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Special Issue "Nut Consumption for Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. David J. Baer

US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nuts; health; humans

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutrients is planning a Special Issue focusing on nut consumption and human health. This Special Issue will focus on research related to all aspects of human health and the consumption of any nut, including studies of individual or mixed nuts. I invite you to submit your latest research on nut consumption and human health to this Special Issue.

Globally, research investigating the relationships between nut consumption and human health continues to be very active. Collectively, results from this body of research contributes to establishing nutrition policy and dietary guidance in many countries. This Special Issue will provide an opportunity to publish a collection of new findings to influence future policy.

All types of human studies will be considered—short-term and long-term intervention trials and epidemiological studies that focus on a variety of chronic diseases of public health concern (such as cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and obesity). In addition, please consider submitting studies investigating the role of nuts in controlling existing disease, management of a healthy body weight, food intake, digestion, fermentation, and microbiome. Submissions of other emerging research areas are encouraged.

Dr. David J. Baer
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

 

Keywords

  • Tree nut
  • Ground nut
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Heart disease
  • Cancer
  • Digestion and Fermentation
  • Food structure
  • Microbiome
  • Body weight
  • Food intake
  • Human health

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Understanding the Effect of Particle Size and Processing on Almond Lipid Bioaccessibility through Microstructural Analysis: From Mastication to Faecal Collection
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020213
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (15094 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We have previously reported on the low lipid bioaccessibility from almond seeds during digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In the present study, we quantified the lipid released during artificial mastication from four almond meals: natural raw almonds (NA), roasted almonds (RA), [...] Read more.
We have previously reported on the low lipid bioaccessibility from almond seeds during digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In the present study, we quantified the lipid released during artificial mastication from four almond meals: natural raw almonds (NA), roasted almonds (RA), roasted diced almonds (DA) and almond butter from roasted almonds (AB). Lipid release after mastication (8.9% from NA, 11.8% from RA, 12.4% from DA and 6.2% from AB) was used to validate our theoretical mathematical model of lipid bioaccessibility. The total lipid potentially available for digestion in AB was 94.0%, which included the freely available lipid resulting from the initial sample processing and the further small amount of lipid released from the intact almond particles during mastication. Particle size distributions measured after mastication in NA, RA and DA showed most of the particles had a size of 1000 µm and above, whereas AB bolus mainly contained small particles (<850 µm). Microstructural analysis of faecal samples from volunteers consuming NA, RA, DA and AB confirmed that some lipid in NA, RA and DA remained encapsulated within the plant tissue throughout digestion, whereas almost complete digestion was observed in the AB sample. We conclude that the structure and particle size of the almond meals are the main factors in regulating lipid bioaccessibility in the gut. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Almond Consumption and Processing Affects the Composition of the Gastrointestinal Microbiota of Healthy Adult Men and Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020126
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: Almond processing has been shown to differentially impact metabolizable energy; however, the effect of food form on the gastrointestinal microbiota is under-investigated. Objective: We aimed to assess the interrelationship of almond consumption and processing on the gastrointestinal microbiota. Design: A controlled-feeding, randomized, [...] Read more.
Background: Almond processing has been shown to differentially impact metabolizable energy; however, the effect of food form on the gastrointestinal microbiota is under-investigated. Objective: We aimed to assess the interrelationship of almond consumption and processing on the gastrointestinal microbiota. Design: A controlled-feeding, randomized, five-period, crossover study with washouts between diet periods was conducted in healthy adults (n = 18). Treatments included: (1) zero servings/day of almonds (control); (2) 1.5 servings (42 g)/day of whole almonds; (3) 1.5 servings/day of whole, roasted almonds; (4) 1.5 servings/day of roasted, chopped almonds; and (5) 1.5 servings/day of almond butter. Fecal samples were collected at the end of each three-week diet period. Results: Almond consumption increased the relative abundances of Lachnospira, Roseburia, and Dialister (p ≤ 0.05). Comparisons between control and the four almond treatments revealed that chopped almonds increased Lachnospira, Roseburia, and Oscillospira compared to control (p < 0.05), while whole almonds increased Dialister compared to control (p = 0.007). There were no differences between almond butter and control. Conclusions: These results reveal that almond consumption induced changes in the microbial community composition of the human gastrointestinal microbiota. Furthermore, the degree of almond processing (e.g., roasting, chopping, and grinding into butter) differentially impacted the relative abundances of bacterial genera. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Nut Consumption and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Mediterranean Population
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121296
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 11 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Nuts are often considered beneficial for health, yet few studies have examined determinants of their intake and the associations between nut consumption and various cardiovascular disease risk factors. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with nut intake in a [...] Read more.
Nuts are often considered beneficial for health, yet few studies have examined determinants of their intake and the associations between nut consumption and various cardiovascular disease risk factors. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with nut intake in a Mediterranean population, in Croatia, and to investigate the association of nut intake and various cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Subjects from the Island of Vis, Island of Korčula and the City of Split were included in this cross-sectional study (n = 4416 in total; 4011 without known cardiovascular disease). Survey responses, medical records and clinically relevant measurements were utilized. Multivariate ordinal and logistic regression models were used in the analysis, adjusting for known confounding factors. Results: As low as 5% of all subjects reported daily, and 11% reported weekly, nut consumption. The characteristics associated with more frequent nut intake were female gender (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19–1.62), highest level of education (1.42; 1.15–1.76) and material status (1.58; 1.29–1.93), smoking abstinence (1.21; 1.04–1.42 in never-smokers and 1.22; 1.02–1.46 in ex-smokers), Mediterranean diet adherence (1.87; 1.62–2.15), and absence of central obesity (1.29; 1.09–1.53), absence of diabetes (1.30; 1.02–1.66) and metabolic syndrome (1.17; 1.01–1.36). Subjects who consumed nuts had more favorable waist-to-height (overall p = 0.036) and waist-to-hip ratios (0.033), lesser odds of elevated fibrinogen (p < 0.001 in both weekly and monthly nut consumers) and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (p = 0.026), compared to non-consumers. Conclusions: It appears that frequent nut consumption is an integral part of a healthy lifestyle and better socioeconomic status. A beneficial association of nut intake with cardiovascular risk factors was confirmed in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Associations between Nut Consumption and Health Vary between Omnivores, Vegetarians, and Vegans
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1219; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111219
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (452 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced risk factors for chronic disease; however, most population-based studies lack consideration of effect modification by dietary pattern. The UK Women’s Cohort Study (UKWCS) provides an ideal opportunity to examine relationships between nut consumption and chronic disease [...] Read more.
Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced risk factors for chronic disease; however, most population-based studies lack consideration of effect modification by dietary pattern. The UK Women’s Cohort Study (UKWCS) provides an ideal opportunity to examine relationships between nut consumption and chronic disease risk factors in a large sample with diverse dietary patterns. Nut and nutrient intake from 34,831 women was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire among self-identified omnivores, vegetarians and vegans. In this cross-sectional analysis, higher nut consumption was associated with lower body weight (difference between highest and lowest consumption categories from adjusted model: 6.1 kg; 95% CI: 4.7, 7.6) body mass index (BMI, 2.4 units difference; 95% CI: 1.9, 2.9), and waist circumference (2.6 cm difference; 95% CI: 1.4, 3.8) (all p for linear trend < 0.001). Higher nut consumption was also associated with reduced prevalence of high cholesterol and high blood pressure; having a history of heart attack, diabetes and gallstones; and markers of diet quality (all adjusted p for linear trend ≤ 0.011). Higher nut consumption appeared overall to be associated with greater benefits amongst omnivores compared to vegetarians and vegans. Findings support existing literature around beneficial effects of nut consumption and suggest that benefits may be larger among omnivores. Nut promotion strategies may have the highest population impact by specifically targeting this group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Inhibitory Effect of Arachis hypogaea (Peanut) and Its Phenolics against Methylglyoxal-Derived Advanced Glycation End Product Toxicity
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111214
Received: 12 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
PDF Full-text (1646 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Methylglyoxal (MGO) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound that causes endothelial dysfunction and plays important roles in the development of diabetic complications. Peanuts are rich in energy, minerals, and antioxidants. Here, we report the potential beneficial effects of peanuts, and particularly the phenolic [...] Read more.
Methylglyoxal (MGO) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound that causes endothelial dysfunction and plays important roles in the development of diabetic complications. Peanuts are rich in energy, minerals, and antioxidants. Here, we report the potential beneficial effects of peanuts, and particularly the phenolic contents, against MGO-mediated cytotoxicity. Firstly, we optimized the extraction conditions for maximum yield of phenolics from peanuts by examining different processing methods and extraction solvents. To estimate the phenolic contents of peanut extracts, a simultaneous analysis method was developed and validated by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. We found that roasted peanuts and their 80% methanol extracts showed the highest amount of total phenolics. Secondly, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of phenolics and peanut extracts against MGO-mediated cytotoxicity. Phenolics and peanut extracts were observed to inhibit advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation as well as to break preformed AGEs. Furthermore, pretreatment with peanut extracts significantly inhibited MGO-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Peanut extracts prevented MGO-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 expression and decreasing Bax expression, and MGO-mediated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). In conclusion, the constituents of peanuts may prevent endothelial dysfunction and diabetic complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
A Walnut-Enriched Diet Reduces Lipids in Healthy Caucasian Subjects, Independent of Recommended Macronutrient Replacement and Time Point of Consumption: a Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1097; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101097
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 6 October 2017
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1811 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Studies indicate a positive association between walnut intake and improvements in plasma lipids. We evaluated the effect of an isocaloric replacement of macronutrients with walnuts and the time point of consumption on plasma lipids. We included 194 healthy subjects (134 females, age 63 [...] Read more.
Studies indicate a positive association between walnut intake and improvements in plasma lipids. We evaluated the effect of an isocaloric replacement of macronutrients with walnuts and the time point of consumption on plasma lipids. We included 194 healthy subjects (134 females, age 63 ± 7 years, BMI 25.1 ± 4.0 kg/m2) in a randomized, controlled, prospective, cross-over study. Following a nut-free run-in period, subjects were randomized to two diet phases (8 weeks each). Ninety-six subjects first followed a walnut-enriched diet (43 g walnuts/day) and then switched to a nut-free diet. Ninety-eight subjects followed the diets in reverse order. Subjects were also randomized to either reduce carbohydrates (n = 62), fat (n = 65), or both (n = 67) during the walnut diet, and instructed to consume walnuts either as a meal or as a snack. The walnut diet resulted in a significant reduction in fasting cholesterol (walnut vs. control: −8.5 ± 37.2 vs. −1.1 ± 35.4 mg/dL; p = 0.002), non-HDL cholesterol (−10.3 ± 35.5 vs. −1.4 ± 33.1 mg/dL; p ≤ 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (−7.4 ± 32.4 vs. −1.7 ± 29.7 mg/dL; p = 0.029), triglycerides (−5.0 ± 47.5 vs. 3.7 ± 48.5 mg/dL; p = 0.015) and apoB (−6.7 ± 22.4 vs. −0.5 ± 37.7; p ≤ 0.001), while HDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) did not change significantly. Neither macronutrient replacement nor time point of consumption significantly affected the effect of walnuts on lipids. Thus, 43 g walnuts/d improved the lipid profile independent of the recommended macronutrient replacement and the time point of consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Prospective Study of Nut Consumption and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101056
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 2 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 23 September 2017
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (250 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the association of various types of nut per se, and total nut consumption with the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A 6.2 ± 0.7-year population-based prospective study was conducted among 1265 adults, aged 19–74 years, participants of the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the association of various types of nut per se, and total nut consumption with the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A 6.2 ± 0.7-year population-based prospective study was conducted among 1265 adults, aged 19–74 years, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. A 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to collect information on nut consumption. MetS was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement guidelines and 276 new cases of MetS were identified. Median ± interquartile range of nut consumption was 2.08 (0.88–5.68) servings/week. After adjusting for family history of diabetes, age, gender, smoking, physical activity, fasting serum glucose at baseline, serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) at baseline, energy intake, fiber, macronutrients, cholesterol intake, fruit, vegetables, dairy products and body mass index (BMI), a statistically significant decrease was observed in MetS in the third (≥5 servings/week) tertile of nuts (odds ratio: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.44–0.91, p trend: 0.03) compared with the lowest (≤1 serving/week). Walnut consumption showed a significant, inverse association with MetS risk; associations for other nut varieties were not significant. For each additional serving/week of walnuts consumed, incidence of MetS decreased by 3% (ORs: 0.97 CI: 0.93–0.99), after adjusting for confounding factors. Total nut consumption, especially walnuts, reduces the risk of MetS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Consuming Almonds vs. Isoenergetic Baked Food Does Not Differentially Influence Postprandial Appetite or Neural Reward Responses to Visual Food Stimuli
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080807
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 27 July 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nuts have high energy and fat contents, but nut intake does not promote weight gain or obesity, which may be partially explained by their proposed high satiety value. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of consuming almonds versus [...] Read more.
Nuts have high energy and fat contents, but nut intake does not promote weight gain or obesity, which may be partially explained by their proposed high satiety value. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of consuming almonds versus a baked food on postprandial appetite and neural responses to visual food stimuli. Twenty-two adults (19 women and 3 men) with a BMI between 25 and 40 kg/m2 completed the current study during a 12-week behavioral weight loss intervention. Participants consumed either 28 g of whole, lightly salted roasted almonds or a serving of a baked food with equivalent energy and macronutrient contents in random order on two testing days prior to and at the end of the intervention. Pre- and postprandial appetite ratings and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were completed on all four testing days. Postprandial hunger, desire to eat, fullness, and neural responses to visual food stimuli were not different following consumption of almonds and the baked food, nor were they influenced by weight loss. These results support energy and macronutrient contents as principal determinants of postprandial appetite and do not support a unique satiety effect of almonds independent of these variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Almonds and Cardiovascular Health: A Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040468
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several preventive strategies to reduce dyslipidemia have been suggested, of which dietary modification features as an important one. Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease and strategies to manage dyslipidemia have been shown to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease [...] Read more.
Several preventive strategies to reduce dyslipidemia have been suggested, of which dietary modification features as an important one. Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease and strategies to manage dyslipidemia have been shown to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although there are proven pharmacological therapies to help manage this condition, nutritional interventions are a safer option to help prevent and manage dyslipidemia. Addition of almonds in the daily diet has been proposed to beneficially impact the lipid profile. This review critically examines the available evidence assessing the effect of almonds on dyslipidemia in the South Asian (particularly Indian) context. An extensive review comprised of epidemiological studies, clinical trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews was conducted from published literature from across the world. Studies examining the effect of almonds on different aspects of dyslipidemia viz. high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceridaemia, and high total cholesterol levels have been included. In several studies, almonds have been shown to reduce LDL-C—which is a known risk factor for CHD—and the effect of almonds has been well documented in systematic reviews and meta-analysis of clinical trials. Addition of almonds in the diet has been shown to not only to reduce LDL-C levels, but also to maintain HDL-C levels. This review provides information about the use of this simple nutritional strategy which may help manage known major risk factors for heart disease, such as high LDL-C and low HDL-C levels especially in the context of South Asians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
Open AccessReview
Nuts and Human Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121311
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 2 December 2017
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (477 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There has been increasing interest in nuts and their outcome regarding human health. The consumption of nuts is frequently associated with reduction in risk factors for chronic diseases. Although nuts are high calorie foods, several studies have reported beneficial effects after nut consumption, [...] Read more.
There has been increasing interest in nuts and their outcome regarding human health. The consumption of nuts is frequently associated with reduction in risk factors for chronic diseases. Although nuts are high calorie foods, several studies have reported beneficial effects after nut consumption, due to fatty acid profiles, vegetable proteins, fibers, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and phytosterols with potential antioxidant action. However, the current findings about the benefits of nut consumption on human health have not yet been clearly discussed. This review highlights the effects of nut consumption on the context of human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Peanuts, Aflatoxins and Undernutrition in Children in Sub-Saharan Africa
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1287; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121287
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 26 November 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) is an important and affordable source of protein in most of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and a popular commodity and raw material for peanut butter, paste and cooking oil. It is a popular ingredient for foods used at the [...] Read more.
Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) is an important and affordable source of protein in most of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and a popular commodity and raw material for peanut butter, paste and cooking oil. It is a popular ingredient for foods used at the point of weaning infants from mother’s milk. It is at this critical point that childhood undernutrition occurs and the condition manifests as stunting, wasting and growth restriction and accounts for nearly half of all deaths in children under five years of age in SSA. Undernutrition is multi-factorial but weaning foods contaminated with microbiological agents (bacteria and fungi) and natural toxins have been shown to play a big part. While peanuts may provide good nutrition, they are also highly prone to contamination with mycotoxigenic fungi. The high nutritive value of peanuts makes them a perfect substrate for fungal growth and potential aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic and mutagenic mycotoxins. This article reviews the nutritional value and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts, the role they play in the development of childhood malnutrition (including the different theories of aetiology) and immunological problems in children. We also discuss the control strategies that have been explored and advocacy work currently taking shape in Africa to create more awareness of aflatoxins and thus combat their occurrence with the goal of reducing exposure and enhancing trade and food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
Open AccessReview
Benefits of Nut Consumption on Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Multiple Potential Mechanisms of Actions
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111271
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epidemiological and clinical studies have indicated that nut consumption could be a healthy dietary strategy to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this review is to examine the potential mechanisms of action of nuts [...] Read more.
Epidemiological and clinical studies have indicated that nut consumption could be a healthy dietary strategy to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this review is to examine the potential mechanisms of action of nuts addressing effects on glycemic control, weight management, energy balance, appetite, gut microbiota modification, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial function and blood pressure with a focus on data from both animal and human studies. The favourable effects of nuts could be explained by the unique nutrient composition and bioactive compounds in nuts. Unsaturated fatty acids (monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids) present in nuts may play a role in glucose control and appetite suppression. Fiber and polyphenols in nuts may also have an anti-diabetic effect by altering gut microbiota. Nuts lower serum cholesterol by reduced cholesterol absorption, inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase and increased bile acid production by stimulation of 7-α hydroxylase. Arginine and magnesium improve inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial function and blood pressure. In conclusion, nuts contain compounds that favourably influence glucose homeostasis, weight control and vascular health. Further investigations are required to identify the most important mechanisms by which nuts decrease the risk of T2DM and CVD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
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