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Cancers, Volume 10, Issue 9 (September 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) MicroRNA-based therapeutics have gained prominence as a cancer therapy due to their multiple [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Deficiency in STAT1 Signaling Predisposes Gut Inflammation and Prompts Colorectal Cancer Development
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090341
Received: 7 July 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is part of the Janus kinase (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway that controls critical events in intestinal immune function related to innate and adaptive immunity. Recent studies have implicated STAT1 in tumor–stroma interactions, and its expression and
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Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is part of the Janus kinase (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway that controls critical events in intestinal immune function related to innate and adaptive immunity. Recent studies have implicated STAT1 in tumor–stroma interactions, and its expression and activity are perturbed during colon cancer. However, the role of STAT1 during the initiation of inflammation-associated cancer is not clearly understood. To determine the role of STAT1 in colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC), we analyzed the tumor development and kinetics of cell recruitment in wild-type WT or STAT1−/− mice treated with azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Following CAC induction, STAT1−/− mice displayed an accelerated appearance of inflammation and tumor formation, and increased damage and scores on the disease activity index (DAI) as early as 20 days after AOM-DSS exposure compared to their WT counterparts. STAT1−/− mice showed elevated colonic epithelial cell proliferation in early stages of injury-induced tumor formation and decreased apoptosis in advanced tumors with over-expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 at the colon. STAT1−/− mice showed increased accumulation of Ly6G+Ly6CCD11b+ cells in the spleen at 20 days of CAC development with concomitant increases in the production of IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 cytokines compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that STAT1 plays a role as a tumor suppressor molecule in inflammation-associated carcinogenesis, particularly during the very early stages of CAC initiation, modulating immune responses as well as controlling mechanisms such as apoptosis and cell proliferation. Full article
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Open AccessReview Autologous Transplantation for Older Adults with AML
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090340
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
While the majority of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are above the age of 65 years at diagnosis, the outcome of older AML patients remains disappointing. Even if standard intensive chemotherapy induces morphologic complete remission (CR1), relapses in older AML patients are
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While the majority of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are above the age of 65 years at diagnosis, the outcome of older AML patients remains disappointing. Even if standard intensive chemotherapy induces morphologic complete remission (CR1), relapses in older AML patients are common leading to poor long-term survival outcomes. Since autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) offers distinct anti-leukemic effectiveness while avoiding graft-versus-host disease associated with allogeneic transplantation, it represents an option for consolidation treatment in selected older AML patients. However, prospective studies in older AML patients assessing the benefit of autologous HCT compared to chemotherapy consolidation or allogeneic transplantation are lacking. Consequently, clinicians face the dilemma that there is considerable ambiguity on the most appropriate consolidation treatment for older AML patients in CR1. This review highlights the possible role of autologous HCT for consolidation in older AML patients reaching CR1 after induction treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment of Older Adults with Acute Myeloid Leukemia)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Current Immunotherapeutic Approaches in T Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090339
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
T cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (T-NHL) is a rare and heterogeneous group of neoplasms of the lymphoid system. With the exception of a few relatively indolent entities, T-NHL is typically aggressive, treatment resistant, and associated with poor prognosis. Relatively few options with proven clinical
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T cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (T-NHL) is a rare and heterogeneous group of neoplasms of the lymphoid system. With the exception of a few relatively indolent entities, T-NHL is typically aggressive, treatment resistant, and associated with poor prognosis. Relatively few options with proven clinical benefit are available for patients with relapsed or refractory disease. Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising treatment for the management of patients with hematological malignancies. The identification of tumor antigens has provided a large number of potential targets. Therefore, several monoclonal antibodies (alemtuzumab, SGN-30, brentuximab vedotin, and mogamulizumab), directed against tumor antigens, have been investigated in different subtypes of T-NHL. In addition to targeting antigens involved in cancer cell physiology, antibodies can stimulate immune effector functions or counteract immunosuppressive mechanisms. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells directed against CD30 and immune checkpoint inhibitors are currently being investigated in clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the currently available clinical evidence for immunotherapy in T-NHL, focusing on the results of clinical trials using first generation monoclonal antibodies, new immunotherapeutic agents, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and CAR-T cell therapies. Full article
Open AccessArticle Phase I Study of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy and Image-Guided Brachytherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090338
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
A phase I study was performed to determine the recommended dose of carbon ion radiotherapy and 3D image-guided brachytherapy for histologically confirmed stage II (≥4 cm), III, or IVA cervical cancer. Dose-limiting toxicities (treatment-related toxicities occurring within three months from the start of
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A phase I study was performed to determine the recommended dose of carbon ion radiotherapy and 3D image-guided brachytherapy for histologically confirmed stage II (≥4 cm), III, or IVA cervical cancer. Dose-limiting toxicities (treatment-related toxicities occurring within three months from the start of carbon ion radiotherapy) included Grade 3 non-hematological toxicity, Grade 4 hematological toxicity, or interruption of treatment for more than two weeks due to treatment-related toxicities. Carbon ion radiotherapy consisted of whole-pelvic irradiation with 36.0 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) in 12 fractions and local boost with 19.2 Gy in four fractions for the primary site, and for positive lymph nodes. Three sessions of three-dimensional (3D) image-guided brachytherapy were administered after completion of carbon ion radiotherapy. Weekly cisplatin at a dose of 40 mg/m2 was given concurrently. At a dose level of one, a total rectosigmoid D2cc dose between 67.2 Gy and 71.3 Gy at a biological equivalent dose of 2 Gy per fraction from carbon ion radiotherapy and 3D image-guided brachytherapy was prescribed. Six patients were enrolled into this dose level. No patients developed the pre-defined dose-limiting toxicities. For late toxicities, however, one patient developed Grade 3 rectal hemorrhage requiring transfusion at 10 months after treatment. The median survival time was 50.0 months for the five surviving patients. No further dose escalation was performed, and we determined the dose of level one as the recommended rectosigmoid dose. Although our results are preliminary, the study regimen encourages further investigation (registration: UMIN000013340). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Radiotherapy)
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Open AccessReview Oxidative Phosphorylation: A Target for Novel Therapeutic Strategies Against Ovarian Cancer
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090337
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Aerobic glycolysis is an important metabolic adaptation of cancer cells. There is growing evidence that oxidative phosphorylation is also an active metabolic pathway in many tumors, including in high grade serous ovarian cancer. Metastasized ovarian tumors use fatty acids for their energy needs.
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Aerobic glycolysis is an important metabolic adaptation of cancer cells. There is growing evidence that oxidative phosphorylation is also an active metabolic pathway in many tumors, including in high grade serous ovarian cancer. Metastasized ovarian tumors use fatty acids for their energy needs. There is also evidence of ovarian cancer stem cells privileging oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for their metabolic needs. Metformin and thiazolidinediones such as rosiglitazone restrict tumor growth by inhibiting specific steps in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. These observations suggest that strategies to interfere with oxidative phosphorylation should be considered for the treatment of ovarian tumors. Here, we review the literature that supports this hypothesis and describe potential agents and critical control points in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway that can be targeted using small molecule agents. In this review, we also discuss potential barriers that can reduce the efficacy of the inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Tumor Microenvironment of High Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer)
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Open AccessReview Revisiting Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) in Cancer: Saint or Sinner?
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090336
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Human neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a glycoprotein present in a wide variety of tissues and cell types. NGAL exists as a 25 kDa monomer, a 46 kDa homodimer (the most abundant form in healthy subjects) and a 130 kDa disulfide-linked heterodimer bound
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Human neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a glycoprotein present in a wide variety of tissues and cell types. NGAL exists as a 25 kDa monomer, a 46 kDa homodimer (the most abundant form in healthy subjects) and a 130 kDa disulfide-linked heterodimer bound to latent matrix metalloproteinase-9. Dysregulated expression of NGAL in human malignancies suggests its value as a clinical marker. A growing body of evidence is highlighting NGAL’s paradoxical (i.e., both beneficial and detrimental) effects on cellular processes associated with tumor development (proliferation, survival, migration, invasion, and multidrug resistance). At least two distinct cell surface receptors are identified for NGAL. This review (i) summarizes our current knowledge of NGAL’s expression profiles in solid tumors and leukemias, and (ii) critically evaluates the beneficial and detrimental activities of NGAL having been documented in a diverse range of cancer-derived cell lines. A better understanding of the causal relationships between NGAL dysregulation and tumor development will require a fine analysis of the molecular aspects and biological role(s) of NGAL both in primary tumors and at different stages of disease. Having an accurate picture of NGAL’s contribution to tumor progression is a prerequisite for attempting to modulate this protein as a putative therapeutic target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Biomarkers)
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Open AccessArticle Combination of EGFR Inhibitor Lapatinib and MET Inhibitor Foretinib Inhibits Migration of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Lines
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090335
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most challenging subtype to treat due to the lack of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 expression, which excludes the usage of directed targeted therapy against them. Promising therapeutic targets are the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET)
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Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most challenging subtype to treat due to the lack of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 expression, which excludes the usage of directed targeted therapy against them. Promising therapeutic targets are the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which expression is frequently elevated in TNBC. Inhibitors of these receptors used as monotherapy are often ineffective. Due to that, we studied the efficacy of combined therapy targeting MET and EGFR simultaneously. Two TNBC cell lines were treated with lapatinib (a dual EGFR and HER2 inhibitor), foretinib (a MET inhibitor), or a combination of the two. After the inhibitors treatment, we verified the cell viability (XTT assay), distribution of the cell cycle phases, the activation of signaling pathways (Western blotting), distribution of invadopodia, fluorescent gelatin digestion (immunofluorescence), and the invasion capacity of cells. A combination of foretinib and lapatinib effectively reduced the viability of examined cells, led to G2/M arrest and reduction of pAKT. There was also a decreasein number of invadopodia formed by cells, their ability to digest gelatin and reduction of cells migration/invasion capacity. Therapy targeting of both EGFR and MET receptors was much more effective against tested cells than monotherapy. We selected a combination of drugs that could be successfully used against this breast cancer subtype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tyrosine Kinase Signaling Pathways in Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Factors Secreted by Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts that Sustain Cancer Stem Properties in Head and Neck Squamous Carcinoma Cells as Potential Therapeutic Targets
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090334
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
This study investigates for the first time the crosstalk between stromal fibroblasts and cancer stem cell (CSC) biology in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), with the ultimate goal of identifying effective therapeutic targets. The effects of conditioned media from cancer-associated fibroblasts
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This study investigates for the first time the crosstalk between stromal fibroblasts and cancer stem cell (CSC) biology in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), with the ultimate goal of identifying effective therapeutic targets. The effects of conditioned media from cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and normal fibroblasts (NFs) on the CSC phenotype were assessed by combining functional and expression analyses in HNSCC-derived cell lines. Further characterization of CAFs and NFs secretomes by mass spectrometry was followed by pharmacologic target inhibition. We demonstrate that factors secreted by CAFs but not NFs, in the absence of serum/supplements, robustly increased anchorage-independent growth, tumorsphere formation, and CSC-marker expression. Modulators of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) activity were identified as paracrine cytokines/factors differentially secreted between CAFs and NFs, in a mass spectrometry analysis. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition of EGFR, IGFR, and PDGFR significantly reduced CAF-induced tumorsphere formation and anchorage-independent growth suggesting a role of these receptor tyrosine kinases in sustaining the CSC phenotype. These findings provide novel insights into tumor stroma–CSC communication, and potential therapeutic targets to effectively block the CAF-enhanced CSC niche signaling circuit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting Head and Neck Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Proton Beam Therapy in Combination with Intra-Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy for T4 Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Maxillary Gingiva
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090333
Received: 26 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect and toxicity of proton beam therapy in combination with intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary gingiva. Between December 2010 and March 2016, 30 patients with T4 squamous cell carcinoma
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This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect and toxicity of proton beam therapy in combination with intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary gingiva. Between December 2010 and March 2016, 30 patients with T4 squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary gingiva were treated with radiotherapy and retrograde intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy using cisplatin (20–40 mg/m2, 4–6 times). Radiotherapy was basically administered using boost proton beam therapy for primary tumor and neck lymph node tumors, following 36–40 Gy photon radiation therapy delivered to the prophylactic area, to a total dose of 70.4–74.8 Gy. The median follow-up was 33 months. The 3-year local control and overall survival rates were 69% and 59%, respectively. Major grade 3 or higher acute toxicities included mucositis, neutropenia, and dermatitis in 12 (40%), 5 (17%), and 3 (10%) patients, respectively. No grade 3 or higher late toxicities were observed. These results suggested that proton beam therapy in combination with intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy was not inferior to other treatment protocols and should be considered as a safe and effective option in patients with T4 squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary gingiva. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle Clonal Heterogeneity Reflected by PI3K-AKT-mTOR Signaling in Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells and Its Association with Adverse Prognosis
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090332
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Clonal heterogeneity detected by karyotyping is a biomarker associated with adverse prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Constitutive activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt-mechanistic target of rapamycin (PI3K-Akt-mTOR) pathway is present in AML cells, and this pathway integrates signaling from several upstream receptors/mediators. We suggest
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Clonal heterogeneity detected by karyotyping is a biomarker associated with adverse prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Constitutive activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt-mechanistic target of rapamycin (PI3K-Akt-mTOR) pathway is present in AML cells, and this pathway integrates signaling from several upstream receptors/mediators. We suggest that this pathway reflects biologically important clonal heterogeneity. We investigated constitutive PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway activation in primary human AML cells derived from 114 patients, together with 18 pathway mediators. The cohort included patients with normal karyotype or single karyotype abnormalities and with an expected heterogeneity of molecular genetic abnormalities. Clonal heterogeneity reflected as pathway mediator heterogeneity was detected for 49 patients. Global gene expression profiles of AML cell populations with and without clonal heterogeneity differed with regard to expression of ectopic olfactory receptors (a subset of G-protein coupled receptors) and proteins involved in G-protein coupled receptor signaling. Finally, the presence of clonal heterogeneity was associated with adverse prognosis for patients receiving intensive antileukemic treatment. The clonal heterogeneity as reflected in the activation status of selected mediators in the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway was associated with a different gene expression profile and had an independent prognostic impact. Biological heterogeneity reflected in the intracellular signaling status should be further investigated as a prognostic biomarker in human AML. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Biomarkers)
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Open AccessArticle TRPC6 Channels Are Required for Proliferation, Migration and Invasion of Breast Cancer Cell Lines by Modulation of Orai1 and Orai3 Surface Exposure
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090331
Received: 5 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Transient receptor potential channels convey signaling information from a number of stimuli to a wide variety of cellular functions, mainly by inducing changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. Different members of the TRPC, TRPM and TRPV subfamilies have been reported to play a
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Transient receptor potential channels convey signaling information from a number of stimuli to a wide variety of cellular functions, mainly by inducing changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. Different members of the TRPC, TRPM and TRPV subfamilies have been reported to play a role in tumorigenesis. Here we show that the estrogen receptor positive and triple negative breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, respectively, exhibit enhanced expression of the TRPC6 channel as compared to the non-tumoral MCF10A cell line. In vitro TRPC6 knockdown using shRNA impaired MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation, migration and invasion detected by BrdU incorporation, wound healing and Boyden chamber assays, respectively. Using RNAi-mediated TRPC6 silencing as well as overexpression of the pore-dead dominant-negative TRPC6 mutant we have found that TRPC6 plays a relevant role in the activation of store-operated Ca2+ entry in the breast cancer cell lines but not in non-tumoral breast cells. Finally, we have found that TRPC6 interacts with Orai1 and Orai3 in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and is required for the translocation of Orai1 and Orai3 to the plasma membrane in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells, respectively, upon Ca2+ store depletion. These findings introduce a novel mechanism for the modulation of Ca2+ influx and the development of different cancer hallmarks in breast cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Channels in Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Proliferative and Invasive Colorectal Tumors in Pet Dogs Provide Unique Insights into Human Colorectal Cancer
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090330
Received: 2 September 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Spontaneous tumors in pet dogs represent a valuable but undercharacterized cancer model. To better use this resource, we performed an initial global comparison between proliferative and invasive colorectal tumors from 20 canine cases, and evaluated their molecular homology to human colorectal cancer (CRC).
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Spontaneous tumors in pet dogs represent a valuable but undercharacterized cancer model. To better use this resource, we performed an initial global comparison between proliferative and invasive colorectal tumors from 20 canine cases, and evaluated their molecular homology to human colorectal cancer (CRC). First, proliferative canine tumors harbor overactivated WNT/β-catenin pathways and recurrent CTNNB1 (β-catenin) mutations S45F/P, D32Y and G34E. Invasive canine tumors harbor prominent fibroblast proliferation and overactivated stroma. Both groups have recurrent TP53 mutations. We observed three invasion patterns in canine tumors: collective, crypt-like and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). We detected enriched Helicobacter bilis and Alistipes finegoldii in proliferative and crypt-like tumors, but depleted mucosa-microbes in the EMT tumor. Second, guided by our canine findings, we classified 79% of 478 human colon cancers from The Cancer Genome Atlas into four subtypes: primarily proliferative, or with collective, crypt-like or EMT invasion features. Their molecular characteristics match those of canine tumors. We showed that consensus molecular subtype 4 (mesenchymal) of human CRC should be further divided into EMT and crypt-like subtypes, which differ in TGF-β activation and mucosa-microbe content. Our canine tumors share the same pathogenic pathway as human CRCs. Dog-human integration identifies three CRC invasion patterns and improves CRC subtyping. Full article
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Open AccessReview Repurposing of Drugs Targeting YAP-TEAD Functions
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090329
Received: 4 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Drug repurposing is a fast and consolidated approach for the research of new active compounds bypassing the long streamline of the drug discovery process. Several drugs in clinical practice have been reported for modulating the major Hippo pathway’s terminal effectors, namely YAP (Yes1-associated
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Drug repurposing is a fast and consolidated approach for the research of new active compounds bypassing the long streamline of the drug discovery process. Several drugs in clinical practice have been reported for modulating the major Hippo pathway’s terminal effectors, namely YAP (Yes1-associated protein), TAZ (transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif) and TEAD (transcriptional enhanced associate domains), which are directly involved in the regulation of cell growth and tissue homeostasis. Since this pathway is known to have many cross-talking phenomena with cell signaling pathways, many efforts have been made to understand its importance in oncology. Moreover, this could be relevant to obtain new molecular tools and potential therapeutic assets. In this review, we discuss the main mechanisms of action of the best-known compounds, clinically approved or investigational drugs, able to cross-talk and modulate the Hippo pathway, as an attractive strategy for the discovery of new potential lead compounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Clinical Impact of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Regulating MicroRNAs in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090328
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive carcinoma entities worldwide with early and rapid dissemination. Recently, we discussed the role of microRNAs as epigenetic regulators of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in PDAC. In this study, we investigated their value as diagnostic
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive carcinoma entities worldwide with early and rapid dissemination. Recently, we discussed the role of microRNAs as epigenetic regulators of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in PDAC. In this study, we investigated their value as diagnostic and prognostic markers in tissue and blood samples of 185 patients including PDAC, non-malignant pancreatic disorders, and age-matched healthy controls. Expression of the microRNA-200-family (microRNAs -141, -200a, -200b, -200c, -429) and microRNA-148a was significantly downregulated in tissue of PDAC Union internationale contre le cancer (UICC) Stage II. Correspondingly, stromal PDAC tissue showed strong expression of Fibronectin, Vimentin, and ZEB-1 (Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox) versus low expression of E-cadherin. Transient transfection of microRNA-200b and microRNA-200c mimics resulted in the downregulation of their key target ZEB-1. Inversely, blood serum analyses of patients with PDAC UICC Stages II, III, and IV showed a significant over-expression of microRNA-200-family members, microRNA-148a, microRNA-10b, and microRNA-34a. Correspondingly, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) analyses revealed a significant over-expression of soluble E-cadherin in serum samples of PDAC patients versus healthy controls. The best diagnostic accuracy to distinguish between PDAC and non-PDAC in this patient collective could be achieved in tissue by microRNA-148a with an area under the receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of 0.885 and in blood serum by a panel of microRNA-141, -200b, -200c, and CA.19-9 with an AUC of 0.890. Both diagnostic tools outreach the diagnostic performance of the currently most common diagnostic biomarker CA.19-9 (AUC of 0.834). Kaplan Meier survival analysis of this patient collective revealed an improved overall survival in PDAC patients with high expression of tissue-related microRNA-34a, -141, -200b, -200c, and -429. In conclusion, EMT-regulating microRNAs have great potential as liquid and solid biopsy markers in PDAC patients. Their prognostic and therapeutic benefits remain important tasks for future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA-Associated Cancer Metastasis)
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Open AccessReview The Role of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) and Its Targeted Inhibition in Hematological Malignancies
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090327
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a member of the STAT protein family, can be phosphorylated by receptor-associated Janus kinases (JAKs) in response to stimulation by cytokines and growth factors. It forms homo- or heterodimers that can translocate to the cell
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Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a member of the STAT protein family, can be phosphorylated by receptor-associated Janus kinases (JAKs) in response to stimulation by cytokines and growth factors. It forms homo- or heterodimers that can translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. Constitutive activation of STAT3 has been found to be associated with initiation and progression of various cancers. It can exert proliferative as well as anti-apoptotic effects. This review focuses on the role of STAT3 in pathogenesis i.e., proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis of hematological malignancies viz. leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma, and briefly highlights the potential therapeutic approaches developed against STAT3 activation pathway. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chromogenic Multiplex Immunohistochemistry Reveals Modulation of the Immune Microenvironment Associated with Survival in Elderly Patients with Lung Adenocarcinoma
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090326
Received: 4 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
With underrepresentation of elderly patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) in anti-PD-1/PD-L1 clinical trials, better understanding of the interplay of PD-L1 and tumor-associated immune cells (TAICs) could assist clinicians in stratifying these patients for immunotherapy. One hundred and one patients with LADCs, stratified by
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With underrepresentation of elderly patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) in anti-PD-1/PD-L1 clinical trials, better understanding of the interplay of PD-L1 and tumor-associated immune cells (TAICs) could assist clinicians in stratifying these patients for immunotherapy. One hundred and one patients with LADCs, stratified by age, were included for analysis of PD-L1 expression and density of TAICs expressing CD4, CD8, and CD33, by using multiplex chromogenic immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays and automated digital quantification. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio was significantly higher in elderly patients. In patients <75 years, the density of CD4+, CD8+, and PD-L1 in TAICs showed a positive significant correlation with PD-L1 expression in tumor cells (TCs), while a lower correlation was observed in the elderly population. In the latter, a high CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and combined PD-L1 expression ≥1% TCs with a low CD8+ density, low CD33+ density, and a high CD4+ density correlated to worse overall survival. We identified differences according to age in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio and in correlation between PD-L1 expression and the density of TAICs in LADC patients. Distinct groups of tumor microenvironments had an impact on the OS of elderly patients with LADC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle G9a Correlates with VLA-4 Integrin and Influences the Migration of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090325
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common pediatric cancer. As ALL progresses, leukemic cells cross the endothelial barrier and infiltrate other tissues. Epigenetic enzymes represent novel therapeutic targets in hematological malignancies, and might contribute to cells’ capacity to migrate across physical barriers.
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Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common pediatric cancer. As ALL progresses, leukemic cells cross the endothelial barrier and infiltrate other tissues. Epigenetic enzymes represent novel therapeutic targets in hematological malignancies, and might contribute to cells’ capacity to migrate across physical barriers. Although many molecules drive this process, the role of the nucleus and its components remain unclear. We report here, for the first time, that the expression of G9a (a histone methyltransferase related with gene silencing) correlates with the expression of the integrin subunit α4 in children with ALL. We have demonstrated that G9a depletion or its inhibition with BIX01294 abrogated the ability of ALL cells to migrate through an endothelial monolayer. Moreover, G9a-depleted and BIX01294-treated cells presented bigger nuclei and more adherent phenotype than control cells on endothelial monolayers. Blocking G9a did not affect the cell cytoskeleton or integrin expression of ALL cell lines, and only its depletion reduced slightly F-actin polymerization. Similarly to the transendothelial migration, G9a inhibition impaired the cell migration induced by the integrin VLA-4 (α4β1) of primary cells and ALL cell lines through narrow spaces in vitro. Our results suggest a cellular connection between G9a and VLA-4, which underlies novel functions of G9a during ALL cell migration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Influence on Cancer Metastasis and/or Treatment Resistance)
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Open AccessPerspective No Increase in Colon Cancer Risk Following Induction with Neu5Gc-Bearing Rabbit Anti-T Cell IgG (ATG) in Recipients of Kidney Transplants
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090324
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
Because of a mutation of the gene allowing the synthesis of the Neu5Gc form of neuraminidic acid, humans lack the Neu5Gc present in other mammals and develop anti-Neu5Gc. However, humans can absorb dietary Neu5Gc and normal colon epithelium displays minute amounts of Neu5Gc.
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Because of a mutation of the gene allowing the synthesis of the Neu5Gc form of neuraminidic acid, humans lack the Neu5Gc present in other mammals and develop anti-Neu5Gc. However, humans can absorb dietary Neu5Gc and normal colon epithelium displays minute amounts of Neu5Gc. The potential “physiological” formation of in situ immune complexes has been proposed as a risk factor for colon cancer and as the link between red meat-rich diet and colon carcinoma. In this article, we took advantage of evidence that polyclonal rabbit IgG (ATG) elicits an immune response against Neu5Gc and we consulted a large data base of allograft recipients treated or not with animal-derived IgG to discuss this hypothesis. Based on data from 173,960 and 38,505 patients without and with ATG induction, respectively, we found no evidence that exposure to higher levels of anti-Neu5Gc is associated with a higher incidence of colon carcinoma. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle CAR-T Cells Based on Novel BCMA Monoclonal Antibody Block Multiple Myeloma Cell Growth
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090323
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
The cell-surface protein B cell maturation antigen (BCMA, CD269) has emerged as a promising target for CAR-T cell therapy for multiple myeloma. In order to create a novel BCMA CAR, we generated a new BCMA monoclonal antibody, clone 4C8A. This antibody exhibited strong
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The cell-surface protein B cell maturation antigen (BCMA, CD269) has emerged as a promising target for CAR-T cell therapy for multiple myeloma. In order to create a novel BCMA CAR, we generated a new BCMA monoclonal antibody, clone 4C8A. This antibody exhibited strong and selective binding to human BCMA. BCMA CAR-T cells containing the 4C8A scFv were readily detected with recombinant BCMA protein by flow cytometry. The cells were cytolytic for RPMI8226, H929, and MM1S multiple myeloma cells and secreted high levels of IFN-γ in vitro. BCMA-dependent cytotoxicity and IFN-γ secretion were also observed in response to CHO (Chinese Hamster Ovary)-BCMA cells but not to parental CHO cells. In a mouse subcutaneous tumor model, BCMA CAR-T cells significantly blocked RPMI8226 tumor formation. When BCMA CAR-T cells were given to mice with established RPMI8226 tumors, the tumors experienced significant shrinkage due to CAR-T cell activity and tumor cell apoptosis. The same effect was observed with 3 humanized BCMA-CAR-T cells in vivo. These data indicate that novel CAR-T cells utilizing the BCMA 4C8A scFv are effective against multiple myeloma and warrant future clinical development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CAR-T Cell Therapy-Novel Approaches and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Monotherapy versus Image-Guided Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy with Helical Tomotherapy for Patients with Localized Prostate Cancer
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090322
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to compare outcomes between high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-BT) monotherapy and image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) for localized prostate cancer. We examined 353 HDR-BT and 270 IG-IMRT patients. To reduce background selection bias, we used the method of inverse
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The aim of this paper is to compare outcomes between high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-BT) monotherapy and image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) for localized prostate cancer. We examined 353 HDR-BT and 270 IG-IMRT patients. To reduce background selection bias, we used the method of inverse probability treatment weighting (IPTW) with propensity scores. The actuarial five-year biochemical failure-free survival rates were 92.9% and 96.7% (p = 0.1847; p = 0.077 in IPTW) for HDR-BT and IG-IMRT, respectively; they were 100% and 95.8% (p = 0.286) for the low-risk group, 95.6% and 92% (p = 0.42) for the intermediate-risk group, 90.4% and 84.9% (p = 0.1059; p = 0.04 in IPTW) for the high-risk group, and 87.1% and 89.2% (p = 0.3816) for the very-high-risk group. In the assessment of accumulated incidences of grade ≥ 2 toxicity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0) at five years, HDR-BT monotherapy showed higher genitourinary toxicity (11.9%) than IG-IMRT (3.3%) (p < 0.0001). The gastrointestinal toxicity was equivalent for HDR-BT (2.3%) and IG-IMRT (5.5%) (p = 0.063). No Grade 4 or 5 toxicity was detected in either modality. HDR-BT showed higher genitourinary toxicity than IG-IMRT. HDR-BT and IG-IMRT showed equivalent outcomes in low-, intermediate-, and very-high-risk groups. For high-risk patients, HDR-BT showed potential to improve prostate-specific antigen (PSA) control rate compared to IG-IMRT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Radiotherapy)
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Open AccessArticle miR-9-5p in Nephrectomy Specimens is a Potential Predictor of Primary Resistance to First-Line Treatment with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090321
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
Approximately 20–30% of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in first-line treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) do not respond due to primary resistance to this drug. At present, suitable robust biomarkers for prediction of a response are not available. Therefore, the
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Approximately 20–30% of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in first-line treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) do not respond due to primary resistance to this drug. At present, suitable robust biomarkers for prediction of a response are not available. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate a panel of microRNAs (miRNAs) in nephrectomy specimens for use as predictive biomarkers for TKI resistance. Archived formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded nephrectomy samples from 60 mRCC patients treated with first-line TKIs (sunitinib, n = 51; pazopanib, n = 6; sorafenib, n = 3) were categorized into responders and non-responders. Using the standard Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, patients with progressive disease within 3 months after the start of treatment with TKI were considered as non-responders and those patients with stable disease and complete or partial response under the TKI treatment for at least 6 months as responders. Based on a miRNA microarray expression profile in the two stratified groups of patients, seven differentially expressed miRNAs were validated using droplet digital reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays in the two groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and binary logistic regression of response prediction were performed. MiR-9-5p and miR-489-3p were able to discriminate between the two groups. MiR-9-5p, as the most significant miRNA, improved the correct prediction of primary resistance against TKIs in comparison to that of conventional clinicopathological variables. The results of the decision curve analyses, Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox regression analyses confirmed the potential of miR-9-5p in the prediction of response to TKIs and the prediction of progression-free survival after the initiation of TKI treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Biomarkers)
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Open AccessArticle Melatonin Sensitizes Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells to Chemotherapy Through Long Non-Coding RNA RAD51-AS1-Mediated Suppression of DNA Repair
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090320
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
DNA repair systems are abnormally active in most hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells due to accumulated mutations, resulting in elevated DNA repair capacity and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Thus, targeting DNA repair mechanisms is a common treatment approach in HCC to sensitize cancer
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DNA repair systems are abnormally active in most hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells due to accumulated mutations, resulting in elevated DNA repair capacity and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Thus, targeting DNA repair mechanisms is a common treatment approach in HCC to sensitize cancer cells to DNA damage. In this study, we examined the anti-HCC effects of melatonin and elucidated the regulatory mechanisms. The results of functional assays showed that in addition to inhibiting the proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities of HCC cells, melatonin suppressed their DNA repair capacity, thereby promoting the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Whole-transcriptome and gain- and loss-of-function analyses revealed that melatonin induces expression of the long noncoding RNA RAD51-AS1, which binds to RAD51 mRNA to inhibit its translation, effectively decreasing the DNA repair capacity of HCC cells and increasing their sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Animal models further demonstrated that a combination of melatonin and the chemotherapeutic agent etoposide (VP16) can significantly enhance tumor growth inhibition compared with monotherapy. Our results show that melatonin is a potential adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy and radiotherapy in HCC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Tumor Regression Grade as a Major Prognostic Factor in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer after Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy: A Proposal for a Modified Staging System
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090319
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
There is ongoing debate regarding the significance of complete or near-complete response after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for rectal cancer. This study assessed the prognostic value of the Dworak tumor regression grade (TRG) following neoadjuvant CRT and surgery primarily in patients with pathological stage
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There is ongoing debate regarding the significance of complete or near-complete response after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for rectal cancer. This study assessed the prognostic value of the Dworak tumor regression grade (TRG) following neoadjuvant CRT and surgery primarily in patients with pathological stage (ypStage) II and III rectal cancer. The records of 331 patients who underwent neoadjuvant CRT followed by total mesorectal excision between 2004 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were categorized as having a good response (GR, TRG 3/4, n = 122) or a poor response (PR, TRG 1/2, n = 209). At a median follow-up of 65 months, five-year disease-free survival (DFS) was higher in the GR group than in the PR group (91.3% vs. 66.6%, p < 0.001). Patients with a GR and ypStage II disease had a five-year DFS that was indistinguishable from that of patients with ypStage 0–I disease (92.3% vs. 90.7%, p = 0.885). Likewise, patients with a GR and ypStage III disease had a five-year DFS similar to those with ypStage II disease (76.0% vs. 75.9%, p = 0.789). A new modified staging system that incorporates grouped TRG (GR vs. PR) was developed. The prognostic performance of this modified stage and the ypStage was compared with the Harrell C statistic. C statistic of the modified stage was higher than that of the ypStage (0.784 vs. 0.757, p = 0.012). The results remained robust after multivariate Cox regression analyses. In conclusion, a GR to neoadjuvant CRT is an independent predictor of good DFS and overall survival and further stratifies patients so as to estimate the risk of recurrence and survival among patients with ypStage II and III rectal cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nutrition Impact Symptoms Are Prognostic of Quality of Life and Mortality After Surgery for Oesophageal Cancer
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090318
Received: 22 July 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
We aimed to clarify the influence of nutritional problems after surgery for oesophageal cancer on functional health related quality of life (HRQOL) and survival. A prospective nationwide cohort of oesophageal cancer patients operated 2001–2005 in Sweden with 6 months postoperative follow up was
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We aimed to clarify the influence of nutritional problems after surgery for oesophageal cancer on functional health related quality of life (HRQOL) and survival. A prospective nationwide cohort of oesophageal cancer patients operated 2001–2005 in Sweden with 6 months postoperative follow up was used. Nutritional problems were categorized as low/moderate/severe/very severe based on weight loss and nutrition impact symptoms. An ANCOVA model calculated mean score differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of global quality of life (QOL), social and physical function scores, stratified by preoperative body mass index (BMI) <25 and ≥25. A Cox proportional hazards model produced hazard ratios (HR) with 95% CI for overall 5-year survival. Of 358 patients, 196 (55%) had preoperative BMI ≥25. Very severe and severe nutritional problems were associated with worse HRQOL in both BMI groups. E.g. MD’s for global QOL among ‘very severe’ group was −29 (95% CI −39–−19) and −20 (95% CI −29–−11) for <25 and ≥25 BMI, respectively, compared to the ‘low’ group. Overall 5-year survival among ‘very severe’ and BMI ≥ 25 was worse; HR 4.6 (95% CI 1.4–15.6). Intense nutritional problems negatively impact postoperative HRQOL and combined with preoperative BMI ≥ 25 are associated with poorer 5-year overall survival representing a group needing greater clinical attention. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Transcriptome Signatures of Canine Mammary Gland Tumors and Its Comparison to Human Breast Cancers
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090317
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
Breast cancer (BC)/mammary gland carcinoma (MGC) is the most frequently diagnosed and leading cause of cancer-related mortality in both women and canines. To better understand both canine MGC and human BC-specific genes, we sequenced RNAs obtained from eight pairs of carcinomas and adjacent
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Breast cancer (BC)/mammary gland carcinoma (MGC) is the most frequently diagnosed and leading cause of cancer-related mortality in both women and canines. To better understand both canine MGC and human BC-specific genes, we sequenced RNAs obtained from eight pairs of carcinomas and adjacent normal tissues in dogs. By comprehensive transcriptome analysis, 351 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in overall canine MGCs. Based on the DEGs, comparative analysis revealed correlation existing among the three histological subtypes of canine MGC (ductal, simple, and complex) and four molecular subtypes of human BC (HER2+, ER+, ER&HER2+, and TNBC). Eight DEGs shared by all three subtypes of canine MGCs had been previously reported as cancer-associated genes in human studies. Gene ontology and pathway analyses using the identified DEGs revealed that the biological processes of cell proliferation, adhesion, and inflammatory responses are enriched in up-regulated MGC DEGs. In contrast, fatty acid homeostasis and transcription regulation involved in cell fate commitment were down-regulated in MGC DEGs. Moreover, correlations are demonstrated between upstream promoter transcripts and DEGs. Canine MGC- and subtype-enriched gene expression allows us to better understand both human BC and canine MGC, yielding new insight into the development of biomarkers and targets for both diseases. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Extracellular Matrix and Pancreatic Cancer: A Complex Relationship
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090316
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 2 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has an extraordinarily dense fibrotic stroma that impedes tumor perfusion and delivery of anticancer drugs. Since the extracellular matrix (ECM) comprises the bulk of the stroma, it is primarily responsible for the increased interstitial tissue pressure and stiff mechanical
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has an extraordinarily dense fibrotic stroma that impedes tumor perfusion and delivery of anticancer drugs. Since the extracellular matrix (ECM) comprises the bulk of the stroma, it is primarily responsible for the increased interstitial tissue pressure and stiff mechanical properties of the stroma. Besides its mechanical influence, the ECM provides important biochemical and physical cues that promote survival, proliferation, and metastasis. By serving as a nutritional source, the ECM also enables PDAC cells to survive under the nutrient-poor conditions. While therapeutic strategies using stroma-depleting drugs have yielded disappointing results, an increasing body of research indicates the ECM may offer a variety of potential therapeutic targets. As preclinical studies of ECM-targeted drugs have shown promising effects, a number of clinical trials are currently investigating agents with the potential to advance the future treatment of PDAC. Thus, the present review seeks to give an overview of the complex relationship between the ECM and PDAC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Development in Pancreatic Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Could miRNA Signatures be Useful for Predicting Uterine Sarcoma and Carcinosarcoma Prognosis and Treatment?
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090315
Received: 21 July 2018 / Revised: 1 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
Changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression may lead to cancer development and/or contribute to its progression; however, their role in uterine sarcomas is poorly understood. Uterine sarcomas (US) belong to a rare class of heterogeneous tumors, representing about 1% of all gynecologic neoplasms. This
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Changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression may lead to cancer development and/or contribute to its progression; however, their role in uterine sarcomas is poorly understood. Uterine sarcomas (US) belong to a rare class of heterogeneous tumors, representing about 1% of all gynecologic neoplasms. This study aimed to assess the expression profile of 84 cancer-related miRNAs and to evaluate their correlation with clinical pathological features. Eighty-two formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples were selected. In leiomyosarcoma (LMS), there was an association of lower cancer-specific survival (CSS) with the downregulation of miR-125a-5p and miR-10a-5p, and the upregulation of miR-196a-5p and miR-34c-5p. In carcinosarcoma (CS), lower CSS was associated with the upregulation of miR-184, and the downregulation of let-7b-5p and miR-124. In endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS), the upregulation of miR-373-3p, miR-372-3p, and let-7b-5p, and the down-expression of let-7f-5p, miR-23-3p, and let-7b-5p were associated with lower CSS. Only miR-138-5p upregulation was associated with higher survival rates. miR-335-5p, miR-301a-3p, and miR-210-3p were more highly expressed in patients with tumor metastasis and relapse. miR-138-5p, miR-146b-5p, and miR-218-5p expression were associated with higher disease-free survival (DFS) in treated patients. These miRNAs represent potential prediction markers for prognosis and treatment response in these tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA-Associated Cancer Metastasis)
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Open AccessArticle PTPRT and PTPRD Deleterious Mutations and Deletion Predict Bevacizumab Resistance in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090314
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 25 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
Background: Bevacizumab-based regimens are used as standard treatments for colorectal cancer. Unfortunately, there are no established predictive markers for bevacizumab response. Methods: Tumor samples from 36 metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy were analyzed by next-generation sequencing of all coding
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Background: Bevacizumab-based regimens are used as standard treatments for colorectal cancer. Unfortunately, there are no established predictive markers for bevacizumab response. Methods: Tumor samples from 36 metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy were analyzed by next-generation sequencing of all coding exons of more than 400 genes. Single gene and signaling pathway analyses were performed to correlate genomic data with response. Results: Among the genes most frequently mutated in our cohort, only mutations in PTPRT, a phosphatase involved in JAK/STAT signaling, were associated with response status, with deleterious mutations being enriched in non-responders. Pathway analysis revealed that deleterious mutations in genes of the JAK/STAT pathway, namely in PTPRT and the related gene PTPRD, correlated with resistance. Mutations in RTK/PI3K/RAS, Wnt and TGFβ pathways did not associate with response. Lack of response was observed in all patients with deleterious mutations or copy number loss of PTPRT/PTPRD (n = 10), compared to only 30.8% (n = 8) of patients without such alterations (relative risk, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.83–5.79, p = 0.0003). Similarly, PTPRT/PTPRD deleterious alterations were associated with shorter progression-free survival, an association that was retained in multivariate analysis (HR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.47–7.54; p = 0.0038). Conclusion: Deleterious alterations in PTPRT/PTPRD are potential biomarkers for bevacizumab resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Resistance in Cancers)
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Open AccessArticle Non-Invasive Assessment of Lactate Production and Compartmentalization in Renal Cell Carcinomas Using Hyperpolarized 13C Pyruvate MRI
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090313
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
Optimal treatment selection for localized renal tumors is challenging due to their variable biological behavior and limited ability to pre-operatively assess their aggressiveness. We investigated hyperpolarized (HP) 13C pyruvate MRI to noninvasively assess tumor lactate production and compartmentalization, which are strongly associated
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Optimal treatment selection for localized renal tumors is challenging due to their variable biological behavior and limited ability to pre-operatively assess their aggressiveness. We investigated hyperpolarized (HP) 13C pyruvate MRI to noninvasively assess tumor lactate production and compartmentalization, which are strongly associated with renal tumor aggressiveness. Orthotopic tumors were created in mice using human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) lines (A498, 786-O, UOK262) with varying expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) which catalyzes the pyruvate-to-lactate conversion, and varying expression of monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) which mediates lactate export out of the cells. Dynamic HP 13C pyruvate MRI showed that the A498 tumors had significantly higher 13C pyruvate-to-lactate conversion than the UOK262 and 786-O tumors, corresponding to higher A498 tumor LDHA expression. Additionally, diffusion-weighted HP 13C pyruvate MRI showed that the A498 tumors had significantly higher 13C lactate apparent diffusion coefficients compared to 786-O tumors, with corresponding higher MCT4 expression, which likely reflects more rapid lactate export in the A498 tumors. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of HP 13C pyruvate MRI to inform on tumor lactate production and compartmentalization, and provide the scientific premise for future clinical investigation into the utility of this technique to noninvasively interrogate renal tumor aggressiveness and to guide treatment selection. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report Serial MRI Imaging Reveals Minimal Impact of Ketogenic Diet on Established Liver Tumor Growth
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090312
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 29 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
Rodent models of liver tumorigenesis have reproducibly shown that dietary sugar intake is a powerful driver of liver tumor initiation and growth. In contrast, dietary sugar restriction with ketogenic diets or calorie restriction generally prevents liver tumor formation. Ketogenic diet is viewed positively
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Rodent models of liver tumorigenesis have reproducibly shown that dietary sugar intake is a powerful driver of liver tumor initiation and growth. In contrast, dietary sugar restriction with ketogenic diets or calorie restriction generally prevents liver tumor formation. Ketogenic diet is viewed positively as a therapeutic adjuvant; however, most ketogenic diet studies described to date have been performed in prevention mode rather than treatment mode. Therefore, it remains unclear whether a ketogenic diet can be administered in late stages of disease to stall or reverse liver tumor growth. To model the clinically relevant treatment mode, we administered a ketogenic diet to mice after liver tumor initiation and monitored tumor growth by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Male C57BL/6 mice were injected with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at 2 weeks of age and fed a chow diet until 39 weeks of age, when they underwent MRI imaging to detect liver tumors. Mice were then randomised into two groups and fed either a chow diet or switched to a ketogenic diet from 40–48 weeks of age. Serial MRIs were performed at 44 and 48 weeks of age. All mice had tumors at study completion and there were no differences in total tumor burden between diet groups. Although a ketogenic diet has marked protective effects against DEN-induced liver tumourigenesis in this mouse model, these data demonstrate that ketogenic diet cannot stop the progression of established liver tumors. Full article
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