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Review

Liquid Biopsy in Prostate Cancer Management—Current Challenges and Future Perspectives

1
Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive Sciences and Odontostomatology, University of Naples “Federico II”, 80131 Naples, Italy
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Department of Public Health, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy
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Department of Medicine and Health Sciences “V. Tiberio”, University of Molise, 86100 Campobasso, Italy
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Medical Oncology Unit, Papardo Hospital, 98121 Messina, Italy
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Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, 80131 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ana Faustino, Paula A. Oliveira and Lúcio Lara Santos
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3272; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133272
Received: 6 June 2022 / Revised: 28 June 2022 / Accepted: 1 July 2022 / Published: 4 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Topic Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment)
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a widespread malignancy, representing the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men. In the last years, liquid biopsy has emerged as an attractive and promising strategy complementary to invasive tissue biopsy to guide PCa diagnosis, follow-up and treatment response. Liquid biopsy is employed to assess several body fluids biomarkers, including circulating tumor cells (CTCs), extracellular vesicles (EVs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and RNA (ctRNA). This review dissects recent advancements and future perspectives of liquid biopsy, highlighting its strength and weaknesses in PCa management.
Although appreciable attempts in screening and diagnostic approaches have been achieved, prostate cancer (PCa) remains a widespread malignancy, representing the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Drugs currently used in PCa therapy initially show a potent anti-tumor effect, but frequently induce resistance and PCa progresses toward metastatic castration-resistant forms (mCRPC), virtually incurable. Liquid biopsy has emerged as an attractive and promising strategy complementary to invasive tissue biopsy to guide PCa diagnosis and treatment. Liquid biopsy shows the ability to represent the tumor microenvironment, allow comprehensive information and follow-up the progression of the tumor, enabling the development of different treatment strategies as well as permitting the monitoring of therapy response. Liquid biopsy, indeed, is endowed with a significant potential to modify PCa management. Several blood biomarkers could be analyzed for diagnostic, prognostic and predictive purposes, including circulating tumor cells (CTCs), extracellular vesicles (EVs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and RNA (ctRNA). In addition, several other body fluids may be adopted (i.e., urine, sperm, etc.) beyond blood. This review dissects recent advancements and future perspectives of liquid biopsies, highlighting their strength and weaknesses in PCa management. View Full-Text
Keywords: liquid biopsy; prostate cancer; cancer biomarkers; circulating tumor cells; extracellular vesicles; cell-free nucleic acids; circulating nucleic acids; cell-free DNA; cell-free RNA liquid biopsy; prostate cancer; cancer biomarkers; circulating tumor cells; extracellular vesicles; cell-free nucleic acids; circulating nucleic acids; cell-free DNA; cell-free RNA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Crocetto, F.; Russo, G.; Di Zazzo, E.; Pisapia, P.; Mirto, B.F.; Palmieri, A.; Pepe, F.; Bellevicine, C.; Russo, A.; La Civita, E.; Terracciano, D.; Malapelle, U.; Troncone, G.; Barone, B. Liquid Biopsy in Prostate Cancer Management—Current Challenges and Future Perspectives. Cancers 2022, 14, 3272. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133272

AMA Style

Crocetto F, Russo G, Di Zazzo E, Pisapia P, Mirto BF, Palmieri A, Pepe F, Bellevicine C, Russo A, La Civita E, Terracciano D, Malapelle U, Troncone G, Barone B. Liquid Biopsy in Prostate Cancer Management—Current Challenges and Future Perspectives. Cancers. 2022; 14(13):3272. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133272

Chicago/Turabian Style

Crocetto, Felice, Gianluca Russo, Erika Di Zazzo, Pasquale Pisapia, Benito Fabio Mirto, Alessandro Palmieri, Francesco Pepe, Claudio Bellevicine, Alessandro Russo, Evelina La Civita, Daniela Terracciano, Umberto Malapelle, Giancarlo Troncone, and Biagio Barone. 2022. "Liquid Biopsy in Prostate Cancer Management—Current Challenges and Future Perspectives" Cancers 14, no. 13: 3272. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133272

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