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Prevalence of Pre-Diabetes across Ethnicities: A Review of Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) for Classification of Dysglycaemia

1
Human Nutrition Unit, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand
2
High-Value Nutrition National Science Challenge, Auckland 1010, New Zealand
3
Department of Surgery, University of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand
4
Department of Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111273
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 18 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Prediabetes can be defined by the presence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) to identify individuals at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). The World Health Organization (WHO, 1999) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA, 2003) utilise different cut-off values for IFG (WHO: 6.1–6.9 mmol/L; ADA: 5.6–6.9 mmol/L) but the same cut-off values for IGT (7.8–11.0 mmol/L). This review investigates whether there are differences in prevalence of IFG, IGT, and combined IFG&IGT between ethnicities, in particular Asian Chinese and European Caucasians. In total, we identified 19 studies using the WHO1999 classification, for which the average proportional prevalence for isolated (i)-IFG, i-IGT, and combined IFG&IGT were 43.9%, 41.0%, and 13.5%, respectively, for Caucasian and 29.2%, 49.4%, and 18.2%, respectively, for Asian. For the 14 studies using ADA2003 classification, the average proportional i-IFG, i-IGT, and combined IFG&IGT prevalences were 58.0%, 20.3%, and 19.8%, respectively, for Caucasian; 48.1%, 27.7%, and 20.5%, respectively, for Asian. Whilst not statistically different, there may be clinically relevant differences in the two populations, with our observations for both classifications indicating that prevalence of i-IFG is higher in Caucasian cohorts whilst i-IGT and combined IFG&IGT are both higher in Asian cohorts. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; type 2 diabetes; prediabetes; fasting plasma glucose; oral glucose tolerance test; impaired glucose tolerance; impaired fasting glucose; ethnicity obesity; type 2 diabetes; prediabetes; fasting plasma glucose; oral glucose tolerance test; impaired glucose tolerance; impaired fasting glucose; ethnicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yip, W.C.Y.; Sequeira, I.R.; Plank, L.D.; Poppitt, S.D. Prevalence of Pre-Diabetes across Ethnicities: A Review of Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) for Classification of Dysglycaemia. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1273. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111273

AMA Style

Yip WCY, Sequeira IR, Plank LD, Poppitt SD. Prevalence of Pre-Diabetes across Ethnicities: A Review of Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) for Classification of Dysglycaemia. Nutrients. 2017; 9(11):1273. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111273

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yip, Wilson C.Y., Ivana R. Sequeira, Lindsay D. Plank, and Sally D. Poppitt 2017. "Prevalence of Pre-Diabetes across Ethnicities: A Review of Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) for Classification of Dysglycaemia" Nutrients 9, no. 11: 1273. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111273

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