In this work, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) molecules were grafted to silk fibroin (SF) molecules via a thiol–ene click reaction under 405 nm UV illumination for the fabrication of a PEGDA/SF composite hydrogel. The composite hydrogels could be prepared in a short and controllable gelation time without the use of a photoinitiator. Features relevant to the drug delivery of the PEGDA/SF hydrogels were assessed, and the hydrogels were characterized by various techniques. The results showed that the prepared PEGDA/SF hydrogels demonstrated a good sustained-release performance with limited swelling behavior. It was found that a prior cooling step can improve the compressive strength of the hydrogels effectively. Additionally, the MTT assay indicated the prepared PEGDA/SF hydrogel is non-cytotoxic. Subcutaneous implantation of the PEGDA/SF hydrogel in Kunming mice did not induce an obvious inflammation, which revealed that the prepared PEGDA/SF hydrogel possessed good biocompatibility. Furthermore, the mechanism of the gelation process was discussed.
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