Special Issue "Advances in Manufacturing and Characterization of Functional Polyesters"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Rafael Antonio Balart Gimeno
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Technological Institute of Materials (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV)
Interests: aliphatic polyesters; blends; compatibilization; advanced characterization; functional additives; green composites; biobased materials; circular economy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Sergio Torres-Giner
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Novel Materials and Nanotechnology Group, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Paterna 46980, Spain
Interests: bio-based and biodegradable polymers; green composites; polymerization of biopolymers; processing of bioplastics; sustainable polymer technologies; nanofibers obtained by electrospinning; controlled release of active compounds in plastic formulations; biopolymers for food packaging applications; plastics towards a Circular Economy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Octavio Ángel Fenollar Gimeno
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Technological Institute of Materials (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV)
Interests: manufacturing; polymer analysis; thermal characterization; biopolyesters; biodegradation; film processing; nanoparticle functionalization
Prof. Dr. Nestor Montañés Muñoz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Technological Institute of Materials (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV)
Interests: FESEM & TEM characterization; polymer processing; polyester; compatibilizer; environmentally friendly additives; wood plastic composites; extrusion
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Teodomiro Boronat Vitoria
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Technological Institute of Materials (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV)
Interests: polymer manufacturing; rheology; injection moulding; mathematical modeling; Thermal characterizacion
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last years, we have assisted to a remarkable grow on the use of polyesters. Although some aromatic polyesters such as PET of PBT are well known, in the recent years, great interest on aliphatic polyesters has been detected. This group includes both petroleum-derived polyesters such as poly(e-caprolactone)-PCL, poly(butylene succinate)-PBS, poly(glycolic acid)-PGA among others, and polyesters from renewable resources such as poly(lactic acid)-PLA and the promising poly(hydroxyalkanoates)-PHAs. These polymers offer a positive environmental efficiency and can be functionalized by synthesis, copolymerization, additives (at micro and nano-scale), surface modification and so on to tailor the desired properties in terms of mechanical, chemical, thermal, barrier properties, biodegradation, biocompatibility. This can widen the potential use of these materials in industrial sectors such as packaging, textiles and apparel, automotive, construction and building and other specialized sectors such as medicine (medical devices, tissue engineering, resorbable components, controlled drug release), electrical and electronics, shape-memory devices, among others.

This special issue aims to compile original and cutting-edge research works in the field of synthesis, characterization, manufacturing and applications of functional polyesters.

Prof. Dr. Rafael Antonio Balart Gimeno
Prof. Dr. Sergio Torres-Giner
Prof. Dr. Octavio Ángel Fenollar Gimeno
Prof. Dr. Nestor Montañés Muñoz
Prof. Dr. Teodomiro Boronat Vitoria
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Polyesters
  • functional
  • blends
  • additives
  • compatibilizers
  • synthesis
  • biodegradation
  • copolymerization
  • manufacturing
  • characterization.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Mechanical Recycling of Partially Bio-Based and Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate Blends by Reactive Extrusion with Poly(styrene-co-glycidyl methacrylate)
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010174 - 09 Jan 2020
Abstract
In the present study, partially bio-based polyethylene terephthalate (bio-PET) was melt-mixed at 15–45 wt% with recycled polyethylene terephthalate (r-PET) obtained from remnants of the injection blowing process of contaminant-free food-use bottles. The resultant compounded materials were thereafter shaped into pieces by injection molding [...] Read more.
In the present study, partially bio-based polyethylene terephthalate (bio-PET) was melt-mixed at 15–45 wt% with recycled polyethylene terephthalate (r-PET) obtained from remnants of the injection blowing process of contaminant-free food-use bottles. The resultant compounded materials were thereafter shaped into pieces by injection molding for characterization. Poly(styrene-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (PS-co-GMA) was added at 1–5 parts per hundred resin (phr) of polyester blend during the extrusion process to counteract the ductility and toughness reduction that occurred in the bio-PET pieces after the incorporation of r-PET. This random copolymer effectively acted as a chain extender in the polyester blend, resulting in injection-molded pieces with slightly higher mechanical resistance properties and nearly the same ductility and toughness than those of neat bio-PET. In particular, for the polyester blend containing 45 wt% of r-PET, elongation at break (εb) increased from 10.8% to 378.8% after the addition of 5 phr of PS-co-GMA, while impact strength also improved from 1.84 kJ·m−2 to 2.52 kJ·m−2. The mechanical enhancement attained was related to the formation of branched and larger macromolecules by a mechanism of chain extension based on the reaction of the multiple glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) groups present in PS-co-GMA with the hydroxyl (–OH) and carboxyl (–COOH) terminal groups of both bio-PET and r-PET. Furthermore, all the polyester blend pieces showed thermal and dimensional stabilities similar to those of neat bio-PET, remaining stable up to more than 400 °C. Therefore, the use low contents of the tested multi-functional copolymer can successfully restore the properties of bio-based but non-biodegradable polyesters during melt reprocessing with their recycled petrochemical counterparts and an effective mechanical recycling is achieved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Controlling the Isothermal Crystallization of Isodimorphic PBS-ran-PCL Random Copolymers by Varying Composition and Supercooling
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010017 - 20 Dec 2019
Abstract
In this work, we study for the first time, the isothermal crystallization behavior of isodimorphic random poly(butylene succinate)-ran-poly(ε-caprolactone) copolyesters, PBS-ran-PCL, previously synthesized by us. We perform nucleation and spherulitic growth kinetics by polarized light optical microscopy (PLOM) and overall [...] Read more.
In this work, we study for the first time, the isothermal crystallization behavior of isodimorphic random poly(butylene succinate)-ran-poly(ε-caprolactone) copolyesters, PBS-ran-PCL, previously synthesized by us. We perform nucleation and spherulitic growth kinetics by polarized light optical microscopy (PLOM) and overall isothermal crystallization kinetics by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Selected samples were also studied by real-time wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXS). Under isothermal conditions, only the PBS-rich phase or the PCL-rich phase could crystallize as long as the composition was away from the pseudo-eutectic point. In comparison with the parent homopolymers, as comonomer content increased, both PBS-rich and PCL-rich phases nucleated much faster, but their spherulitic growth rates were much slower. Therefore, the overall crystallization kinetics was a strong function of composition and supercooling. The only copolymer with the eutectic composition exhibited a remarkable behavior. By tuning the crystallization temperature, this copolyester could form either a single crystalline phase or both phases, with remarkably different thermal properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Injection-Molded Polylactide Pieces with High Toughness by the Addition of Lactic Acid Oligomer and Characterization of Their Shape Memory Behavior
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 2099; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11122099 - 14 Dec 2019
Abstract
This work reports the effect of the addition of an oligomer of lactic acid (OLA), in the 5–20 wt% range, on the processing and properties of polylactide (PLA) pieces prepared by injection molding. The obtained results suggested that the here-tested OLA mainly performs [...] Read more.
This work reports the effect of the addition of an oligomer of lactic acid (OLA), in the 5–20 wt% range, on the processing and properties of polylactide (PLA) pieces prepared by injection molding. The obtained results suggested that the here-tested OLA mainly performs as an impact modifier for PLA, showing a percentage increase in the impact strength of approximately 171% for the injection-molded pieces containing 15 wt% OLA. A slight plasticization was observed by the decrease of the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PLA of up to 12.5 °C. The OLA addition also promoted a reduction of the cold crystallization temperature (Tcc) of more than 10 °C due to an increased motion of the biopolymer chains and the potential nucleating effect of the short oligomer chains. Moreover, the shape memory behavior of the PLA samples was characterized by flexural tests with different deformation angles, that is, 15°, 30°, 60°, and 90°. The obtained results confirmed the extraordinary effect of OLA on the shape memory recovery (Rr) of PLA, which increased linearly as the OLA loading increased. In particular, the OLA-containing PLA samples were able to successfully recover over 95% of their original shape for low deformation angles, while they still reached nearly 70% of recovery for the highest angles. Therefore, the present OLA can be successfully used as a novel additive to improve the toughness and shape memory behavior of compostable packaging articles based on PLA in the new frame of the Circular Economy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Functionalization of Partially Bio-Based Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) by Blending with Fully Bio-Based Poly(Amide) 10,10 and a Glycidyl Methacrylate-Based Compatibilizer
Polymers 2019, 11(8), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11081331 - 10 Aug 2019
Abstract
This work shows the potential of binary blends composed of partially bio-based poly(ethyelene terephthalate) (bioPET) and fully bio-based poly(amide) 10,10 (bioPA1010). These blends are manufactured by extrusion and subsequent injection moulding and characterized in terms of mechanical, thermal and thermomechanical properties. To overcome [...] Read more.
This work shows the potential of binary blends composed of partially bio-based poly(ethyelene terephthalate) (bioPET) and fully bio-based poly(amide) 10,10 (bioPA1010). These blends are manufactured by extrusion and subsequent injection moulding and characterized in terms of mechanical, thermal and thermomechanical properties. To overcome or minimize the immiscibility, a glycidyl methacrylate copolymer, namely poly(styrene-ran-glycidyl methacrylate) (PS-GMA; Xibond™ 920) was used. The addition of 30 wt % bioPA provides increased renewable content up to 50 wt %, but the most interesting aspect is that bioPA contributes to improved toughness and other ductile properties such as elongation at yield. The morphology study revealed a typical immiscible droplet-like structure and the effectiveness of the PS-GMA copolymer was assessed by field emission scanning electron microcopy (FESEM) with a clear decrease in the droplet size due to compatibilization. It is possible to conclude that bioPA1010 can positively contribute to reduce the intrinsic stiffness of bioPET and, in addition, it increases the renewable content of the developed materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Manufacturing and Characterization of Functionalized Aliphatic Polyester from Poly(lactic acid) with Halloysite Nanotubes
Polymers 2019, 11(8), 1314; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11081314 - 06 Aug 2019
Abstract
This work reports the potential of poly(lactic acid)—PLA composites with different halloysite nanotube (HNTs) loading (3, 6 and 9 wt%) for further uses in advanced applications as HNTs could be used as carriers for active compounds for medicine, packaging and other sectors. This [...] Read more.
This work reports the potential of poly(lactic acid)—PLA composites with different halloysite nanotube (HNTs) loading (3, 6 and 9 wt%) for further uses in advanced applications as HNTs could be used as carriers for active compounds for medicine, packaging and other sectors. This work focuses on the effect of HNTs on mechanical, thermal, thermomechanical and degradation of PLA composites with HNTs. These composites can be manufactured by conventional extrusion-compounding followed by injection molding. The obtained results indicate a slight decrease in tensile and flexural strength as well as in elongation at break, both properties related to material cohesion. On the contrary, the stiffness increases with the HNTs content. The tensile strength and modulus change from 64.6 MPa/2.1 GPa (neat PLA) to 57.7/2.3 GPa MPa for the composite with 9 wt% HNTs. The elongation at break decreases from 6.1% (neat PLA) down to a half for composites with 9 wt% HNTs. Regarding flexural properties, the flexural strength and modulus change from 116.1 MPa and 3.6 GPa respectively for neat PLA to values of 107.6 MPa and 3.9 GPa for the composite with 9 wt% HNTs. HNTs do not affect the glass transition temperature with invariable values of about 64 °C, or the melt peak temperature, while they move the cold crystallization process towards lower values, from 112.4 °C for neat PLA down to 105.4 °C for the composite containing 9 wt% HNTs. The water uptake has been assessed to study the influence of HNTs on the water saturation. HNTs contribute to increased hydrophilicity with a change in the asymptotic water uptake from 0.95% (neat PLA) up to 1.67% (PLA with 9 wt % HNTs) and the effect of HNTs on disintegration in controlled compost soil has been carried out to see the influence of HNTs on this process, which is a slight delay on it. These PLA-HNT composites show good balanced properties and could represent an interesting solution to develop active materials. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Functionalization of Partially Bio-Based Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) by Blending with Fully Bio-Based Poly(Amide) 10,10 and a Glycidyl Methacrylate-Based Compatibilizer
by Maria Jorda, Sergi Montava-Jorda, Rafael Balart, Diego Lascano, Nestor Montanes and Luis Quiles-Carrillo

Manufacturing and Characterization of Functionalized Aliphatic Polyester from Poly(lactic acid) with Halloysite Nanotubes
by Sergi Montava-Jorda, Victor Chacon, Diego Lascano, Lourdes Sanchez-Nacher and Nestor Montanes

Thermomechanical performance of all-Terephthalate recycled Poly(Ethylene) / Calcium nanoplatelets composites at low and high loadings"
by: F. Dominici, D. Puglia, F. Luzi, , L. Torre

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