management remain a challenge for the scientific community. The severe toxicity and poor bioavailability of conventional chemotherapeutics, and the multidrug resistance have turned the attention of researchers towards the quest of drug carriers engineered to offer an efficient, localized, temporized, and doze-controlled delivery of antitumor agents of proven clinical value. Molecular imprinting of chemotherapeutics is very appealing in the design of drug delivery systems since the specific and selective binding sites created within the polymeric matrix turn these complex structures into value-added carriers with tunable features, notably high loading capacity, and a good control of payload release. Our work aims to summarize the present state-of-the art of molecularly imprinted polymer-based drug delivery systems developed for anticancer therapy, with emphasis on the particularities of the chemotherapeutics’ release and with a critical assessment of the current challenges and future perspectives of these unique drug carriers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Imprinted Polymers: Challenges and Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
A Selenone-Functionalized Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane for Selective Detection and Adsorption of Hg2+ ions in Aqueous Solutions
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2084; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122084 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 140
Abstract
Developing novel functional polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) for various applications is highly desirable. Herein we present the first example of a novel selenone-functionalized POSS (POSS-Se) by treating an imidazolium-containing POSS with selenium powder under mild condition. The structure of POSS-Se was characterized by [...] Read more.
Developing novel functional polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) for various applications is highly desirable. Herein we present the first example of a novel selenone-functionalized POSS (POSS-Se) by treating an imidazolium-containing POSS with selenium powder under mild condition. The structure of POSS-Se was characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 29Si NMR, and elemental analysis. Acid treatment of POSS-Se results in a hydrophilic red-orange colored solid, which is highly sensitive and selective for the detection of Hg2+ ions in aqueous solutions by visually observing the color change to pale yellow, and to white. Interestingly, POSS-Se has no activity on this detection. This finding is due to the Se–Se formation by acid-treatment and subsequent coordination-induced cleavage upon the addition of Hg2+ ions. The detection behavior can be precisely monitored by a “turn-on” fluorescence phenomenon with the limit of detection (LOD) of 8.48 ppb, comparable to or higher than many reported Hg2+ sensors. Moreover, POSS-Se demonstrates a selective and efficient adsorption of Hg2+ ions with a maximum capacity of 952 mg g–1. The value is higher than most reported adsorbents for Hg2+ ions, typically thiol and/or thioether functional materials, indicating its promise as an efficient adsorbent for the selective removal of Hg2+ ions from industrial wastewater. This work may open up new horizons for the exploration of selenium-containing functional POSS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer and Carbon Materials Engineering)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Significantly Improved Electrical Properties of Photo-Initiated Auxiliary Crosslinking EPDM Used for Cable Termination
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2083; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122083 (registering DOI) - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 155
Abstract
In order to achieve high quality electrical materials for cable terminations, the crosslinked ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) materials, with adequate breakdown strength, appropriately increased conductivity and are developed by employing auxiliary crosslinker and ultraviolet (UV) photoinitiated crosslinking technique. The characteristic cyclic anhydrides with coupled [...] Read more.
In order to achieve high quality electrical materials for cable terminations, the crosslinked ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) materials, with adequate breakdown strength, appropriately increased conductivity and are developed by employing auxiliary crosslinker and ultraviolet (UV) photoinitiated crosslinking technique. The characteristic cyclic anhydrides with coupled carbonyl groups are utilized as auxiliary crosslinkers to promote crosslinking efficiency and provide polar-groups to EPDM molecules in UV-initiated crosslinking processes, which can be effectively fulfilled in industrial cable production. The results of infrared spectroscopy show that the auxiliary crosslinkers have been successfully grated to EPDM molecules through UV initiation process. The conductivity of EPDM increases after individually utilizing three auxiliary crosslinkers to EPDM at various temperatures of cable operations, by which the highest conductivity has been acquired by grafting N.N-m-phenylene dimaleimide. The first-principles calculations demonstrate that some occupied local electronic-states have been introduced in the band-gap of the EPDM crosslinked by N.N-m-phenylene dimaleimide (EPDM-HAV2), which can be thermally excited from valence band to conduction band at lower temperature or in higher density, leading to augmentation in electrical conductivity. Meanwhile, the breakdown strength achieves a significant improvement in consistency with the theoretical estimation that deeper hole-traps can be introduced by auxiliary-crosslinking modification, and will consequently increase breakdown strength through the trapping mechanism of space charge suppression. in relation to the appropriately increased conductivity, in combination with persistent breakdown strength, the finite element simulations of the electric field distribution in EPDM cable terminations suggest that the effectively homogenized electric field at the root of stress cone will be realized for EPDM-HAV2. The present study offers a fundamental strategy to ameliorate EPDM materials in the application of insulated cable accessories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Electrical Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
A Modified Aging Kinetics Model for Aging Condition Prediction of Transformer Polymer Insulation by Employing the Frequency Domain Spectroscopy
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2082; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122082 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 156
Abstract
The aging kinetics model is of great interest to scholars since it is capable of describing the variation law between the degree of polymerization (DP) and the aging duration of transformer polymer (cellulose) insulation. However, it is difficult to determine the [...] Read more.
The aging kinetics model is of great interest to scholars since it is capable of describing the variation law between the degree of polymerization (DP) and the aging duration of transformer polymer (cellulose) insulation. However, it is difficult to determine the moisture content inside the transformer polymer insulation without destroying it, so that the model parameters cannot be confirmed. Such limitation greatly restricts its application. It is interesting to note that as long as the moisture content of the transformer polymer insulation could be characterized (replaced) by a certain feature parameter, the above issue will be solved naturally. The existing researches indicate that the Frequency Domain Spectroscopy (FDS) is sensitive to moisture. Consequently, the feature parameter that could characterize the moisture inside transformer polymer insulation (extracted from the FDS curve) can be used to report a modified aging kinetics model, which could perform the aging condition prediction of transformer polymer insulation under various test conditions, including aging duration, aging temperature, and initial moisture. In that respect, the average relative error of prediction results of prepared samples is equal to 7.41%, which reveals that the reported model might be serviced as a potential tool for the aging condition prediction of transformer polymer insulation. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Molecular Chain Length on the Contact Line Movement in Water/n-Alkane/Solid Systems
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2081; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122081 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 151
Abstract
The movement of the contact line in liquid-liquid-solid systems is a major phenomenon in natural and industrial processes. In particular, n-alkanes are widely occurring in the oil, soil pollution, and chemical industries, yet there is little knowledge on the effects of molecular chain [...] Read more.
The movement of the contact line in liquid-liquid-solid systems is a major phenomenon in natural and industrial processes. In particular, n-alkanes are widely occurring in the oil, soil pollution, and chemical industries, yet there is little knowledge on the effects of molecular chain length on the contact line movement. Here, we studied the effects of molecular chain length on the contact line movement in water/n-alkane/solid systems with different surface wettabilities. We used n-heptane (C7), n-decane (C10), and n-hexadecane (C16) as alkanes and α-quartz as the solid surface. We calculated the time-variation contact line moving velocity and also analyzed the jump frequency and the mean distance of the molecular displacement occurring within the contact line zone by molecular-kinetic theory. Molecular dynamics simulation results show that the contact line velocity decreases with increasing the chain length, originally caused by the decreasing the jump frequency and mean distance. These variations with the molecular chain length are related to the more torsions and deformations of the molecules with a longer chain length. In addition, the moving mechanism of the contact line on the same solid surface does not change at different molecular chain lengths, implying that the moving mechanism mainly depends on the three-phase wettability. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Thermal Decomposition Mechanism and Kinetics Study of Plastic Waste Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2080; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122080 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 148
Abstract
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), as a new type of engineering plastic waste, has been used widely due to its good heat resistance, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, while it has become an important part of solid waste. The pyrolysis behaviors of CPVC waste [...] Read more.
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), as a new type of engineering plastic waste, has been used widely due to its good heat resistance, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, while it has become an important part of solid waste. The pyrolysis behaviors of CPVC waste were analyzed based on thermogravimetric experiments to explore its reaction mechanism. Compared with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pyrolysis, CPVC pyrolysis mechanism was divided into two stages and speculated to be dominated by the dehydrochlorination and cyclization/aromatization processes. A common model-free method, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method, was applied to estimate the activation energy values at different conversion rates. Meanwhile, a typical model-fitting method, Coats-Redfern method, was used to predict the possible reaction model by the comparison of activation energy obtained from model-free method, thereby the first order reaction-order model and fourth order reaction-order model were established corresponding to these two stages. Eventually, based on the initial kinetic parameter values computed by model-free method and reaction model established by model-fitting method, kinetic parameters were optimized by Shuffled Complex Evolution algorithm and further applied to predict the CPVC pyrolysis behaviors during the whole temperature range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Analysis of Polymer Materials)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
In-Situ Dynamic Response Measurement for Damage Quantification of 3D Printed ABS Cantilever Beam under Thermomechanical Load
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2079; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122079 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 153
Abstract
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) offers good mechanical properties and is effective in use to make polymeric structures for industrial applications. It is one of the most common raw material used for printing structures with fused deposition modeling (FDM). However, most of its properties [...] Read more.
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) offers good mechanical properties and is effective in use to make polymeric structures for industrial applications. It is one of the most common raw material used for printing structures with fused deposition modeling (FDM). However, most of its properties and behavior are known under quasi-static loading conditions. These are suitable to design ABS structures for applications that are operated under static or dead loads. Still, comprehensive research is required to determine the properties and behavior of ABS structures under dynamic loads, especially in the presence of temperature more than the ambient. The presented research was an effort mainly to provide any evidence about the structural behavior and damage resistance of ABS material if operated under dynamic load conditions coupled with relatively high-temperature values. A non-prismatic fixed-free cantilever ABS beam was used in this study. The beam specimens were manufactured with a 3D printer based on FDM. A total of 190 specimens were tested with a combination of different temperatures, initial seeded damage or crack, and crack location values. The structural dynamic response, crack propagation, crack depth quantification, and their changes due to applied temperature were investigated by using analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. In experiments, a combination of the modal exciter and heat mats was used to apply the dynamic loads on the beam structure with different temperature values. The response measurement and crack propagation behavior were monitored with the instrumentation, including a 200× microscope, accelerometer, and a laser vibrometer. The obtained findings could be used as an in-situ damage assessment tool to predict crack depth in an ABS beam as a function of dynamic response and applied temperature. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
DFT Modeling of Organocatalytic Ring-Opening Polymerization of Cyclic Esters: A Crucial Role of Proton Exchange and Hydrogen Bonding
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2078; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122078 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 123
Abstract
Organocatalysis is highly efficient in the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic esters. A variety of initiators broaden the areas of organocatalysis in polymerization of different monomers, such as lactones, cyclic carbonates, lactides or gycolides, ethylene phosphates and phosphonates, and others. The mechanisms of [...] Read more.
Organocatalysis is highly efficient in the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic esters. A variety of initiators broaden the areas of organocatalysis in polymerization of different monomers, such as lactones, cyclic carbonates, lactides or gycolides, ethylene phosphates and phosphonates, and others. The mechanisms of organocatalytic ROP are at least as diverse as the mechanisms of coordination ROP; the study of these mechanisms is critical in ensuring the polymer compositions and architectures. The use of density functional theory (DFT) methods for comparative modeling and visualization of organocatalytic ROP pathways, in line with experimental proof of the structures of the reaction intermediates, make it possible to establish these mechanisms. In the present review, which continues and complements our recent manuscript that focused on DFT modeling of coordination ROP, we summarized the results of DFT modeling of organocatalytic ROP of cyclic esters and some related organocatalytic processes, such as polyester transesterification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Polymer Synthesis)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Preparation and pH Controlled Release of Fe3O4/Anthocyanin Magnetic Biocomposites
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2077; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122077 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 135
Abstract
Anthocyanins are a class of antioxidants extracted from plants, with a variety of biochemical and pharmacological properties. However, the wide and effective applications of anthocyanins have been limited by their relatively low stability and bioavailability. In order to expand the application of anthocyanins, [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins are a class of antioxidants extracted from plants, with a variety of biochemical and pharmacological properties. However, the wide and effective applications of anthocyanins have been limited by their relatively low stability and bioavailability. In order to expand the application of anthocyanins, Fe3O4/anthocyanin magnetic biocomposite was fabricated for the storage and release of anthocyanin in this work. The magnetic biocomposite of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle-loaded anthocyanin was prepared through physical intermolecular adsorption or covalent cross-linking. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and thermal analysis were used to characterize the biocomposite. In addition, the anthocyanin releasing experiments were performed. The optimized condition for the Fe3O4/anthocyanin magnetic biocomposite preparation was determined to be at 60 °C for 20 h in weak alkaline solution. The smooth surface of biocomposite from SEM suggested that anthocyanin was coated on the surface of the Fe3O4 particles successfully. The average size of the Fe3O4/anthocyanin magnetic biocomposite was about 222 nm. Under acidic conditions, the magnetic biocomposite solids could be repeatable released anthocyanin, with the same chemical structure as the anthocyanin before compounding. Therefore, anthocyanin can be effectively adsorbed and released by this magnetic biocomposite. Overall, this work shows that Fe3O4/anthocyanin magnetic biocomposite has great potential for future applications as a drug storage and delivery nanoplatform that is adaptable to medical, food and sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopolymer Modifications and Characterization)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of a TEMPO-Substituted Polyacrylamide Bearing a Sulfonate Sodium Pendant and Its Properties in an Organic Radical Battery
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2076; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122076 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 131
Abstract
A novel nitroxyl radical polymer poly(TEMPO-acrylamide-co-sodium styrene sulfonate) (abbreviated as poly(TAm-co-SSS)) was synthesized using 4-acrylamido-2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine (AATP) copolymerized with styrene sulfonate sodium (SSS). AATP was synthesized through a substitution reaction of acryloyl chloride. Meanwhile, poly(4-acrylamido-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-nitroxyl radical) (PTAm) was prepared [...] Read more.
A novel nitroxyl radical polymer poly(TEMPO-acrylamide-co-sodium styrene sulfonate) (abbreviated as poly(TAm-co-SSS)) was synthesized using 4-acrylamido-2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine (AATP) copolymerized with styrene sulfonate sodium (SSS). AATP was synthesized through a substitution reaction of acryloyl chloride. Meanwhile, poly(4-acrylamido-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-nitroxyl radical) (PTAm) was prepared as a control sample. Then, the structures of products were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), respectively. Additionally, the electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and the charge-discharge cycling properties were studied. The results demonstrated that the poly(TAm-co-SSS) with the side group of sodium sulfonate adjacent to TEMPO group exhibits a better charge-discharge cycling stability than that of the PTAm. Moreover, the charge specific capacity of the poly(TAm-co-SSS) is larger than that of the PTAm. Besides, the first coulombic efficiency of poly(TAm-co-SSS) is higher in comparison with that of PTAm. These superior electrochemical performances were ascribed to the synergistic effect of sulfonate ions group and nitroxyl radical structure, which benefits the improvement of charge carrier transportation of the nitroxyl radical polymers. Consequently, the nitroxyl radical poly(TAm-co-SSS) is promising for use in organic radical battery materials, based on the good electrochemical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Polymer Synthesis)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop