Previous Issue
Volume 12, December

Table of Contents

Polymers, Volume 12, Issue 1 (January 2020) – 233 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) The isothermal nucleation, growth, and overall crystallization kinetics of biobased and [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Development of Expanded Takayanagi Model for Tensile Modulus of Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Nanocomposites Assuming Interphase Regions Surrounding the Dispersed and Networked Nanoparticles
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010233 (registering DOI) - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 106
Abstract
In this paper, we consider the interphase regions surrounding the dispersed and networked carbon nanotubes (CNT) to develop and simplify the expanded Takayanagi model for tensile modulus of polymer CNT nanocomposites (PCNT). The moduli and volume fractions of dispersed and networked CNT and [...] Read more.
In this paper, we consider the interphase regions surrounding the dispersed and networked carbon nanotubes (CNT) to develop and simplify the expanded Takayanagi model for tensile modulus of polymer CNT nanocomposites (PCNT). The moduli and volume fractions of dispersed and networked CNT and the surrounding interphase regions are considered. Since the modulus of interphase region around the dispersed CNT insignificantly changes the modulus of nanocomposites, this parameter is removed from the developed model. The developed model shows acceptable agreement with the experimental results of several samples. “ER” as nanocomposite modulus per the modulus of neat matrix changes from 1.4 to 7.7 at dissimilar levels of “f” (CNT fraction in the network) and network modulus. Moreover, the lowest relative modulus of 2.2 is observed at the smallest levels of interphase volume fraction ( ϕ i < 0.017), while the highest “ ϕ i ” as 0.07 obtains the highest relative modulus of 11.8. Also, the variation of CNT size (radius and length) significantly changes the relative modulus from 2 to 20. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Narrowband Spontaneous Emission Amplification from a Conjugated Oligomer Thin Film
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010232 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 90
Abstract
In this paper, we studied the laser and optical properties of conjugated oligomer (CO) 1,4-bis(9-ethyl-3-carbazo-vinylene)-9,9-dihexyl-fluorene (BECV-DHF) thin films, which were cast onto a quartz substrate using a spin coating technique. BECV-DHF was dissolved in chloroform at different concentrations to produce thin films with [...] Read more.
In this paper, we studied the laser and optical properties of conjugated oligomer (CO) 1,4-bis(9-ethyl-3-carbazo-vinylene)-9,9-dihexyl-fluorene (BECV-DHF) thin films, which were cast onto a quartz substrate using a spin coating technique. BECV-DHF was dissolved in chloroform at different concentrations to produce thin films with various thicknesses. The obtained results from the absorption spectrum revealed one sharp peak at 403 nm and two broads at 375 and 428 nm. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra were recorded for different thin films made from different concentrations of the oligomer solution. The threshold, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) properties of the CO BECV-DHF thin films were studied in detail. The ASE spectrum was achieved at approximately 482.5 nm at a suitable concentration and sufficient pump energy. The time-resolved spectroscopy of the BECV-DHF films was demonstrated at different pump energies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conjugated Oligomers and Polymer Nanomaterials)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Poly(d,l-Lactic acid) Composite Foams Containing Phosphate Glass Particles Produced via Solid-State Foaming Using CO2 for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010231 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 116
Abstract
This study reports on the production and characterization of highly porous (up to 91%) composite foams for potential bone tissue engineering (BTE) applications. A calcium phosphate-based glass particulate (PGP) filler of the formulation 50P2O5-40CaO-10TiO2 mol.%, was incorporated into [...] Read more.
This study reports on the production and characterization of highly porous (up to 91%) composite foams for potential bone tissue engineering (BTE) applications. A calcium phosphate-based glass particulate (PGP) filler of the formulation 50P2O5-40CaO-10TiO2 mol.%, was incorporated into biodegradable poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PDLLA) at 5, 10, 20, and 30 vol.%. The composites were fabricated by melt compounding (extrusion) and compression molding, and converted into porous structures through solid-state foaming (SSF) using high-pressure gaseous carbon dioxide. The morphological and mechanical properties of neat PDLLA and composites in both nonporous and porous states were examined. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that the PGPs were well dispersed throughout the matrices. The highly porous composite systems exhibited improved compressive strength and Young’s modulus (up to >2-fold) and well-interconnected macropores (up to ~78% open pores at 30 vol.% PGP) compared to those of the neat PDLLA foam. The pore size of the composite foams decreased with increasing PGPs content from an average of 920 µm for neat PDLLA foam to 190 µm for PDLLA-30PGP. Furthermore, the experimental data was in line with the Gibson and Ashby model, and effective microstructural changes were confirmed to occur upon 30 vol.% PGP incorporation. Interestingly, the SSF technique allowed for a high incorporation of bioactive particles (up to 30 vol.%—equivalent to ~46 wt.%) while maintaining the morphological and mechanical criteria required for BTE scaffolds. Based on the results, the SSF technique can offer more advantages and flexibility for designing composite foams with tunable characteristics compared to other methods used for the fabrication of BTE scaffolds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyester-Based Eco-Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Nanolayers of Poly(N,N′-Dimethylaminoethyl Methacrylate) with a Star Topology and Their Antibacterial Activity
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010230 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 108
Abstract
In this paper, we focus on the synthesis and characterization of novel stable nanolayers made of star methacrylate polymers. The effect of nanolayer modification on its antibacterial properties was also studied. A covalent immobilization of star poly(N,N′-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) [...] Read more.
In this paper, we focus on the synthesis and characterization of novel stable nanolayers made of star methacrylate polymers. The effect of nanolayer modification on its antibacterial properties was also studied. A covalent immobilization of star poly(N,N′-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) to benzophenone functionalized glass or silicon supports was carried out via a “grafting to” approach using UV irradiation. To date, star polymer UV immobilization has never been used for this purpose. The thickness of the resulting nanolayers increased from 30 to 120 nm with the molar mass of the immobilized stars. The successful bonding of star PDMAEMA to the supports was confirmed by surface sensitive quantitative spectroscopic methods. Next, amino groups in the polymer layer were quaternized with bromoethane, and the influence of this modification on the antibacterial properties of the obtained materials was analyzed using a selected reference strain of bacteria. The resulting star nanolayer surfaces exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 compared to that of the linear PDMAEMA analogues grafted onto a support. These promising results and the knowledge about the influence of the topology and modification of PDMAEMA layers on their properties may help in searching for new materials for antimicrobial applications in medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topology Effects on Polymer Properties)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
New Eco-Friendly Synthesized Thermosets from Isoeugenol-Based Epoxy Resins
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010229 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 148
Abstract
Epoxy resin plays a key role in composite matrices and DGEBA is the major precursor used. With the aim of favouring the use of bio resources, epoxy resins can be prepared from lignin. In particular, diglycidyl ether of isoeugenol derivatives are good candidates [...] Read more.
Epoxy resin plays a key role in composite matrices and DGEBA is the major precursor used. With the aim of favouring the use of bio resources, epoxy resins can be prepared from lignin. In particular, diglycidyl ether of isoeugenol derivatives are good candidates for the replacement of DGEBA. This article presents an effective and eco-friendly way to prepare epoxy resin derived from isoeugenol (BioIgenox), making its upscale possible. BioIgenox has been totally characterized by NMR, FTIR, MS and elemental analyses. Curing of BioIgenox and camphoric anhydride with varying epoxide function/anhydride molar ratios has allowed determining an optimum ratio near 1/0.9 based on DMA and DSC analyses and swelling behaviours. This thermoset exhibits a Tg measured by DMA of 165 °C, a tensile storage modulus at 40 °C of 2.2 GPa and mean 3-point bending stiffness, strength and strain at failure of 3.2 GPa, 120 MPa and 6.6%, respectively. Transposed to BioIgenox/hexahydrophtalic anhydride, this optimized formulation gives a thermoset with a Tg determined by DMA of 140 °C and a storage modulus at 40 °C of 2.6 GPa. The thermal and mechanical properties of these two thermosets are consistent with their use as matrices for structural or semi-structural composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermosets II)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Poly(ε-Caprolactone)/Poly(Lactic Acid) Blends Compatibilized by Peroxide Initiators: Comparison of Two Strategies
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010228 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 165
Abstract
Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) blends were compatibilized by reactive blending and by copolymers formed during reaction in the solution. The reactive blending of PCL/PLA was performed using di-(2-tert-butyl-peroxyisopropyl)benzene (BIB) or dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as radical initiator. PCL-g-PLA copolymers were [...] Read more.
Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) blends were compatibilized by reactive blending and by copolymers formed during reaction in the solution. The reactive blending of PCL/PLA was performed using di-(2-tert-butyl-peroxyisopropyl)benzene (BIB) or dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as radical initiator. PCL-g-PLA copolymers were prepared using 1.0 wt. % of DCP or BIB via reaction in solution, which was investigated through a Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in order to better understand the occurring mechanisms. The effect of different additions such as PCL-g-PLA copolymers, DCP, or BIB on the properties of PCL/PLA blends was studied. The unmodified PCL/PLA blends showed a sea-island morphology typical of incompatible blends, where PLA droplets were dispersed in the PCL matrix. Application of organic peroxides improved miscibility between PCL and PLA phases. A similar effect was observed for PCL/PLA blend compatibilized by PCL-g-PLA copolymer, where BIB was used as initiator. However, in case of application of the peroxides, the PCL/PLA blends were cross-linked, and it has been confirmed by the gel fraction and melt flow index measurements. The thermal and mechanical properties of the blends were also investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and tensile strength. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Duan, G.J., et al. The Poly(acrylonitrule-co-acrylic acid)-graft-β-cyclodextrin Hydrogel for Thorium(IV) Adsorption. Polymers 2017, 9, 201
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010227 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 167
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to their paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electroactive Polymers and Gels)
Open AccessArticle
A Deeper Microscopic Study of the Interaction between Gum Rosin Derivatives and a Mater-Bi Type Bioplastic
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010226 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 143
Abstract
The interaction between gum rosin and gum rosin derivatives with Mater-Bi type bioplastic, a biodegradable and compostable commercial bioplastic, were studied. Gum rosin and two pentaerythritol esters of gum rosin (Lurefor 125 resin and Unik Tack P100 resin) were assessed as sustainable compatibilizers [...] Read more.
The interaction between gum rosin and gum rosin derivatives with Mater-Bi type bioplastic, a biodegradable and compostable commercial bioplastic, were studied. Gum rosin and two pentaerythritol esters of gum rosin (Lurefor 125 resin and Unik Tack P100 resin) were assessed as sustainable compatibilizers for the components of Mater-Bi® NF 866 polymeric matrix. To study the influence of each additive in the polymeric matrix, each gum rosin-based additive was compounded in 15 wt % by melt-extrusion and further injection molding process. Then, the mechanical properties were assessed, and the tensile properties and impact resistance were determined. Microscopic analyses were carried out by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and atomic force microscopy with nanomechanical assessment (AFM-QNM). The oxygen barrier and wettability properties were also assayed. The study revealed that the commercial thermoplastic starch is mainly composed of three phases: A polybutylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) phase, an amorphous phase of thermoplastic starch (TPSa), and a semi-crystalline phase of thermoplastic starch (TPSc). The poor miscibility among the components of the Mater-Bi type bioplastic was confirmed. Finally, the formulations with the gum rosin and its derivatives showed an improvement of the miscibility and the solubility of the components depending on the additive used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Bio-Based Polymers: Towards a Circular Bioeconomy)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Plastics from Biomass: Blends of Polyesters Based on 2,5-Furandicarboxylic Acid
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010225 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 151
Abstract
Intending to expand the thermo-physical properties of bio-based polymers, furan-based thermoplastic polyesters were synthesized following the melt polycondensation method. The resulting polymers, namely, poly(ethylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PEF), poly(propylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PPF), poly(butylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PBF) and poly(1,4-cyclohexanedimethylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PCHDMF) are used in blends together with various [...] Read more.
Intending to expand the thermo-physical properties of bio-based polymers, furan-based thermoplastic polyesters were synthesized following the melt polycondensation method. The resulting polymers, namely, poly(ethylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PEF), poly(propylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PPF), poly(butylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PBF) and poly(1,4-cyclohexanedimethylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PCHDMF) are used in blends together with various polymers of industrial importance, including poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(ethylene 2,6-naphthalate) (PEN), poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) and polycarbonate (PC). The blends are studied concerning their miscibility, crystallization and solid-state characteristics by using wide-angle X-ray diffractometry (WAXD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized light microscopy (PLM). PEF blends show in general dual glass transitions in the DSC heating traces for the melt quenched samples. Only PPF–PEF blends show a single glass transition and a single melt phase in PLM. PPF forms immiscible blends except with PEF and PBF. PBF forms miscible blends with PCHDMF and PPF, whereas all other blends show dual glass transitions in DSC and phase separation in PLM. PCHDMF–PEF and PEN–PEF blends show two glass transition temperatures, but they shift to intermediate temperature values depending on the composition, indicating some partial miscibility of the polymer pairs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Correlation between Drop Impact Energy and Residual Compressive Strength According to the Lamination of CFRP with EVA Sheets
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010224 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 133
Abstract
Carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic is an important building material; however, its application is limited because of its brittleness, leading to vulnerability under shock. Thus, the strength performance of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics needs to be improved. Here, the drop impact test was conducted to analyze the impact [...] Read more.
Carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic is an important building material; however, its application is limited because of its brittleness, leading to vulnerability under shock. Thus, the strength performance of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics needs to be improved. Here, the drop impact test was conducted to analyze the impact energy and fracture characteristics of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics and ethylene vinyl acetate sheets. The compression after impact test was performed to assess the residual compressive strength. The thermal energy generated was measured as change in temperature at the time of fracture to investigate the relationship between thermal and mechanical properties. The impact absorption efficiency of 100% was achieved when the carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics specimen was laminated with four or more sheets of ethylene vinyl acetate. The thermal energy generated during impact, the impact load, and the compression after impact test strength was reduced with the increasing number of laminated ethylene vinyl acetate layers. Our results showed that, by carefully selecting the optimal conditions of fabricating the carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic/ethylene vinyl acetate composites, carbon composite materials can be used for impact mitigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiphase Structure of Polymeric Materials and Physical Properties)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Fluorinated Montmorillonite and 3YSZ as the Inorganic Fillers in Fluoride-Releasing and Rechargeable Dental Composition Resin
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010223 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 144
Abstract
Dental caries (tooth decay) is the most frequent oral disease in humans. Filling cavities with a dental restorative material is the most common treatment, and glass ionomer cements are the main fluoride ion release restorative materials. The goal of this study was to [...] Read more.
Dental caries (tooth decay) is the most frequent oral disease in humans. Filling cavities with a dental restorative material is the most common treatment, and glass ionomer cements are the main fluoride ion release restorative materials. The goal of this study was to develop a restorative compound with superior fluoride ion release and recharge abilities. Previously developed fluorinated bentolite and hydrophobized 3YSZ were used as two different inorganic fillers mixed in a bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) matrix. XRD, FTIR, and TGA were used to determine the hydrophobic modification of these two inorganic fillers. In mechanical tests, including diameter tensile strength, flexural strength, and wear resistance, the developed composite resin was significantly superior to the commercial control. A WST-1 assay was used to confirm that the material displayed good biocompatibility. Furthermore, the simulation of the oral environment confirmed that the composite resin had good fluoride ion release and reloading abilities. Thus, the composite resin developed in this study may reduce secondary caries and provide a new choice for future clinical treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Dental Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Poly-(3-ethyl-3-hydroxymethyl)oxetanes—Synthesis and Adhesive Interactions with Polar Substrates
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010222 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 118
Abstract
Hyperbranched polyoxetanes are a relatively new class of polymers. These are branched polyethers that are synthesized from oxetanes—four-member cyclic ethers bearing hydroxymethyl groups—via ring-opening polymerization. Four series of polyoxetanes were synthesized from 3-ethyl-3-(hydroxymethyl)oxetane and 1,1,1-tris(hydroxymethyl)propane as a core molecule. Reagents ratios ranged from [...] Read more.
Hyperbranched polyoxetanes are a relatively new class of polymers. These are branched polyethers that are synthesized from oxetanes—four-member cyclic ethers bearing hydroxymethyl groups—via ring-opening polymerization. Four series of polyoxetanes were synthesized from 3-ethyl-3-(hydroxymethyl)oxetane and 1,1,1-tris(hydroxymethyl)propane as a core molecule. Reagents ratios ranged from 1:5 to 1:50, theoretical molar mass ranged from 714 g/mol to 5942 g/mol, and dispersities ranged from 1.77 to 3.75. The morphology of the macromolecules was investigated by a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight technique. The polyoxetanes’ adhesive interactions with polar materials were analyzed and provided results as follows: the work of adhesion was 101–105 mJ/m2, the bond-line tensile shear strengths were 0.39–1.32 MPa, and there was a brittle fracture mode within the polymer. The findings confirmed a good adhesion to polar substrates, but further research on polyoxetane modifications toward a reduction of brittleness is necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Polymer Synthesis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Thermal Analysis and Crystal Structure of Poly(Acrylonitrile-Co-Itaconic Acid) Copolymers Synthesized in Water
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010221 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 131
Abstract
The composition and structure of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursors play an important role during thermal stabilization, which influences the properties of the resulting carbon fibers. In this paper, PAN homopolymer and PAN-itaconic (IA) copolymers with different IA contents were synthesized by aqueous phase precipitation [...] Read more.
The composition and structure of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursors play an important role during thermal stabilization, which influences the properties of the resulting carbon fibers. In this paper, PAN homopolymer and PAN-itaconic (IA) copolymers with different IA contents were synthesized by aqueous phase precipitation polymerization. The effects of IA content on the structure and thermal properties were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The morphology of PAN polymers showed that the average size of the PAN particles increased with the increase of IA content in the feed. The content of the IA comonomer on the copolymers was quantitatively characterized by the relative absorbance intensity (A1735/A2243) in FTIR spectrum. With the increase of IA content in the feed, PAN-IA copolymers exhibited lower degree of crystallinity and crystal size than the control PAN homopolymer. The results from DSC curves indicated that PAN-IA1.0 copolymers had lower initial exothermic temperature (192.4 °C) and velocity of evolving heat (6.33 J g−1 °C−1) in comparison with PAN homopolymer (Ti = 238.1 °C and ΔHT = 34.6 J g−1 °C−1) in an air atmosphere. TGA results suggested that PAN-IA1.0 copolymers had higher thermal stability than PAN homopolymer, which can form a ladder structure easier during thermal processing. Therefore, PAN-IA1.0 copolymers would be a suitable candidate for preparing high performance PAN based carbon fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Properties and Applications of Polymers II)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessEditorial
Polymer Processing and Performance: 2018–2019
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010220 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 163
Abstract
The section “Polymer Processing and Performance” of Polymers has published, in the last two years, 175 high quality papers investigating the processing and properties of several polymer based systems [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Polymer Processing and Performance)
Open AccessArticle
Crystallization and Microstructure Evolution of Microinjection Molded Isotactic Polypropylene with the Assistance of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate)
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010219 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 182
Abstract
In this work, a series of isotactic polypropylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (iPP/PET) samples were prepared by microinjection molding (μIM) and mini-injection molding (IM). The properties of the samples were investigated in detail by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Wide-Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD), Polarized light microscope (PLM) [...] Read more.
In this work, a series of isotactic polypropylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (iPP/PET) samples were prepared by microinjection molding (μIM) and mini-injection molding (IM). The properties of the samples were investigated in detail by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Wide-Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD), Polarized light microscope (PLM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the difference in thermomechanical history between both processing methods leads to the formation of different microstructures in corresponding iPP/PET moldings. For example, the dispersed spherical PET phase deforms and emerges into continuous in-situ microfibrils due to the intensive shearing flow field and temperature field in μIM. Additionally, the incorporation of PET facilitates both the laminar branching and the reservation of oriented molecular chains, thereby leading to forming a typical hybrid structure (i.e., fan-shaped β-crystals and transcrystalline). Furthermore, more compact and higher degrees of oriented structure can be obtained via increasing the content of PET. Such hybrid structure leads to a remarkable enhancement of mechanical property in terms of μIM samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Polymer Processing and Performance)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Ageing in Water Solution Containing Iron Sulfate on the Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Adhesives
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010218 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 188
Abstract
This study investigates the effect of operating factors such as seasoning in water solution containing iron (II) sulfate—FeSO4 (5 different water solution variants were tested) on the mechanical properties of an adhesive compound made of epoxy resin and amine curing agent, in [...] Read more.
This study investigates the effect of operating factors such as seasoning in water solution containing iron (II) sulfate—FeSO4 (5 different water solution variants were tested) on the mechanical properties of an adhesive compound made of epoxy resin and amine curing agent, in a ratio of 100 g resin to 12 g curing agent. Strength tests of cured adhesive compound samples were performed on the Zwick/Roell Z150 testing machine in compliance with the EN ISO 604 standard. During the tests, compression modulus, compressive strength and compressive strain were measured. Obtained results served as a basis for analyzing the effect of a water environment containing iron sulfate on a given adhesive compound. It has been found that too high iron sulfate content in water has a negative effect on the mechanical properties of adhesive compound samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epoxy Composites: Processes and Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Preparation and Characterization of Semi-Alicyclic Polyimide Resins and the Derived Alignment Layers for Liquid Crystal Display Technology
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010217 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 184
Abstract
Uniform alignment of rigid-rod liquid crystal (LC) molecules under applied voltage is critical for achievement of high-quality display for thin-film transistor-driven liquid crystal display devices (TFT-LCDs). The polymeric components that can induce the alignment of randomly aligned LC molecules are called alignment layers [...] Read more.
Uniform alignment of rigid-rod liquid crystal (LC) molecules under applied voltage is critical for achievement of high-quality display for thin-film transistor-driven liquid crystal display devices (TFT-LCDs). The polymeric components that can induce the alignment of randomly aligned LC molecules are called alignment layers (ALs). In the current work, a series of organo-soluble polyimide (SPI) ALs were designed and prepared from an alicyclic dianhydride, hydrogenated 3,3′,4,4′-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (HBPDA), and various aromatic diamines, including 4,4′-methylenedianiline (MDA) for SPI-1, 4,4′-aminodianiline (NDA) for SPI-2, 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethyl-4,4′-diaminodiphenylmethane (TMMDA) for SPI-3, and 3,3′-diethyl-5,5′-dimethyl-4,4′-diaminodiphenylmethane (DMDEDA) for SPI-4. The derived SPI resins were all soluble in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Four SPI alignment agents with the solid content of 6 wt.% were prepared by dissolving the SPI resins in the mixed solvent of NMP and butyl cellulose (BC) (NMP/BC = 80:20, weight ratio). Liquid crystal minicells were successfully fabricated using the developed SPI varnishes as the LC molecule alignment components. The SPI ALs showed good alignment ability for the LC molecules with the pretilt angles in the range of 1.58°–1.97°. The LC minicells exhibited good optoelectronic characteristics with voltage holding ratio (VHR) values higher than 96%. The good alignment ability of the SPI ALs is mainly attributed to the good comprehensive properties of the SPI layers, including high volume resistivity, high degree of imidization at the processing temperature (230 °C), good rubbing resistance, good thermal stability with glass transition temperatures (Tgs) higher than 260 °C, and excellent optical transparency with the transmittance higher than 97% at the wavelength of 550 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer-Based Materials in Liquid Crystals)
Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Synthesis Mechanism, Optimal Hot-Pressing Conditions, and Curing Behavior of Sucrose and Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate Adhesive
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010216 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 184
Abstract
In this study, a further investigation was carried out on the synthesis mechanism, optimal manufacturing conditions, and curing behavior of a sucrose-ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (SADP) adhesive. The results of 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy confirmed that SADP was composed of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural [...] Read more.
In this study, a further investigation was carried out on the synthesis mechanism, optimal manufacturing conditions, and curing behavior of a sucrose-ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (SADP) adhesive. The results of 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy confirmed that SADP was composed of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), deoxyfructosazine (DOF), amino compounds, Schiff base, monosaccharides, and oligosaccharide. The optimal hot-pressing conditions were a hot-pressing temperature of 170 °C, a hot-pressing time of 7 min, and a spread rate of 120 g/m2. The wet shear strength of plywood bonded at optimal manufacturing conditions met the requirements of China National Standard (GB/T 9846-2015). Thermal analysis and insoluble mass proportion measurements showed that the main curing behavior of the SADP adhesive occurred at curing temperatures higher than 145 °C, and more than 50% insoluble mass was formed when the heating time was longer than 5 min. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) indicated that cross-linking of the cured adhesive was promoted by prolonging the heating time. In addition, pyrolysis gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) confirmed that the cured SADP adhesive was composed of furan and nitrogen-containing compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Polymer Synthesis)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
A Method to Improve the Characteristics of EPDM Rubber Based Eco-Composites with Electron Beam
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010215 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 189
Abstract
A natural fiber reinforced composite, belonging to the class of eco composites, based on ethylene-propylene-terpolymer rubber (EPDM) and wood wastes were obtained by electron beam irradiation at 75, 150, 300, and 600 kGy in atmospheric conditions and at room temperature using a linear [...] Read more.
A natural fiber reinforced composite, belonging to the class of eco composites, based on ethylene-propylene-terpolymer rubber (EPDM) and wood wastes were obtained by electron beam irradiation at 75, 150, 300, and 600 kGy in atmospheric conditions and at room temperature using a linear accelerator of 5.5 MeV. The sawdust (S), in amounts of 5 and 15 phr, respectively, was used to act as a natural filler for the improvement of physical and chemical characteristics. The cross-linking effects were evaluated through sol-gel analysis, mechanical tests, and Fourier Transform Infrared FTIR spectroscopy comparatively with the classic method with dibenzoyl peroxide (P) applied on the same types of samples at high temperature. Gel fraction exhibits values over 98% but, in the case of P cross-linking, is necessary to add more sawdust (15 phr) to obtain the same results as in the case of electron beam (EB) cross-linking (5 phr/300 kGy). Even if the EB cross-linking and sawdust addition have a reinforcement effect on EPDM rubber, the medium irradiation dose of 300 kGy looks to be a limit to which or from which the properties of the composite are improved or deteriorated. The absorption behavior of the eco-composites was studied through water uptake tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wood Composites II)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Properties of Bioresorbable Block Copolymers of l-Lactide, Glycolide, Butyl Succinate and Butyl Citrate
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010214 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 173
Abstract
The paper presents the course of synthesis and properties of a series of block copolymers intended for biomedical applications, mainly as a material for forming scaffolds for tissue engineering. These materials were obtained in the polymerization of l-lactide and copolymerization of l-lactide with [...] Read more.
The paper presents the course of synthesis and properties of a series of block copolymers intended for biomedical applications, mainly as a material for forming scaffolds for tissue engineering. These materials were obtained in the polymerization of l-lactide and copolymerization of l-lactide with glycolide carried out using a number of macroinitiators previously obtained in the reaction of polytransesterification of succinic diester, citric triester and 1,4-butanediol. NMR, FTIR and DSC were used to characterize the materials obtained; wettability and surface free energy were assessed too. Moreover, biological tests, i.e., viability and metabolic activity of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells in contact with synthesized polymers were performed. Properties of obtained block copolymers were controlled by the composition of the polymerization mixture and by the composition of the macroinitiator. The copolymers contained active side hydroxyl groups derived from citrate units present in the polymer chain. During the polymerization of L-lactide in the presence of polyesters with butylene citrate units in the chain, obtained products of the reaction held a fraction of highly branched copolymers with ultrahigh molecular weight. The reason for this observed phenomenon was strong intermolecular transesterification directed to lactidyl side chains, formed as a result of chain growth on hydroxyl groups related to the quaternary carbons of the citrate units. Based on the physicochemical properties and results of biological tests it was found that the most promising materials for scaffolds formation were poly(l-lactide–co–glycolide)–block–poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene citrate)s, especially those copolymers containing more than 60 mol % of lactidyl units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Block Copolymers Synthesis by Advanced Polymerization Techniques)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Rapid Photoinduced Single Cell Detachment from Gold Nanoparticle-Embedded Collagen Gels with Low Denaturation Temperature
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010213 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 165
Abstract
Cell Separation is important in various biomedical fields. We have prepared gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-embedded collagen gels as a visible-light-responsive cell scaffold in which photoinduced single cell detachment occurs through local thermal denaturation of the collagen gel via the photothermal effect of AuNP. Physicochemical [...] Read more.
Cell Separation is important in various biomedical fields. We have prepared gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-embedded collagen gels as a visible-light-responsive cell scaffold in which photoinduced single cell detachment occurs through local thermal denaturation of the collagen gel via the photothermal effect of AuNP. Physicochemical properties of collagen materials depend on the origin of the collagen and the presence of telopeptides. In this study, we prepared various AuNP-embedded collagen gels by using different collagen materials with and without the telopeptides to compare their thermal denaturation properties and photoinduced single cell detachment behaviors. Cellmatrix type I-C without telopeptides exhibited a lower denaturation temperature than Cellmatrix type I-A and Atelocell IAC, as examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, rheological analysis, and sol–gel transition observation. Three-dimensional (3D) laser microscopic imaging revealed that collagen fibers shrank in Cellmatrix type I-A upon heating, but collagen fibers disappeared in Cellmatrix type I-C upon heating. Cells cultured on the Cellmatrix type I-C-based AuNP-embedded collagen gel detached with shorter photoirradiation than on the Cellmatrix type I-A-based AuNP-embedded collagen gel, suggesting that collagen gels without telopeptides are suitable for a photoinduced single cell detachment system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers in Biomedical Engineering)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Core-Shell Graphitic Carbon Nitride/Zinc Phytate as a Novel Efficient Flame Retardant for Fire Safety and Smoke Suppression in Epoxy Resin
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010212 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 147
Abstract
Novel core-shell graphitic carbon nitride/zinc phytate (g-C3N4/PAZn) flame retardant was simple synthetized using two-dimensional g-C3N4 and bio-based PAZn by self-assembly and incorporated into epoxy resin (EP) for improving the fire safety. The flame retardance and smoke [...] Read more.
Novel core-shell graphitic carbon nitride/zinc phytate (g-C3N4/PAZn) flame retardant was simple synthetized using two-dimensional g-C3N4 and bio-based PAZn by self-assembly and incorporated into epoxy resin (EP) for improving the fire safety. The flame retardance and smoke suppression were investigated by cone calorimetry. The results indicated that g-C3N4/PAZn-EP displayed outstanding flame retardancy and smoke suppression, for example, the peak heat release rate and peak smoke production rate decreased by 71.38% and 25%, respectively. Furthermore, the flame retardancy mechanism was further explored by char residue and thermal stability analysis. It can be predicted that g-C3N4/PAZn will provide valuable reference about bio-based flame retardant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epoxy Resins and Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
PA6 and Halloysite Nanotubes Composites with Improved Hydrothermal Ageing Resistance: Role of Filler Physicochemical Properties, Functionalization and Dispersion Technique
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010211 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 147
Abstract
Polyamide 6 (PA6) suffers from fast degradation in humid conditions due to hydrolysis of amide bonds, which limits its durability. The addition of nanotubular fillers represents a viable strategy for overcoming this issue, although the additive/polymer interface at high filler content can become [...] Read more.
Polyamide 6 (PA6) suffers from fast degradation in humid conditions due to hydrolysis of amide bonds, which limits its durability. The addition of nanotubular fillers represents a viable strategy for overcoming this issue, although the additive/polymer interface at high filler content can become privileged site for moisture accumulation. As a cost-effective and versatile material, halloysite nanotubes (HNT) were investigated to prepare PA6 nanocomposites with very low loadings (1–45% w/w). The roles of the physicochemical properties of two differently sourced HNT, of filler functionalization with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane and of dispersion techniques (in situ polymerization vs. melt blending) were investigated. The aspect ratio (5 vs. 15) and surface charge (−31 vs. −59 mV) of the two HNT proved crucial in determining their distribution within the polymer matrix. In situ polymerization of functionalized HNT leads to enclosed and well-penetrated filler within the polymer matrix. PA6 nanocomposites crystal growth and nucleation type were studied according to Avrami theory, as well as the formation of different crystalline structures (α and γ forms). After 1680 h of ageing, functionalized HNT reduced the diffusion of water into polymer, lowering water uptake after 600 h up to 90%, increasing the materials durability also regarding molecular weights and rheological behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Processing and Surfaces)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of PAN Electrospun Nanofibers Modified by Tannin for Effective Removal of Trace Cr(III) in Organic Complex from Wastewater
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010210 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 144
Abstract
Removal of chromium ions is significant due to their toxicity and harmfulness, however it is very difficult to remove trace Cr(III) complexed with organics because of their strong stability. Herein, a novel electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers (NF) adsorbent was fabricated and modified by [...] Read more.
Removal of chromium ions is significant due to their toxicity and harmfulness, however it is very difficult to remove trace Cr(III) complexed with organics because of their strong stability. Herein, a novel electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers (NF) adsorbent was fabricated and modified by tannic acid (TA) by a facile blend electrospinning approach for removal of trace Cr(III) in an organic complex. Utilizing the large specific area of nanofibers in the membrane and the good affinity of tannic acid on the nanofibers for hydrolyzed collagen by hydrophobic and hydrogen bonds, the as-prepared PAN–TA NFM exhibited good adsorption toward Cr(III)-collagen complexes and effective reduction of total organic carbon in tannage wastewater. The maximal adsorption capacity of Cr(III) is 79.48 mg g−1 which was obtained at the pH of 7.0 and initial Cr(III) concentration of 50 mg g−1. Importantly, the batch adsorption could decrease the Cr(III) concentration from 10–20 mg L−1 to under 1.5 mg L−1, which showed great application potential for the disposal of trace metal ions in organic complexes from wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polymer Nanofibers)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Silanization Temperature and Time on the Marching Modulus of Silica-Filled Tire Tread Compounds
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010209 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 145
Abstract
Marching modulus phenomena are often observed in silica-reinforced solution styrene–butadiene rubber/butadiene rubber (S-SBR/BR) tire tread compounds. When such a situation happens, it is difficult to determine the optimum curing time, and as a consequence the physical properties of the rubber vulcanizates may vary. [...] Read more.
Marching modulus phenomena are often observed in silica-reinforced solution styrene–butadiene rubber/butadiene rubber (S-SBR/BR) tire tread compounds. When such a situation happens, it is difficult to determine the optimum curing time, and as a consequence the physical properties of the rubber vulcanizates may vary. Previous studies have demonstrated that the curing behavior of silica compounds is related to the degree of silanization. For the present work, the effect of silanization temperature and time on the marching modulus of silica-filled rubber was evaluated. The correlations between these mixing parameters and their effect on the factors that have a strong relation with marching modulus intensity (MMI) were investigated: the amount of bound rubber, the filler flocculation rate (FFR), and the filler–polymer coupling rate (CR). The MMI was monitored by measuring the vulcanization rheograms using a rubber process analyzer (RPA) at small (approximately 7%) and large (approximately 42%) strain in order to discriminate the effects of filler–filler and filler–polymer interactions on the marching modulus of silica-filled rubber compounds. The results were interpreted via the correlation between these factors and their effect on the MMI. A higher temperature and a longer silanization time led to a better degree of silanization, in order of decreasing influence. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Damage Evolution and Fracture Events Sequence Analysis of Core-Shell Nanoparticle Modified Bone Cements by Acoustic Emission Technique
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010208 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 204
Abstract
In this research, damage in bone cements that were prepared with core-shell nanoparticles was monitored during four-point bending tests through an analysis of acoustic emission (AE) signals. The core-shell structure consisted of poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA) as rubbery core and methyl methacrylate/styrene copolymer (P(MMA- [...] Read more.
In this research, damage in bone cements that were prepared with core-shell nanoparticles was monitored during four-point bending tests through an analysis of acoustic emission (AE) signals. The core-shell structure consisted of poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA) as rubbery core and methyl methacrylate/styrene copolymer (P(MMA-co-St)) as a glassy shell. Furthermore, different core-shell ratios 20/80, 30/70, 40/60, and 50/50 were prepared and incorporated into the solid phase of the bone cement formulation at 5, 10, and 15 wt %, respectively. The incorporation of a rubbery phase into the bone cement formulation decreased the bending strength and bending modulus. The AE technique revealed that the nanoparticles play an important role on the fracture mechanism of the bone cement, since a higher amount of AE signals (higher amplitude and energy) were obtained from bone cements that were prepared with the nanoparticles in comparison with those without nanoparticles (the reference bone cement). The SEM examination of the fracture surfaces revealed that all of the bone cement formulations exhibited stress whitening, which arises from the development of crazes before the crack propagation. Finally, the use of the AE technique and the fracture surface analysis by SEM enabled insight into the fracture mechanisms that are presented during four-point bending test of the bone cement containing nanoparticles. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Chemical Modification and Processing of Chitin for Sustainable Production of Biobased Electrolytes
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010207 - 14 Jan 2020
Viewed by 192
Abstract
In the present work we report on the development of a novel and sustainable electrolyte based on chitin. Chitin biopolymer was carboxymethylated in simple, mild, and green conditions in order to fine-tune the final properties of the electrolyte. To this end, chitin was [...] Read more.
In the present work we report on the development of a novel and sustainable electrolyte based on chitin. Chitin biopolymer was carboxymethylated in simple, mild, and green conditions in order to fine-tune the final properties of the electrolyte. To this end, chitin was modified for various reaction times, while the molar ratio of the reagents, e.g., sodium hydroxide and monochloroacetic acid, was maintained fixed. The resulting chitin derivatives were characterized using various techniques. Under optimized conditions, modified chitin derivatives exhibiting a distinct degree of carboxymethylation and acetylation were obtained. Structural features, morphology, and properties are discussed in relation to the chemical structure of the chitin derivatives. For electrolyte applications, the ionic conductivity increased by three magnitudes from 10−9 S·cm−1 for unmodified chitin to 10−6 S·cm−1 for modified chitin with the highest degree of acetylation. Interestingly, the chitin derivatives formed free-standing films with and without the addition of up to 60% of ionic liquid, the ionic conductivity of the obtained solid electrolyte system reaching the value of 10−3 S·cm−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Properties and Applications II)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
(1S,2S)-Cyclohexane-1,2-diamine-based Organosilane Fibres as a Powerful Tool Against Pathogenic Bacteria
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010206 - 14 Jan 2020
Viewed by 169
Abstract
An urgent need to find an effective solution to bacterial resistance is pushing worldwide research for highly effective means against this threat. Newly prepared hybrid organosilane fibres consisting of a (1S,2S)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine derivative, interconnected in the fibre network via covalent [...] Read more.
An urgent need to find an effective solution to bacterial resistance is pushing worldwide research for highly effective means against this threat. Newly prepared hybrid organosilane fibres consisting of a (1S,2S)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine derivative, interconnected in the fibre network via covalent bonds, were fully characterised via different techniques, including FTIR, TGA-FTIR, SEM-EDS, and solid-state NMR. Fibrous samples were successfully tested against two types of pathogenic bacterial strains, namely Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The obtained results, showing >99.9% inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in direct contact compared to the control, may help particularly in case of infections, where there is an urgent need to treat the infection in direct contact. From this point of view, the above-mentioned fibrous material may find application in wound healing. Moreover, this new material has a positive impact on fibroblasts viability. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Influence of PVAc/PVA Hydrolysis on Additive Surface Activity
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010205 - 14 Jan 2020
Viewed by 182
Abstract
This aims to establish design rules for the influence of complex polymer matrices on the surface properties of small molecules. Here, we consider the dependence of the surface behaviour of some model additives on polymer matrix hydrophobicity. With stoichiometric control over hydrolysis, we [...] Read more.
This aims to establish design rules for the influence of complex polymer matrices on the surface properties of small molecules. Here, we consider the dependence of the surface behaviour of some model additives on polymer matrix hydrophobicity. With stoichiometric control over hydrolysis, we generate systematic changes in matrix chemistry from non-polar, hydrophobic PVAc to its hydrolysed and hydrophilic analogue, PVA. With the changing degree of hydrolysis (DH), the behaviour of additives can be switched in terms of compatibility and surface activity. Sorbitol, a polar sugar-alcohol of inherently high surface energy, blooms to the surface of PVAc, forming patchy domains on surfaces. With the increasing DH of the polymer matrix, its surface segregation decreases to the point where sorbitol acts as a homogeneously distributed plasticiser in PVA. Conversely, and despite its low surface energy, octanoic acid (OA) surprisingly causes the increased wettability of PVAc. We attribute these observations to the high compatibility of OA with PVAc and its ability to reorient upon exposure to water, presenting a hydrophilic COOH-rich surface. The surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) does not show such a clear dependence on the matrix and formed wetting layers over a wide range of DH. Interestingly, SDS appears to be most compatible with PVAc at intermediate DH, which is consistent with the amphiphilic nature of both species under these conditions. Thus, we show that the prediction of the segregation is not simple and depends on multiple factors including hydrophobicity, compatibility, blockiness, surface energy, and the mobility of the components. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Nanoparticles Functionalized by Conducting Polymers and Their Electrorheological and Magnetorheological Applications
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010204 - 13 Jan 2020
Viewed by 274
Abstract
Conducting polymer-coated nanoparticles used in electrorheological (ER) and magnetorheological (MR) fluids are reviewed along with their fabrication methods, morphologies, thermal properties, sedimentation stabilities, dielectric properties, and ER and MR characteristics under applied electric or magnetic fields. After functionalization of the conducting polymers, the [...] Read more.
Conducting polymer-coated nanoparticles used in electrorheological (ER) and magnetorheological (MR) fluids are reviewed along with their fabrication methods, morphologies, thermal properties, sedimentation stabilities, dielectric properties, and ER and MR characteristics under applied electric or magnetic fields. After functionalization of the conducting polymers, the nanoparticles exhibited properties suitable for use as ER materials, and materials in which magnetic particles are used as a core could also be applied as MR materials. The conducting polymers covered in this study included polyaniline and its derivatives, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), poly(3-octylthiophene), polypyrrole, and poly(diphenylamine). The modified nanoparticles included polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate), silica, titanium dioxide, maghemite, magnetite, and nanoclay. This article reviews many core-shell structured conducting polymer-coated nanoparticles used in ER and MR fluids and is expected to contribute to the understanding and development of ER and MR materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle Functionalization by Polymers: Methods and Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop