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Open AccessArticle

A Cross-Sectional Study on the Association between 24-h Urine Osmolality and Weight Status in Older Adults

Faculdade de Ciências da Nutrição e Alimentação da Universidade do Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
EPIUnit—Instituto de Saúde Pública, Universidade do Porto, 4050-600 Porto, Portugal
Escola Superior de Saúde de Leiria, Instituto Politécnico de Leiria, 2411-901 Leiria, Portugal
I3S-Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
CINTESIS—Centre for Health Technology and Services Research, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
System Integration and Process Automation Unit (UISPA)-Institute of Mechanical Engineering (IDMEC), Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Centro de Atividade Física, Saúde e Lazer, Universidade do Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1272;
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 18 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
PDF [301 KB, uploaded 23 November 2017]


Data on the association between hydration and body weight in the elderly are scarce. The objective of this work was to quantify the association between 24-h urine osmolality and weight status in the elderly. A cross-sectional study was conducted within the Nutrition UP 65 study. A quota sampling was implemented to achieve a nationally representative sample of Portuguese older adults (≥65 years) according to age, sex, education and region. From a sample size of 1500 participants, 1315 were eligible for the present analysis, 57.3% were women and 23.5% were aged ≥80 years. Participants were grouped using tertiles of 24-h urine osmolality by sex. World Health Organization cutoffs were used to classify participants according to weight status. Multinomial multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to evaluate the association of tertiles of osmolality with weight status, adjusting for confounders. Odds Ratios (OR) and respective 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Being in the 3rd urine osmolality tertile (highest) was associated with a higher risk of being obese in men, OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.06, 3.66. No such association was found in women. These results highlight the need for implementing studies in order to clarify the association between hydration and weight status in the elderly. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydration; urine osmolality; weight status; obesity; body mass index; elderly hydration; urine osmolality; weight status; obesity; body mass index; elderly
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Padrão, P.; Sousa, A.S.; Guerra, R.S.; Álvares, L.; Santos, A.; Borges, N.; Afonso, C.; Amaral, T.F.; Moreira, P. A Cross-Sectional Study on the Association between 24-h Urine Osmolality and Weight Status in Older Adults. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1272.

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