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Systematic Review

Phytochemicals for the Prevention and Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence and Molecular Mechanisms

College of Osteopathic Medicine, Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, Bradenton, FL 34211, USA
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Academic Editors: Raffaele Capasso, Carla Cirillo and Paola Amero
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3278; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133278
Received: 23 May 2022 / Revised: 26 June 2022 / Accepted: 30 June 2022 / Published: 4 July 2022
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most frequently diagnosed kidney cancer. Once RCC metastasizes, successful treatment is difficult to achieve. There is an apparent need for novel approaches to prevent and treat RCC. Phytochemicals are naturally derived compounds gaining increasing scientific interest due to their cancer preventive and chemotherapeutic properties. These phytochemicals have been shown to exhibit a multitude of anticancer effects against RCC. In this systematic review, we critically evaluate the potential these natural compounds possess for the prevention and treatment of RCC and discuss the future implications this may have in the fight against kidney cancer.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is associated with about 90% of renal malignancies, and its incidence is increasing globally. Plant-derived compounds have gained significant attention in the scientific community for their preventative and therapeutic effects on cancer. To evaluate the anticancer potential of phytocompounds for RCC, we compiled a comprehensive and systematic review of the available literature. Our work was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses criteria. The literature search was performed using scholarly databases such as PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect and keywords such as renal cell carcinoma, phytochemicals, cancer, tumor, proliferation, apoptosis, prevention, treatment, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies. Based on in vitro results, various phytochemicals, such as phenolics, terpenoids, alkaloids, and sulfur-containing compounds, suppressed cell viability, proliferation and growth, showed cytotoxic activity, inhibited invasion and migration, and enhanced the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs in RCC. In various animal tumor models, phytochemicals suppressed renal tumor growth, reduced tumor size, and hindered angiogenesis and metastasis. The relevant antineoplastic mechanisms involved upregulation of caspases, reduction in cyclin activity, induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via modulation of a plethora of cell signaling pathways. Clinical studies demonstrated a reduced risk for the development of kidney cancer and enhancement of the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. Both preclinical and clinical studies displayed significant promise of utilizing phytochemicals for the prevention and treatment of RCC. Further research, confirming the mechanisms and regulatory pathways, along with randomized controlled trials, are needed to establish the use of phytochemicals in clinical practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: renal cancer; phytochemicals; prevention; treatment; in vitro; in vivo; clinical studies; molecular mechanisms renal cancer; phytochemicals; prevention; treatment; in vitro; in vivo; clinical studies; molecular mechanisms
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bajalia, E.M.; Azzouz, F.B.; Chism, D.A.; Giansiracusa, D.M.; Wong, C.G.; Plaskett, K.N.; Bishayee, A. Phytochemicals for the Prevention and Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence and Molecular Mechanisms. Cancers 2022, 14, 3278. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133278

AMA Style

Bajalia EM, Azzouz FB, Chism DA, Giansiracusa DM, Wong CG, Plaskett KN, Bishayee A. Phytochemicals for the Prevention and Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence and Molecular Mechanisms. Cancers. 2022; 14(13):3278. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133278

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bajalia, Essa M., Farah B. Azzouz, Danielle A. Chism, Derrek M. Giansiracusa, Carina G. Wong, Kristina N. Plaskett, and Anupam Bishayee. 2022. "Phytochemicals for the Prevention and Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence and Molecular Mechanisms" Cancers 14, no. 13: 3278. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133278

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