Interfacial friction heating is one of the leading heat generation mechanisms during the initial stage of ultrasonic plasticization of polymer pellets, which has a significant influence on the subsequent viscoelastic heating according to our previous study. The interfacial friction angle and contact area of polymer pellets are critical boundary conditions for the analysis of interfacial frictional heating of polymer pellets. However, the duration of the interfacial friction heating is extremely short in ultrasonic plasticization, and the polymer pellets are randomly distributed in the cylindrical barrel, resulting in the characterization of the distribution of the interfacial friction angle and contact area to be a challenge. In this work, the interfacial friction angle of the polymer pellets in the partially plasticized samples of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polypropylene (PP), and nylon66 (PA66) were characterized by a super-high magnification lens zoom 3D microscope. The influence of trigger pressure, plasticizing pressure, ultrasonic amplitude, and vibration time on the interfacial friction angle and the contact area of the polymer pellets were studied by a single factor experiment. The results show that the compaction degree of the plasticized samples could be enhanced by increasing the level of the process parameters. With the increasing parameter level, the proportion of interfacial friction angle in the range of 0–10° and 80–90° increased, while the proportion in the range of 30–60° decreased accordingly. The proportion of the contact area of the polymer pellets was increased up to 50% of the interfacial friction area which includes the upper, lower, and side area of the cylindrical plasticized sample.
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