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Cancers, Volume 14, Issue 13 (July-1 2022) – 258 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The prevalence of breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) has increased over the last few decades, yet these patients are considered incurable. Surgical removal of BCBM is impaired by the presence of infiltrative tumor cells; however, the identity and behavior of these infiltrative tumor cells remain understudied. Margarido et al. used intravital microscopy through a cranial imaging window to identify mesenchymal tumor cells that escape from the tumor mass and infiltrate the brain parenchyma. Impeding the infiltration of mesenchymal tumor cells improved the efficacy of surgery in mice. Moreover, mesenchymal tumor cells in BCBM displayed plasticity and underwent mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition when forming new tumors in mice. Together, this study warrants further consideration to target mesenchymal cells in BCBM patients. View this paper
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Review
The Desmoplastic Stroma of Pancreatic Cancer: Multilayered Levels of Heterogeneity, Clinical Significance, and Therapeutic Opportunities
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3293; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133293 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3774
Abstract
Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most lethal malignancies and is becoming a dramatically increasing cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Abundant desmoplastic stroma is a histological hallmark of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Emerging evidence suggests a promising therapeutic effect of several stroma-modifying therapies that [...] Read more.
Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most lethal malignancies and is becoming a dramatically increasing cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Abundant desmoplastic stroma is a histological hallmark of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Emerging evidence suggests a promising therapeutic effect of several stroma-modifying therapies that target desmoplastic stromal elements in the pancreatic cancer microenvironment. The evidence also unveils multifaceted roles of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in manipulating pancreatic cancer progression, immunity, and chemotherapeutic response. Current state-of-the-art technologies, including single-cell transcriptomics and multiplexed tissue imaging techniques, have provided a more profound knowledge of CAF heterogeneity in real-world specimens from pancreatic cancer patients, as well as in genetically engineered mouse models. In this review, we describe recent advances in the understanding of the molecular pathology bases of pancreatic cancer desmoplastic stroma at multilayered levels of heterogeneity, namely, (1) variations in cellular and non-cellular members, including CAF subtypes and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins; (2) geographical heterogeneity in relation to cell–cell interactions and signaling pathways at niche levels and spatial heterogeneity at locoregional levels or organ levels; and (3) intertumoral stromal heterogeneity at individual levels. This review further discusses the clinicopathological significance of desmoplastic stroma and the potential opportunities for stroma-targeted therapies against this lethal malignancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Microenvironment and Pancreatic Cancer)
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Article
Prevalence of Cancer Predisposition Germline Variants in Male Breast Cancer Patients: Results of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3292; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133292 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1817
Abstract
Male breast cancer (mBC) is associated with a high prevalence of pathogenic variants (PVs) in the BRCA2 gene; however, data regarding other BC predisposition genes are limited. In this retrospective multicenter study, we investigated the prevalence of PVs in BRCA1/2 and 23 non- [...] Read more.
Male breast cancer (mBC) is associated with a high prevalence of pathogenic variants (PVs) in the BRCA2 gene; however, data regarding other BC predisposition genes are limited. In this retrospective multicenter study, we investigated the prevalence of PVs in BRCA1/2 and 23 non-BRCA1/2 genes using a sample of 614 patients with mBC, recruited through the centers of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer. A high proportion of patients with mBC carried PVs in BRCA2 (23.0%, 142/614) and BRCA1 (4.6%, 28/614). The prevalence of BRCA1/2 PVs was 11.0% in patients with mBC without a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer. Patients with BRCA1/2 PVs did not show an earlier disease onset than those without. The predominant clinical presentation of tumor phenotypes was estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, progesterone receptor (PR)-positive, and HER2-negative (77.7%); further, 10.2% of the tumors were triple-positive, and 1.2% were triple-negative. No association was found between ER/PR/HER2 status and BRCA1/2 PV occurrence. Comparing the prevalence of protein-truncating variants (PTVs) between patients with mBC and control data (ExAC, n = 27,173) revealed significant associations of PTVs in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 with mBC (BRCA1: OR = 17.04, 95% CI = 10.54–26.82, p < 10−5; BRCA2: OR = 77.71, 95% CI = 58.71–102.33, p < 10−5). A case-control investigation of 23 non-BRCA1/2 genes in 340 BRCA1/2-negative patients and ExAC controls revealed significant associations of PTVs in CHEK2, PALB2, and ATM with mBC (CHEK2: OR = 3.78, 95% CI = 1.59–7.71, p = 0.002; PALB2: OR = 14.77, 95% CI = 5.02–36.02, p < 10−5; ATM: OR = 3.36, 95% CI = 0.89–8.96, p = 0.04). Overall, our findings support the benefit of multi-gene panel testing in patients with mBC irrespective of their family history, age at disease onset, and tumor phenotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer)
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Systematic Review
Methods for Drainage of Distal Malignant Biliary Obstruction after ERCP Failure: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3291; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133291 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1512
Abstract
There is scarce evidence on the comparison between different methods for the drainage of distal malignant biliary obstruction (DMBO) after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) failure. Therefore, we performed a network meta-analysis to compare the outcomes of these techniques. We searched main databases through [...] Read more.
There is scarce evidence on the comparison between different methods for the drainage of distal malignant biliary obstruction (DMBO) after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) failure. Therefore, we performed a network meta-analysis to compare the outcomes of these techniques. We searched main databases through September 2021 and identified five randomized controlled trials. The primary outcome was clinical success. The secondary outcomes were technical success, overall and serious adverse event rate. Percutaneous trans-hepatic biliary drainage was found to be inferior to other interventions (PTBD: RR 1.01, 0.88–1.17 with EUS-choledochoduodenostomy (EUS-CD); RR 1.03, 0.86–1.22 with EUS-hepaticogastrostomy (EUS-HG); RR 1.42, 0.90–2.24 with surgical hepaticojejunostomy). The comparison between EUS-HG and EUS-CD was not significant (RR 1.01, 0.87–1.17). Surgery was not superior to other interventions (RR 1.40, 0.91–2.13 with EUS-CD and RR 1.38, 0.88–2.16 with EUS-HG). No difference in any of the comparisons concerning adverse event rate was detected, although PTBD showed a slightly poorer performance on ranking analysis (SUCRA score 0.13). In conclusion, all interventions seem to be effective for the drainage of DMBO, although PTBD showed a trend towards higher rates of adverse events. Full article
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Article
Effectiveness of Geriatric Assessment-Driven Interventions on Survival and Functional and Nutritional Status in Older Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial (EGeSOR)
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3290; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133290 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1365
Abstract
This study assesses the efficacy of Geriatric Assessment (GA)-driven interventions and follow-up on six-month mortality, functional, and nutritional status in older patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). HNC patients aged 65 years or over were included between November 2013 and September 2018 [...] Read more.
This study assesses the efficacy of Geriatric Assessment (GA)-driven interventions and follow-up on six-month mortality, functional, and nutritional status in older patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). HNC patients aged 65 years or over were included between November 2013 and September 2018 by 15 Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) and maxillofacial surgery departments at 13 centers in France. The study was of an open-label, multicenter, randomized, controlled, and parallel-group design, with independent outcome assessments. The patients were randomized 1:1 to benefit from GA-driven interventions and follow-up versus standard of care. The interventions consisted in a pre-therapeutic GA, a standardized geriatric intervention, and follow-up, tailored to the cancer-treatment plan for 24 months. The primary outcome was a composite criterion including six-month mortality, functional impairment (fall in the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) score ≥2), and weight loss ≥10%. Among the patients included (n = 499), 475 were randomized to the experimental (n = 238) or control arm (n = 237). The median age was 75.3 years [70.4–81.9]; 69.5% were men, and the principal tumor site was oral cavity (43.9%). There were no statistically significant differences regarding the primary endpoint (n = 98 events; 41.0% in the experimental arm versus 90 (38.0%); p = 0.53), or for each criterion (i.e., death (31 (13%) versus 27 (11.4%); p = 0.48), weight loss of ≥10% (69 (29%) versus 65 (27.4%); p = 0.73) and fall in ADL score ≥2 (9 (3.8%) versus 13 (5.5%); p = 0.35)). In older patients with HNC, GA-driven interventions and follow-up failed to improve six-month overall survival, functional, and nutritional status. Full article
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Review
State-of-the-Art Imaging Techniques in Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3289; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133289 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2454
Abstract
Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression (MSCC) is a debilitating complication in oncology patients. This narrative review discusses the strengths and limitations of various imaging modalities in diagnosing MSCC, the role of imaging in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for MSCC treatment, and recent advances in [...] Read more.
Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression (MSCC) is a debilitating complication in oncology patients. This narrative review discusses the strengths and limitations of various imaging modalities in diagnosing MSCC, the role of imaging in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for MSCC treatment, and recent advances in deep learning (DL) tools for MSCC diagnosis. PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched using targeted keywords. Studies were reviewed in consensus among the co-authors for their suitability before inclusion. MRI is the gold standard of imaging to diagnose MSCC with reported sensitivity and specificity of 93% and 97% respectively. CT Myelogram appears to have comparable sensitivity and specificity to contrast-enhanced MRI. Conventional CT has a lower diagnostic accuracy than MRI in MSCC diagnosis, but is helpful in emergent situations with limited access to MRI. Metal artifact reduction techniques for MRI and CT are continually being researched for patients with spinal implants. Imaging is crucial for SBRT treatment planning and three-dimensional positional verification of the treatment isocentre prior to SBRT delivery. Structural and functional MRI may be helpful in post-treatment surveillance. DL tools may improve detection of vertebral metastasis and reduce time to MSCC diagnosis. This enables earlier institution of definitive therapy for better outcomes. Full article
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Article
Regulation of Tissue Factor by CD44 Supports Coagulant Activity in Breast Tumor Cells
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3288; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133288 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1449
Abstract
Previous work identified Tissue Factor (TF), a key activator of the coagulation cascade, as a gene induced in cellular contexts of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transitions (EMTs), providing EMT+ Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) with coagulant properties that facilitate their metastatic seeding. Deciphering further molecular aspects [...] Read more.
Previous work identified Tissue Factor (TF), a key activator of the coagulation cascade, as a gene induced in cellular contexts of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transitions (EMTs), providing EMT+ Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) with coagulant properties that facilitate their metastatic seeding. Deciphering further molecular aspects of TF regulation in tumor cells, we report here that CD44 and TF coexpress in EMT contexts, and that CD44 acts as a regulator of TF expression supporting procoagulant properties and metastatic seeding. A transcriptional regulatory mechanism bridging CD44 to TF expression was further evidenced. Comparing different TF –promoter luciferase reporter constructs, we indeed found that the shortest -111 pb TF promoter fragment harboring three Specificity Protein 1 (Sp1) binding sites is still responsive to CD44 silencing. The observation that (i) mutation within Sp1 binding sites decreased the basal activity of the -111 pb TF promoter construct, (ii) CD44 silencing decreased Sp1 protein and mRNA levels and (iii) Sp1 silencing diminished TF expression further points to Sp1 as a key mediator linking CD44 to TF regulation. All together, these data thus report a transcriptional regulatory mechanism of TF expression by CD44 supporting procoagulant activity and metastatic competence of CTCs. Full article
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Review
Breast Cancer Stem Cells: Signaling Pathways, Cellular Interactions, and Therapeutic Implications
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3287; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133287 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2499
Abstract
Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) constitute a small population of cells within breast cancer and are characterized by their ability to self-renew, differentiate, and recapitulate the heterogeneity of the tumor. Clinically, BCSCs have been correlated with cancer progression, metastasis, relapse, and drug resistance. [...] Read more.
Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) constitute a small population of cells within breast cancer and are characterized by their ability to self-renew, differentiate, and recapitulate the heterogeneity of the tumor. Clinically, BCSCs have been correlated with cancer progression, metastasis, relapse, and drug resistance. The tumorigenic roles of BCSCs have been extensively reviewed and will not be the major focus of the current review. Here, we aim to highlight how the crucial intrinsic signaling pathways regulate the fate of BCSCs, including the Wnt, Notch, Hedgehog, and NF-κB signaling pathways, as well as how different cell populations crosstalk with BCSCs within the TME, including adipocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells. Based on the molecular and cellular activities of BCSCs, we will also summarize the targeting strategies for BCSCs and related clinical trials. This review will highlight that BCSC development in breast cancer is impacted by both BCSC endogenous signaling and external factors in the TME, which provides an insight into how to establish a comprehensively therapeutic strategy to target BCSCs for breast cancer treatments. Full article
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Article
Clonal Myeloproliferative Disorders in Patients with Down Syndrome—Treatment and Outcome Results from an Institution in Argentina
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3286; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133286 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1054
Abstract
Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at an increased risk of developing clonal myeloproliferative disorders. The balance between treatment intensity and treatment-related toxicity has not yet been defined. We analyzed this population to identify risk factors and optimal treatment. This single-center retrospective study [...] Read more.
Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at an increased risk of developing clonal myeloproliferative disorders. The balance between treatment intensity and treatment-related toxicity has not yet been defined. We analyzed this population to identify risk factors and optimal treatment. This single-center retrospective study included 78 DS patients <16 years-old with Transient Abnormal Myelopoiesis (TAM, n = 25), Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia (DS-AML, n = 41) of which 35 had classical Myeloid Leukemia associated with DS (ML-DS) with megakaryoblastic immunophenotype (AMKL) and 6 sporadic DS-AML (non-AMKL). Patients with DS-AML were treated according to four BFM-based protocols. Classical ML-DS vs. non-DS-AMKL were compared and the outcome of ML-DS was analyzed according to treatment intensity. Only four patients with TAM required cytoreduction with a 5-year Event-Free Survival probability (EFSp) of 74.4 (±9.1)%. DS-AML treatment-related deaths were due to infections, with a 5-year EFSp of 60.6 (±8.2)%. Megakaryoblastic immunophenotype was the strongest good-prognostic factor in univariate and multivariate analysis (p = 0.000). When compared ML-DS with non-DS-AMKL, a better outcome was associated with a lower relapse rate (p = 0.0002). Analysis of administered treatment was done on 32/33 ML-DS patients who achieved CR according to receiving or not high-dose ARA-C block (HDARA-C), and no difference in 5-year EFSp was observed (p = 0.172). TAM rarely required treatment and when severe manifestations occurred, early intervention was effective. DS-AML good outcome was associated with AMKL with a low relapse-rate. Even if treatment-related mortality is still high, our data do not support the omission of HDARA-C in ML-DS since we observed a trend to detect a higher relapse rate in the arm without HDARA-C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Pediatric Acute Leukemia)
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Systematic Review
SMARCB1 (INI-1)-Deficient Sinonasal Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis of Treatment Outcomes
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3285; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133285 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1612
Abstract
(1) Background: SMARCB1 (INI-1)-deficient sinonasal carcinoma is a rare sinonasal malignancy; since its discovery and description in 2014, less than 200 cases have been identified. It is almost impossible to perform randomized-controlled trials on novel therapy to improve treatment outcomes in view of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: SMARCB1 (INI-1)-deficient sinonasal carcinoma is a rare sinonasal malignancy; since its discovery and description in 2014, less than 200 cases have been identified. It is almost impossible to perform randomized-controlled trials on novel therapy to improve treatment outcomes in view of its rarity. We performed a systematic review of all the published case reports/series and included our patients for survival analysis. (2) Methods: In this systematic review, we searched from PubMed-MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Google Scholar for individual patient data to identify and retrieve all reported SMARCB1-deficient sinonasal carcinoma. Clarification on treatment details and the most updated survival outcomes from all authors of the published case reports/series were attempted. Survival analysis for overall survival (OS) and identification of OS prognostic factors were performed. This systematic review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42022306671). (3) Results: A total of 67 publications were identified from the systematic review and literature search. After excluding other ineligible and duplicated publications, 192 patients reported were considered appropriate for further review. After excluding duplicates and patients with incomplete pretreatment details and survival outcomes, 120 patients were identified to have a complete set of data including baseline demographics, treatment details, and survival outcomes. Together with 8 patients treated in our institution, 128 patients were included into survival analysis. After a median follow up of 17.5 months (range 0.3–149.0), 50 (46.3%) patients died. The 1-year, 2-year and 3-year OS rates were 84.3% (95% CI % 77.6–91.0), 62.9% (95% CI 53.1–72.7), and 51.8% (95% CI 40.8–62.8), respectively, and the median OS was 39.0 months (95% CI 28.5–49.5). Males (p = 0.029) and T4b disease (p = 0.013) were significant OS prognostic factors in univariable analysis, while only T4b disease (p = 0.017) remained significant in multivariable analysis. (4) Conclusions: SMARCB1-deficient sinonasal carcinoma is an extremely aggressive sinonasal malignancy with a dismal prognosis. Early diagnosis and a multimodality treatment strategy are essential for a better treatment and survival outcome. Full article
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Article
Novel Drug Candidate Prediction for Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma via Hub Gene Network Analysis and Connectivity Mapping
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3284; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133284 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2461
Abstract
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is an aggressive malignancy, and there is a need for effective systemic therapies. Gene expression profile-based analyses may allow for efficient screening of potential drug candidates to serve as novel therapeutics for patients with ICC. The RNA expression profile of [...] Read more.
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is an aggressive malignancy, and there is a need for effective systemic therapies. Gene expression profile-based analyses may allow for efficient screening of potential drug candidates to serve as novel therapeutics for patients with ICC. The RNA expression profile of ICC and normal biliary epithelial cells were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases. Function annotation and enrichment pathway analyses of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were finished using the Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. A weighted gene co-expression network (WGCN) was constructed by WGCN analysis (WGCNA). Key genes from the DEGs and co-expression gene modules were analyzed to generate a protein–protein interaction (PPI) network. The association between the top 10 screened hub genes and the overall and disease-free survival of ICC patients was examined. The Connectivity Map (cMap) analysis was performed to identify possible drugs for ICC using hub genes. A total of 151 key genes were selected from the overlapping genes of 1287 GSE-DEGs, 8183 TCGA-DEGs and 1226 genes in the mixed modules. A total of 10 hub genes of interest (CTNNB1, SPP1, COL1A2, COL3A1, SMAD3, SRC, VCAN, PKLR, GART, MRPS5) were found analyzing protein–protein interaction. Using the cMap, candidate drugs screened with potential efficacy for ICC included three tyrosine kinase inhibitors (dasatinib, NVP-BHG712, tivantinib), two cannabinoid receptor agonists (palmitoylethanolamide, arachidonamide), two antibiotics (moxifloxacin, amoxicillin), one estrogen receptor agonist (levonorgestrel), one serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor (MK-2206) and other small molecules. Key genes from network and PPI analysis allowed us to identify potential drugs for ICC. The identification of novel gene expression profiles and related drug screening may accelerate the identification of potential novel drug therapies for ICC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Biliary Tract Cancers Therapy)
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Article
Impact of IKZF1 Deletions in the Prognosis of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Argentina
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3283; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133283 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1282
Abstract
An association of deletions in the IKZF1 gene (IKZF1del) with poor prognosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been demonstrated. Additional deletions in other genes (IKZF1plus) define different IKZF1del subsets. We analyzed the influence of IKZF1del and/or IKZF1plus in the survival of children [...] Read more.
An association of deletions in the IKZF1 gene (IKZF1del) with poor prognosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been demonstrated. Additional deletions in other genes (IKZF1plus) define different IKZF1del subsets. We analyzed the influence of IKZF1del and/or IKZF1plus in the survival of children with ALL. From October 2009 to July 2021, 1055 bone marrow samples from patients with ALL were processed by Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Of them, 28 patients died during induction and 4 were lost-in-follow-up, resulting in an eligible 1023 cases. All patients were treated according to ALLIC-BFM-2009-protocol. Patients were classified into three subsets: IKZF1not-deleted (IKZFF1not-del), IKZF1deleted (IKZF1del) and IKZF1del plus deletion of PAX5, CDKN2A, CDKN2B and/or alterations in CRLF2 with ERG-not-deleted (IKZF1plus). The LFSp and SE were calculated with the Kaplan–Meier calculation and compared with a log-rank test. From the 1023 eligible patients, 835 (81.6%) were defined as IKZF1not-del, 94 (9.2%) as IKZF1del and 94 (9.2%) as IKZF1plus. Of them, 100 (9.8%) corresponded to Standard-Risk (SRG), 629 (61.5%) to Intermediate-Risk (IRG) and 294 (28.7%) to High-Risk (HRG) groups. LFSp(SE) was 7 5(2)% for IKZF1not-del, 51 (6)% for IKZF1del and 48 (6)% for IKZF1plus (p-value < 0.00001). LFSp(SE) according to the risk groups was: in SRG, 91 (4)% for IKZF1not-del, 50 (35)% IKZF1del and 100% IKZF1plus (p-value = ns); in IRG, 77 (2)% IKZF1not-del, 61 (10)% IKZF1del and 54 (7)% IKZF1plus (p-value = 0.0005) and in HRG, 61 (4)% IKZF1not-del, 38 (8)% IKZF1del and 35 (9)% IKZF1plus (p-value = 0.0102). The IKZF1 status defines a population of patients with a poor outcome, mainly in IRG. No differences were observed between IKZF1del versus IKZF1plus. MLPA studies should be incorporated into the risk-group stratification of pediatric ALL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Pediatric Acute Leukemia)
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Article
Development of Lymphopenia during Therapy with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors Is Associated with Poor Outcome in Metastatic Cutaneous Melanoma
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3282; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133282 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1099
Abstract
Predictive markers for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy are needed. Thus, baseline blood counts have been investigated as biomarkers, showing that lymphopenia at the start of therapy with (ICI) is associated with a worse outcome in metastatic melanoma. We investigated the relationship between [...] Read more.
Predictive markers for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy are needed. Thus, baseline blood counts have been investigated as biomarkers, showing that lymphopenia at the start of therapy with (ICI) is associated with a worse outcome in metastatic melanoma. We investigated the relationship between the occurrence of lymphopenia under ICI and disease outcome. Patients with metastatic melanoma who had undergone therapy with ICI were identified in our database. Only patients with a normal lymphocyte count at baseline were included in this retrospective study. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between patients in which lymphopenia occurred during ICI therapy and those who did not develop lymphopenia. In total, 116 patients were analyzed. Lymphopenia occurred in 42.2% of patients, with a mean onset after 17 weeks (range 1–180 weeks). The occurrence of lymphopenia during immunotherapy was significantly associated with a shorter PFS and OS. Patients who developed lymphopenia (n = 49) had a mean PFS of 13.3 months (range 1–67 months) compared to 16.9 months (range 1–73 months) for patients who did not develop lymphopenia (n = 67; p = 0.025). Similarly, patients with lymphopenia had a significantly shorter OS of 28.1 months (range 2–70 months) compared with 36.8 months (range 4–106 months) in patients who did not develop lymphopenia (p = 0.01). Patients with metastatic melanoma who develop lymphopenia during ICI therapy have a worse prognosis with significantly shorter PFS and OS compared with patients who do not develop lymphopenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy)
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Article
Pre-Surgery Demographic, Clinical, and Symptom Characteristics Associated with Different Self-Reported Cognitive Processes in Patients with Breast Cancer
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3281; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133281 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1262
Abstract
Cancer related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is a common and persistent symptom in breast cancer patients. The Attentional Function Index (AFI) is a self-report measure that assesses CRCI. AFI includes three subscales, namely effective action, attentional lapses, and interpersonal effectiveness, that are based on [...] Read more.
Cancer related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is a common and persistent symptom in breast cancer patients. The Attentional Function Index (AFI) is a self-report measure that assesses CRCI. AFI includes three subscales, namely effective action, attentional lapses, and interpersonal effectiveness, that are based on working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility. Previously, we identified three classes of patients with distinct CRCI profiles using the AFI total scores. The purpose of this study was to expand our previous work using latent class growth analysis (LCGA), to identify distinct cognitive profiles for each of the AFI subscales in the same sample (i.e., 397 women who were assessed seven times from prior to through to 6 months following breast cancer surgery). For each subscale, parametric and non-parametric statistics were used to determine differences in demographic, clinical, and pre-surgical psychological and physical symptoms among the subgroups. Three-, four-, and two-classes were identified for the effective action, attentional lapses, and interpersonal effectiveness subscales, respectively. Across all three subscales, lower functional status, higher levels of anxiety, depression, fatigue, and sleep disturbance, and worse decrements in energy were associated with worse cognitive performance. These and other modifiable characteristics may be potential targets for personalized interventions for CRCI. Full article
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Article
Triple-Negative Breast Cancer circRNAome Reveals Hsa_circ_0072309 as a Potential Risk Biomarker
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3280; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133280 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1815
Abstract
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of long non-coding RNAs that have the ability to sponge RNA-Binding Proteins (RBPs). Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has very aggressive behavior and poor prognosis for the patient. Here, we aimed to characterize the global expression profile of [...] Read more.
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of long non-coding RNAs that have the ability to sponge RNA-Binding Proteins (RBPs). Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has very aggressive behavior and poor prognosis for the patient. Here, we aimed to characterize the global expression profile of circRNAs in TNBC, in order to identify potential risk biomarkers. For that, we obtained RNA-Seq data from TNBC and control samples and performed validation experiments using FFPE and frozen tissues of TNBC patients and controls, followed by in silico analyses to explore circRNA-RBP interactions. We found 16 differentially expressed circRNAs between TNBC patients and controls. Next, we mapped the RBPs that interact with the top five downregulated circRNAs (hsa_circ_0072309, circ_0004365, circ_0006677, circ_0008599, and circ_0009043) and hsa_circ_0000479, resulting in a total of 16 RBPs, most of them being enriched to pathways related to cancer and gene regulation (e.g., AGO1/2, EIF4A3, ELAVL1, and PTBP1). Among the six circRNAs, hsa_circ_0072309 was the one that presented the most confidence results, being able to distinguish TNBC patients from controls with an AUC of 0.78 and 0.81, respectively. This circRNA may be interacting with some RBPs involved in important cancer-related pathways and is a novel potential risk biomarker of TNBC. Full article
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Article
Development and Validation of a Risk Score for Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders among Solid Organ Transplant Recipients
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3279; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133279 - 04 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1216
Abstract
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a well-recognized complication after transplant. This study aimed to develop and validate a risk score to predict PTLD among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Poisson regression identified predictors of PTLD with the best fitting model selected for the [...] Read more.
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a well-recognized complication after transplant. This study aimed to develop and validate a risk score to predict PTLD among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Poisson regression identified predictors of PTLD with the best fitting model selected for the risk score. The derivation cohort consisted of 2546 SOT recipients transpanted at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen between 2004 and 2019; 57 developed PTLD. Predictors of PTLD were high-risk pre-transplant Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV), IgG donor/recipient serostatus, and current positive plasma EBV DNA, abnormal hemoglobin and C-reactive protein levels. Individuals in the high-risk group had almost 7 times higher incidence of PTLD (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 6.75; 95% CI: 4.00–11.41) compared to the low-risk group. In the validation cohort of 1611 SOT recipients from the University Hospital of Zürich, 24 developed PTLD. A similar 7 times higher risk of PTLD was observed in the high-risk group compared to the low-risk group (IRR 7.17, 95% CI: 3.05–16.82). The discriminatory ability was also similar in derivation (Harrell’s C-statistic of 0.82 95% CI (0.76–0.88) and validation (0.82, 95% CI:0.72–0.92) cohorts. The risk score had a good discriminatory ability in both cohorts and helped to identify patients with higher risk of developing PTLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention)
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Systematic Review
Phytochemicals for the Prevention and Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence and Molecular Mechanisms
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3278; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133278 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2147
Abstract
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is associated with about 90% of renal malignancies, and its incidence is increasing globally. Plant-derived compounds have gained significant attention in the scientific community for their preventative and therapeutic effects on cancer. To evaluate the anticancer potential of phytocompounds [...] Read more.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is associated with about 90% of renal malignancies, and its incidence is increasing globally. Plant-derived compounds have gained significant attention in the scientific community for their preventative and therapeutic effects on cancer. To evaluate the anticancer potential of phytocompounds for RCC, we compiled a comprehensive and systematic review of the available literature. Our work was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses criteria. The literature search was performed using scholarly databases such as PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect and keywords such as renal cell carcinoma, phytochemicals, cancer, tumor, proliferation, apoptosis, prevention, treatment, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies. Based on in vitro results, various phytochemicals, such as phenolics, terpenoids, alkaloids, and sulfur-containing compounds, suppressed cell viability, proliferation and growth, showed cytotoxic activity, inhibited invasion and migration, and enhanced the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs in RCC. In various animal tumor models, phytochemicals suppressed renal tumor growth, reduced tumor size, and hindered angiogenesis and metastasis. The relevant antineoplastic mechanisms involved upregulation of caspases, reduction in cyclin activity, induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via modulation of a plethora of cell signaling pathways. Clinical studies demonstrated a reduced risk for the development of kidney cancer and enhancement of the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. Both preclinical and clinical studies displayed significant promise of utilizing phytochemicals for the prevention and treatment of RCC. Further research, confirming the mechanisms and regulatory pathways, along with randomized controlled trials, are needed to establish the use of phytochemicals in clinical practice. Full article
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Article
Metabolic Diseases and Risk of Head and Neck Cancer: A Cohort Study Analyzing Nationwide Population-Based Data
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3277; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133277 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1125
Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the association between metabolic diseases and the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) using nationwide population-based big data. This retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Korean National Health Insurance Service health checkup database. [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to investigate the association between metabolic diseases and the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) using nationwide population-based big data. This retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Korean National Health Insurance Service health checkup database. A total of 4,575,818 participants aged >40 years who received a health checkup in 2008 were enrolled, and we studied the incidence of HNC until 2019. We analyzed the risk of HNC according to the presence of metabolic diseases, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. Although metabolic syndrome itself was not associated with HNC, each component of metabolic syndrome was associated with HNC. Underweight and diabetes were risk factors for HNC (HR: 1.694). High total cholesterol and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were factors that decreased the risk (HR 0.910 and 0.839). When we analyzed men and women separately, low total cholesterol level, low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and hypertension were risk factors only in men. In addition, pre-obesity, obesity, and central obesity decreased the risk only in men. Each metabolic disease affects HNC in different ways. Underweight and diabetes increased the risk of HNC, whereas high total cholesterol and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased the risk of HNC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention)
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Article
An Immune Signature for Risk Stratification and Therapeutic Prediction in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Gastric Cancer
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3276; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133276 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1748
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is the greatest risk factor for gastric cancer (GC). Increasing evidence has clarified that tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) is closely related to the prognosis and therapeutic efficacy of HP-positive (HP+) GC patients. In this study, we aimed to construct [...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is the greatest risk factor for gastric cancer (GC). Increasing evidence has clarified that tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) is closely related to the prognosis and therapeutic efficacy of HP-positive (HP+) GC patients. In this study, we aimed to construct a novel immune-related signature for predicting the prognosis and immunotherapy efficacy of HP+ GC patients. A total of 153 HP+ GC from three different cohorts were included in this study. An Immune-Related prognostic Signature for HP+ GC patients (IRSHG) was established using Univariate Cox regression, the LASSO algorithm, and Multivariate Cox regression. Univariate and Multivariate analyses proved IRSHG was an independent prognostic predictor for HP+ GC patients, and an IRSHG-integrated nomogram was established to quantitatively assessthe prognostic risk. The low-IRSHG group exhibited higher copy number load and distinct mutation profiles compared with the high-IRSHG group. In addition, the difference of hallmark pathways and immune cells infiltration between the two groups was investigated. Notably, tumor immune dysfunction and exclusion (TIDE) analysis indicated that the low-IRSHG group had a higher sensitivity to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy, which was validated by an external pabolizumab treatment cohort. Moreover, 98 chemotherapeutic drugs and corresponding potential biomarkers were identified for two groups, and several drugs with potential ability to reverse IRSHG score were identified using CMap analysis. Collectively, IRSHG may serve as a promising biomarker for survival outcome as well as immunotherapy efficacy. Furthermore, it can also help to prioritize potential therapeutics for HP+ GC patients, providing new insight for the personalized treatment of HP-infected GC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunity and Gastrointestinal Cancer)
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Review
Circulating Tumor DNA-Based Genomic Profiling Assays in Adult Solid Tumors for Precision Oncology: Recent Advancements and Future Challenges
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3275; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133275 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2135
Abstract
Genomic profiling using tumor biopsies remains the standard approach for the selection of approved molecular targeted therapies. However, this is often limited by its invasiveness, feasibility, and poor sample quality. Liquid biopsies provide a less invasive approach while capturing a contemporaneous and comprehensive [...] Read more.
Genomic profiling using tumor biopsies remains the standard approach for the selection of approved molecular targeted therapies. However, this is often limited by its invasiveness, feasibility, and poor sample quality. Liquid biopsies provide a less invasive approach while capturing a contemporaneous and comprehensive tumor genomic profile. Recent advancements in the detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from plasma samples at satisfactory sensitivity, specificity, and detection concordance to tumor tissues have facilitated the approval of ctDNA-based genomic profiling to be integrated into regular clinical practice. The recent approval of both single-gene and multigene assays to detect genetic biomarkers from plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as companion diagnostic tools for molecular targeted therapies has transformed the therapeutic decision-making procedure for advanced solid tumors. Despite the increasing use of cfDNA-based molecular profiling, there is an ongoing debate about a ‘plasma first’ or ‘tissue first’ approach toward genomic testing for advanced solid malignancies. Both approaches present possible advantages and disadvantages, and these factors should be carefully considered to personalize and select the most appropriate genomic assay. This review focuses on the recent advancements of cfDNA-based genomic profiling assays in advanced solid tumors while highlighting the major challenges that should be tackled to formulate evidence-based guidelines in recommending the ‘right assay for the right patient at the right time’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Nucleic Acid-Based Biomarkers in Solid Tumors)
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Article
HBV preS Mutations Promote Hepatocarcinogenesis by Inducing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Upregulating Inflammatory Signaling
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3274; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133274 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1408
Abstract
This study aimed to elucidate the effects and underlying mechanisms of hepatitis B virus (HBV) preS mutations on hepatocarcinogenesis. The effect of the preS mutations on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence was evaluated using a prospective cohort study with 2114 HBV-infected patients, of whom [...] Read more.
This study aimed to elucidate the effects and underlying mechanisms of hepatitis B virus (HBV) preS mutations on hepatocarcinogenesis. The effect of the preS mutations on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence was evaluated using a prospective cohort study with 2114 HBV-infected patients, of whom 612 received antiviral treatments. The oncogenic functions of HBV preS mutations were investigated using cancer cell lines and Sleeping Beauty (SB) mouse models. RNA-sequencing and microarray were applied to identify key molecules involved in the mutant-induced carcinogenesis. Combo mutations G2950A/G2951A/A2962G/C2964A and C3116T/T31C significantly increased HCC risk in patients without antiviral treatment, whereas the preS2 deletion significantly increased HCC risk in patients with antiviral treatment. In SB mice, the preS1/preS2/S mutants induced a higher rate of tumor and higher serum levels of inflammatory cytokines than did wild-type counterpart. The preS1/preS2/S mutants induced altered gene expression profiles in the inflammation- and metabolism-related pathways, activated pathways of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, affected the response to hypoxia, and upregulated the protein level of STAT3. Inhibiting the STAT3 pathway attenuated the effects of the preS1/preS2/S mutants on cell proliferation. G2950A/G2951A/A2962G/C2964A, C3116T/T31C, and preS2 deletion promote hepatocarcinogenesis via inducing ER stress, metabolism alteration, and STAT3 pathways, which might be translated into HCC prophylaxis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Agents and Cancer)
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Perspective
HIF-1α Inhibition Improves Anti-Tumor Immunity and Promotes the Efficacy of Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR)
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3273; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133273 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1817
Abstract
High-dose hypofractionated radiation such as SABR (stereotactic ablative radiotherapy) evokes an anti-tumor immune response by promoting a series of immune-stimulating processes, including the release of tumor-specific antigens from damaged tumor cells and the final effector phase of immune-mediated lysis of target tumor cells. [...] Read more.
High-dose hypofractionated radiation such as SABR (stereotactic ablative radiotherapy) evokes an anti-tumor immune response by promoting a series of immune-stimulating processes, including the release of tumor-specific antigens from damaged tumor cells and the final effector phase of immune-mediated lysis of target tumor cells. High-dose hypofractionated radiation also causes vascular damage in tumors, thereby increasing tumor hypoxia and upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α, the master transcription factors for the cellular response to hypoxia. HIF-1α and HIF-2α are critical factors in the upregulation of immune suppression and are the master regulators of immune evasion of tumors. Consequently, SABR-induced increase in anti-tumor immunity is counterbalanced by the increase in immune suppression mediated by HIFα. Inhibition of HIF-1α with small molecules such as metformin downregulates immunosuppressive pathways, including the expression of immune checkpoints, and it improves or restores the anti-tumor immunity stimulated by irradiation. Combinations of HIFα inhibitors, particularly HIF-1α inhibitors, with immune checkpoint blocking antibodies may represent a novel approach to boost the overall anti-tumor immune profile in patients and thus enhance outcomes after SABR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Microenvironment–Hypoxia)
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Review
Liquid Biopsy in Prostate Cancer Management—Current Challenges and Future Perspectives
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3272; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133272 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2555
Abstract
Although appreciable attempts in screening and diagnostic approaches have been achieved, prostate cancer (PCa) remains a widespread malignancy, representing the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Drugs currently used in PCa therapy initially show a potent anti-tumor effect, but frequently induce [...] Read more.
Although appreciable attempts in screening and diagnostic approaches have been achieved, prostate cancer (PCa) remains a widespread malignancy, representing the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Drugs currently used in PCa therapy initially show a potent anti-tumor effect, but frequently induce resistance and PCa progresses toward metastatic castration-resistant forms (mCRPC), virtually incurable. Liquid biopsy has emerged as an attractive and promising strategy complementary to invasive tissue biopsy to guide PCa diagnosis and treatment. Liquid biopsy shows the ability to represent the tumor microenvironment, allow comprehensive information and follow-up the progression of the tumor, enabling the development of different treatment strategies as well as permitting the monitoring of therapy response. Liquid biopsy, indeed, is endowed with a significant potential to modify PCa management. Several blood biomarkers could be analyzed for diagnostic, prognostic and predictive purposes, including circulating tumor cells (CTCs), extracellular vesicles (EVs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and RNA (ctRNA). In addition, several other body fluids may be adopted (i.e., urine, sperm, etc.) beyond blood. This review dissects recent advancements and future perspectives of liquid biopsies, highlighting their strength and weaknesses in PCa management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment)
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Review
The Route of the Malignant Plasma Cell in Its Survival Niche: Exploring “Multiple Myelomas”
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3271; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133271 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
Growing evidence points to multiple myeloma (MM) and its stromal microenvironment using several mechanisms to subvert effective immune and anti-tumor responses. Recent advances have uncovered the tumor-stromal cell influence in regulating the immune-microenvironment and have envisioned targeting these suppressive pathways to improve therapeutic [...] Read more.
Growing evidence points to multiple myeloma (MM) and its stromal microenvironment using several mechanisms to subvert effective immune and anti-tumor responses. Recent advances have uncovered the tumor-stromal cell influence in regulating the immune-microenvironment and have envisioned targeting these suppressive pathways to improve therapeutic outcomes. Nevertheless, some subgroups of patients include those with particularly unfavorable prognoses. Biological stratification can be used to categorize patient-, disease- or therapy-related factors, or alternatively, these biological determinants can be included in a dynamic model that customizes a given treatment to a specific patient. Genetic heterogeneity and current knowledge enforce a systematic and comprehensive bench-to-bedside approach. Given the increasing role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in better characterizing the pathogenesis of solid and hematological malignancies, disease relapse, and drug resistance, identifying and describing CSCs is of paramount importance in the management of MM. Even though the function of CSCs is well-known in other cancer types, their role in MM remains elusive. With this review, we aim to provide an update on MM homing and resilience in the bone marrow micro milieu. These data are particularly interesting for clinicians facing unmet medical needs while designing novel treatment approaches for MM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering the Tumor Immune Microenvironment)
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Review
Diverse Functions of KDM5 in Cancer: Transcriptional Repressor or Activator?
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3270; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133270 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1990
Abstract
Epigenetic modifications are crucial for chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation. Post-translational modifications of histones are epigenetic processes that are fine-tuned by writer and eraser enzymes, and the disorganization of these enzymes alters the cellular state, resulting in human diseases. The KDM5 family is [...] Read more.
Epigenetic modifications are crucial for chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation. Post-translational modifications of histones are epigenetic processes that are fine-tuned by writer and eraser enzymes, and the disorganization of these enzymes alters the cellular state, resulting in human diseases. The KDM5 family is an enzymatic family that removes di- and tri-methyl groups (me2 and me3) from lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4), and its dysregulation has been implicated in cancer. Although H3K4me3 is an active chromatin marker, KDM5 proteins serve as not only transcriptional repressors but also transcriptional activators in a demethylase-dependent or -independent manner in different contexts. Notably, KDM5 proteins regulate the H3K4 methylation cycle required for active transcription. Here, we review the recent findings regarding the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation mediated by KDM5 in various contexts, with a focus on cancer, and further shed light on the potential of targeting KDM5 for cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Histone Modification in Cancer)
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Systematic Review
Neurobehavioral Impairment in Pediatric Brain Tumor Survivors: A Meta-Analysis
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3269; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133269 - 04 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1328
Abstract
Purpose: The neurocognitive outcomes of pediatric brain tumor survivors have been extensively studied but the risk and predictors for neurobehavioral impairment are less clearly defined. We systematically analyzed the rates of emotional, psychosocial, and attention problems in pediatric brain tumor survivors. Methods: PubMed, [...] Read more.
Purpose: The neurocognitive outcomes of pediatric brain tumor survivors have been extensively studied but the risk and predictors for neurobehavioral impairment are less clearly defined. We systematically analyzed the rates of emotional, psychosocial, and attention problems in pediatric brain tumor survivors. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane were searched for articles published between January 2012 to April 2022. Eligible studies reported neurobehavioral outcomes for PBTS aged 2 to <23 years with a brain tumor diagnosis before 18 years of age. A random-effect meta-analysis was performed in R. Results: The search yielded 1187 unique publications, of which 50 were included in the quantitative analysis. The estimated risk of having emotional, psychosocial, and attention problems were 15% (95%CI 10–20%), 12% (95%CI 9–16%), and 12% (95%CI 9–16%), respectively. PBTS were more likely to have emotional difficulties (Hedge’s g = 0.43 [95%CI 0.34–0.52]), psychosocial problems (Hedge’s g = 0.46 [95%CI 0.33–0.58]), and attention problems (Hedge’s g = 0.48 [95%CI 0.34–0.63]) compared to normal/healthy control subjects. There was no significant difference in the rates of neurobehavioral impairment between children with and without history of cranial radiotherapy. Conclusions: PBTS are at elevated risk of neurobehavioral impairment. Neurobehavioral monitoring should be considered as the standard of care for PBTS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Oncology)
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Correction
Correction: Kudura et al. Prediction of Early Response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibition Using FDG-PET/CT in Melanoma Patients. Cancers 2021, 13, 3830
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3268; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133268 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 802
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers of Immune Checkpoint Therapy Response and Resistance)
Article
Possible Metastatic Stage-Dependent ILC2 Activation Induces Differential Functions of MDSCs through IL-13/IL-13Rα1 Signaling during the Progression of Breast Cancer Lung Metastasis
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3267; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133267 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1495
Abstract
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and lung metastasis is one of the most frequent distant metastases. When breast cancer metastasizes to the lung, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are thought to promote tumor growth via the activation [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and lung metastasis is one of the most frequent distant metastases. When breast cancer metastasizes to the lung, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are thought to promote tumor growth via the activation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which are known to negatively regulate anticancer immune responses. However, it remains to be elucidated exactly how this ILC2–MDSC interaction is involved in tumor growth during metastases formation. Using a 4T1/LM4 breast cancer mouse model, we found that ILC2s were activated in both the micro- and macrometastatic regions, suggesting sustained activation throughout the metastatic cascades via IL-33/ST2 signaling. Consistent with IL-13 secretion from activated ILC2s, the frequencies of polymorphonuclear (PMN)- and monocytic (M)-MDSCs were also significantly elevated during the progression from micro- to macrometastatic cancer. However, the effects of ILC2-induced MDSC functionality on the microenvironment differed in a metastatic-stage-specific manner. Our findings indicate that ILC2s may induce the immunosuppressive functions of MDSCs during the later stages of metastasis. Concomitantly, ILC2 may instigate extracellular matrix remodeling by PMN-MDSC activation during the early stages of metastasis. These metastatic-stage-specific changes may contribute to metastatic tumor growth in the microenvironment of breast cancer lung metastasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Microenvironment and Breast Cancer Progression)
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Article
Predominance of BRCA2 Mutation and Estrogen Receptor Positivity in Unselected Breast Cancer with BRCA1 or BRCA2 Mutation
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3266; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133266 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
Background: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 inhibitor (PARPi) agents can improve progression-free survival of patients with breast cancer who carry a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant (gBRCA) in both the metastatic and adjuvant setting. Therefore, we need to reassess the frequency [...] Read more.
Background: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 inhibitor (PARPi) agents can improve progression-free survival of patients with breast cancer who carry a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant (gBRCA) in both the metastatic and adjuvant setting. Therefore, we need to reassess the frequency of gBRCA1 and gBRCA2 in order to redefine the criteria for women and tumor phenotype that should be tested. Objective: We studied the relative distribution of gBRCA1 and gBRCA2 in unselected populations of women with breast cancer and in unaffected individuals. We also analyzed the proportion of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (ER+) tumors in unselected breast cancer patients with gBRCA. Design: We performed a meta-analysis of studies of unselected breast cancer that analyzed the relative contribution of gBRCA1 versus gBRCA2 among unselected breast cancer cases in gBRCA carriers. We then performed a meta-analysis of gBRCA carriage in unaffected individuals from genome-wide population studies, the gnomAD databank, and case–control studies. Results: The BRCA2 gene was involved in 54% of breast cancer cases in unselected patients with gBRCA (n = 108,699) and 60% of unaffected individuals (n = 238,973) as compared with 38% of the largest gBRCA family cohort (n = 29,700). The meta-analysis showed that 1.66% (95% CI 1.08–2.54) and 1.71% (95% CI 1.33–2.2) of unselected breast cancer patients carried gBRCA1 and gBRCA2, respectively. In a population of unaffected individuals, the frequency of heterozygosity for gBRCA1 and gBRCA2 was estimated at 1/434 and 1/288, respectively. Nearly 0.5% of unaffected individuals in the studied populations carried a gBRCA. Carriage of a gBRCA was 2.5% for patients with ER+ tumors (95% CI 1.5–4.1) and 5.7% (95% CI 5.1–6.2) for those with ER- tumors. Overall, 58% of breast tumors occurring in women carrying a gBRCA were ER+ (n = 86,870). Conclusions: This meta-analysis showed that gBRCA2 carriage is predominant in unselected breast cancer patients and unaffected individuals. ER+ tumors among women with gBRCA-related breast cancer are predominant and have been underestimated. Because PARPi agents improve progression-free survival with ER+ gBRCA breast cancer in most clinical trials, breast cancer should be considered, regardless of ER status, for BRCA1/2 screening for therapeutic purposes. Full article
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Article
Lobe-Specific Analysis of Sublobar Lung Resection for NSCLC Patients with Tumors ≤ 2 cm
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3265; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133265 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
(1) Background: Sublobar resection can be used as an alternative surgical strategy for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, the choice between wedge resection and segmentectomy remains contentious. In this study, we investigated the optimal surgical procedure for sublobar resection in patients [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Sublobar resection can be used as an alternative surgical strategy for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, the choice between wedge resection and segmentectomy remains contentious. In this study, we investigated the optimal surgical procedure for sublobar resection in patients with NSCLC ≤ 2 cm with a lobe-specific analysis; (2) Methods: Data for patients with T1N0M0 with a diameter of ≤2 cm who had undergone sublobar resection were retrieved. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to reduce the inherent bias, and the Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank tests were used to assess the differences in survival; (3) Results: A total of 1882 patients were identified after the PSM. Patients with NSCLC ≤ 2 cm who had undergone segmentectomy showed better survival than those who had undergone wedge resection. However, when NSCLC was ≤1 cm, there was no significant difference in OS between the two groups. This demonstrated an OS advantage of segmentectomy over wedge resection for patients with NSCLC tumors of 1–2 cm (p = 0.024). Further analysis indicated that this survival benefit was only observed in patients with right upper NSCLC of 1–2 cm, but not with NSCLC in the other four lobes; (4) Conclusions: Segmentectomy showed a greater survival benefit than wedge resection only in patients with NSCLC of 1–2 cm, particularly those with primary tumors in the right upper lobe. Therefore, we propose a lobe-specific sublobar resection strategy for early-stage NSCLC patients (tumors of 1–2 cm) who cannot tolerate lobectomy. Full article
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Article
MRI-Based Radiomics Differentiates Skull Base Chordoma and Chondrosarcoma: A Preliminary Study
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3264; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133264 - 03 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1449
Abstract
Chordoma and chondrosarcoma share common radiographic characteristics yet are distinct clinically. A radiomic machine learning model differentiating these tumors preoperatively would help plan surgery. MR images were acquired from 57 consecutive patients with chordoma (N = 32) or chondrosarcoma (N = 25) treated [...] Read more.
Chordoma and chondrosarcoma share common radiographic characteristics yet are distinct clinically. A radiomic machine learning model differentiating these tumors preoperatively would help plan surgery. MR images were acquired from 57 consecutive patients with chordoma (N = 32) or chondrosarcoma (N = 25) treated at the University of Tokyo Hospital between September 2012 and February 2020. Preoperative T1-weighted images with gadolinium enhancement (GdT1) and T2-weighted images were analyzed. Datasets from the first 47 cases were used for model creation, and those from the subsequent 10 cases were used for validation. Feature extraction was performed semi-automatically, and 2438 features were obtained per image sequence. Machine learning models with logistic regression and a support vector machine were created. The model with the highest accuracy incorporated seven features extracted from GdT1 in the logistic regression. The average area under the curve was 0.93 ± 0.06, and accuracy was 0.90 (9/10) in the validation dataset. The same validation dataset was assessed by 20 board-certified neurosurgeons. Diagnostic accuracy ranged from 0.50 to 0.80 (median 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.60 ± 0.06%), which was inferior to that of the machine learning model (p = 0.03), although there are some limitations, such as the risk of overfitting and the lack of an extramural cohort for truly independent final validation. In summary, we created a novel MRI-based machine learning model to differentiate skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma from multiparametric signatures. Full article
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