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Dietary Magnesium and Incident Frailty in Older People at Risk for Knee Osteoarthritis: An Eight-Year Longitudinal Study

Ambulatory of Clinical Nutrition, Research Hospital, IRCCS “S. de Bellis”, Castellana Grotte, 70013 Bari, Italy
Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry, National Institute of Gastroenterology-Research Hospital, IRCCS “S. de Bellis”, Castellana Grotte, 70013 Bari, Italy
National Research Council, Neuroscience Institute, Aging Branch, Via Giustiniani, 2, 35128 Padua, Italy
South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AZ, UK
Faculty of Health, Social Care and Education, Anglia Ruskin University, Bishop Hall Lane, Chelmsford CM1 1SQ, UK
Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience (IoPPN) King’s College London, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK
Geriatric Unit, Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, University of Palermo, 90142 Palermo, Italy
NICM Health Research Institute, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2751, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1253;
Received: 21 October 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium Intake and Human Health)
Inadequate magnesium (Mg) intake is associated with lower physical performance, but the relationship with frailty in older people is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether higher dietary Mg intake is associated with a lower risk of frailty in a large cohort of North American individuals. Details regarding Mg intake were recorded through a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and categorized as greater than/equal to Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) vs. lower. Frailty was defined using the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures index. Multivariable Cox’s regression analyses, calculating hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were undertaken by sex. In total, 4421 individuals with knee osteoarthritis or who were at high risk without frailty at baseline (mean age: 61.3, females = 58.0%) were followed for 8 years. After adjusting for 11 potential baseline confounders, reaching the RDA for Mg lowered risk of frailty among men (total n = 1857, HR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.26–0.93), whilst no significant associations were found in women (total n = 2564). Each 100 mg of dietary Mg intake at baseline corresponded to a 22% reduction in men (HR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.62–0.97; p = 0.03), but not in women (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.89–1.23). In conclusion, higher dietary Mg intake appears to reduce the risk of frailty in men, but not in women. View Full-Text
Keywords: frailty; magnesium; older adults; Osteoarthritis Initiative frailty; magnesium; older adults; Osteoarthritis Initiative
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Veronese, N.; Stubbs, B.; Maggi, S.; Notarnicola, M.; Barbagallo, M.; Firth, J.; Dominguez, L.J.; Caruso, M.G. Dietary Magnesium and Incident Frailty in Older People at Risk for Knee Osteoarthritis: An Eight-Year Longitudinal Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1253.

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