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Nutrients, Volume 15, Issue 7 (April-1 2023) – 253 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The purpose of this study is to understand the conflicting results from previous studies on the association between carbohydrate intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the most recent scientific evidence. A systematic review used three electronic databases to gather literature on the association between carbohydrate intake and CVD. Considering the discrepancies, either fixed or random effect models were chosen to determine the effect size, and sensitivity analysis results, as well as publication bias, were also presented. View this paper
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14 pages, 1535 KiB  
Article
Consumers’ Preferences for Chicken Fed on Different Processed Animal Proteins: A Best–Worst Analysis in Italy
by Mario Amato, Eugenio Demartini, Anna Gaviglio, Maria Elena Marescotti and Fabio Verneau
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1800; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071800 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1754
Abstract
The increase in meat consumption expected in the next decade will require more and more proteins for animal feeding. The recent amendments to the European “BSE Regulation” allow the use of insects and porcine-based meals in poultry farming, providing novel, sustainable substitutes for [...] Read more.
The increase in meat consumption expected in the next decade will require more and more proteins for animal feeding. The recent amendments to the European “BSE Regulation” allow the use of insects and porcine-based meals in poultry farming, providing novel, sustainable substitutes for vegetable fodder. While the technological and nutritional properties of novel feeds containing processed animal proteins are widely recognized, far less is known about consumers’ acceptance of meat produced by animals fed on animal-based meals. In the present research, a best–worst survey was applied to estimate consumers’ preferences for chicken fed on plants, insects, or porcine-based meals using a sample of 205 Italian consumers. Furthermore, product price, type of farming, and “Free-from” labeling were considered in the analysis to evaluate the relative importance of feed ingredients compared to other important attributes of meats. The results show that the most relevant attributes are type of farming and “Free-from” claims, while type of feed represents the third attribute in order of importance. Notably, both insect and porcine flour are considered as negative characteristics of the product, suggesting that mandatory labeling signaling the use of these feeds would negatively impact on the value of chicken meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beyond Meat: Alternative Sources of Proteins to Feed the World)
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24 pages, 10583 KiB  
Article
Ready-to-Eat Innovative Legumes Snack: The Influence of Nutritional Ingredients and Labelling Claims in Italian Consumers’ Choice and Willingness-to-Pay
by Alessandro Petrontino, Michel Frem, Vincenzo Fucilli, Antonella Labbate, Emanuela Tria and Francesco Bozzo
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1799; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071799 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2503
Abstract
The global offer of legume-based snacks has sharply increased in recent years. However, to date, few studies have focused on the relationship between product supply and demand concerning the importance of attributes of such innovative foods. In this research, we identified the key [...] Read more.
The global offer of legume-based snacks has sharply increased in recent years. However, to date, few studies have focused on the relationship between product supply and demand concerning the importance of attributes of such innovative foods. In this research, we identified the key internal and external determinants that affect legumes snack (LS) price and choice by Italian industries and consumers, respectively. In parallel, we investigated their preferences and perceptions towards these foods. We used the hedonic price model (HPM) and the discrete choice experiment (DCE) approach for these purposes, respectively. HPM revealed that the monetary value of LS was determined to greater significance by the: (i) size of the package; (ii) presence of rice, presence of lentils; (iii) presence of the nutritional information; and (iv) the discount shops as site of purchase. DCE revealed that the: (i) origin certification, (ii) recyclability of the package, and (iii) use of extra virgin olive oil of LS provided Italian consumers a high utility, for which they were willing to pay an average price premium of EUR 3.85, 3.64, and 1.87, respectively. On the contrary, the sunflower oil induced a decrease in their function utility. As such, this paper contributes to define potent market-segmentation strategies and to deliver effective private and public nutrition interventions for healthy eating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Eating and Determinants of Food Choice)
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16 pages, 3832 KiB  
Article
Ameliorative Effects of Flavonoids from Platycodon grandiflorus Aerial Parts on Alloxan-Induced Pancreatic Islet Damage in Zebrafish
by Youn Hee Nam, Eun Bin Kim, Ji Eun Kang, Ju Su Kim, Yukyoung Jeon, Sung Woo Shin, Tong Ho Kang and Jong Hwan Kwak
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1798; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071798 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
Platycodon grandiflorus (balloon flower), used as a food reserve as well as in traditional herbal medicine, is known for its multiple beneficial effects. In particular, this plant is widely used as a vegetable in Republic of Korea. We examined the ameliorative effects of [...] Read more.
Platycodon grandiflorus (balloon flower), used as a food reserve as well as in traditional herbal medicine, is known for its multiple beneficial effects. In particular, this plant is widely used as a vegetable in Republic of Korea. We examined the ameliorative effects of P. grandiflorus on alloxan-induced pancreatic islet damage in zebrafish. The aerial part treatment led to a significant recovery in pancreatic islet size and glucose uptake. The efficacy of the aerial part was more potent than that of the root. Eight flavonoids (18) were isolated from the aerial part. Structures of two new flavone glycosides, designated dorajiside I (1) and II (2), were elucidated to be luteolin 7-O-α-L-rhamno-pyranosyl (1 → 2)-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside and apigenin 7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 → 2)-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside, respectively, by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1, 3, 4 and 68 yielded the recovery of injured pancreatic islets in zebrafish. Among them, compound 7 blocked KATP channels in pancreatic β-cells. Furthermore, compounds 3, 4, 6 and 7 showed significant changes with respect to the mRNA expression of GCK, GCKR, GLIS3 and CDKN2B compared to alloxan-induced zebrafish. In conclusion, the aerial part of P. grandiflorus and its constituents conferred a regenerative effect on injured pancreatic islets. Full article
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11 pages, 1930 KiB  
Article
Shikonin Binds and Represses PPARγ Activity by Releasing Coactivators and Modulating Histone Methylation Codes
by Ui-Hyun Park, HyeSook Youn, Eun-Joo Kim and Soo-Jong Um
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1797; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071797 - 6 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1475
Abstract
Shikonin, a natural ingredient produced by Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-obesity effects. It also inhibits adipocyte differentiation; however, the underlying molecular and epigenetic mechanisms remain unclear. We performed RNA-sequencing of shikonin-treated 3T3-L1 cells. Gene ontology and gene set enrichment analysis [...] Read more.
Shikonin, a natural ingredient produced by Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-obesity effects. It also inhibits adipocyte differentiation; however, the underlying molecular and epigenetic mechanisms remain unclear. We performed RNA-sequencing of shikonin-treated 3T3-L1 cells. Gene ontology and gene set enrichment analysis showed that shikonin is significantly associated with genes related to adipogenesis, histone modification, and PPARγ. Shikonin treatment downregulated the mRNA expression of PPARγ-responsive genes and rosiglitazone-induced transcriptional activity of PPARγ. Microscale thermophoresis assays showed a KD value 1.4 ± 0.13 μM for binding between shikonin and PPARγ. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays exhibited that shikonin blocked the rosiglitazone-dependent association of PPARγ with its coactivator CBP. In addition, shikonin decreased the enrichment of the active histone code H3K4me3 and increased the repressive code H3K27me3 of PPARγ target promoters. Shikonin is a PPARγ antagonist that suppresses adipogenesis by regulating the enrichment of histone codes during adipogenesis. Therefore, it may be used to treat obesity-related disorders via epigenetic changes. Full article
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19 pages, 1596 KiB  
Article
Training Behaviors and Periodization Outline of Omnivorous, Vegetarian, and Vegan Recreational Runners (Part A)—Results from the NURMI Study (Step 2)
by Katharina Wirnitzer, Derrick Tanous, Mohamad Motevalli, Christian Raschner, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Gerold Wirnitzer, Claus Leitzmann, Thomas Rosemann and Beat Knechtle
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1796; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071796 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2134
Abstract
Runners train for long-distance competitions based on underlying motivations, which may be similar to individual dietary motivations (e.g., well-being and performance). Fundamental training differences may arise in recreational runners following different diet types (omnivore, vegetarian, vegan) considering possible motive variations. Following a cross-sectional [...] Read more.
Runners train for long-distance competitions based on underlying motivations, which may be similar to individual dietary motivations (e.g., well-being and performance). Fundamental training differences may arise in recreational runners following different diet types (omnivore, vegetarian, vegan) considering possible motive variations. Following a cross-sectional design, distance runners completed a survey (online), including a thorough assessment of training behaviors with generic training details and periodization specifics in three phases: 1. an intermediary and rebound stage, 2. a main preparatory stage, and 3. a main event stage (tapering or interim event level/s). Kruskal–Wallis and chi-squared tests were used in the statistical analysis. A total of 245 fit recreational runners following omnivore (n = 109), vegetarian (n = 45), and vegan diets (n = 91) were included. Significant differences in the initial running motivation were found across dietary subgroups (p = 0.033) as well as for current motivations (p = 0.038), with vegetarians being the least health motivated (27% and 9%, respectively). No differences in each of the specific periods were found between diet types across the outline (p > 0.05). The present evidence shows that there is a lack of fundamental training differences based on recreational runners following different generic types of diets. The results of the present investigation may be especially relevant for future studies on safety, sustainability, and performance-enhancing dietary practices among athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Planning in Sports Nutrition)
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13 pages, 303 KiB  
Article
Longitudinal Examination of Body Mass Index and Cognitive Function in Older Adults: The HELIAD Study
by Ismini Grapsa, Eirini Mamalaki, Eva Ntanasi, Mary H. Kosmidis, Efthimios Dardiotis, Georgios M. Hadjigeorgiou, Paraskevi Sakka, Nikolaos Scarmeas and Mary Yannakoulia
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1795; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071795 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2117
Abstract
Given the increase in the aging population and thus in the prevalence of dementia, the identification of protective factors against cognitive decline is necessary. In a cohort of 1076 non-demented adults ≥ 65 years old (59.7% women) from the HELIAD study, we assessed [...] Read more.
Given the increase in the aging population and thus in the prevalence of dementia, the identification of protective factors against cognitive decline is necessary. In a cohort of 1076 non-demented adults ≥ 65 years old (59.7% women) from the HELIAD study, we assessed whether changes in body mass index (BMI) were associated with changes in cognition over a 3-year follow-up period separately for those ≤ 75 and >75 years old. We identified six BMI trajectory groups based on participants’ BMI status at baseline and at the first follow-up visit; normal to normal BMI was the reference group. Major cognitive domains were evaluated, and a composite index reflecting global cognition was calculated. In participants aged ≤75 years, weight loss—moving from obesity to overweight or normal BMI—was associated with less decline in the memory composite score over time (β = 0.141; p = 0.035), while 3-year maintenance of a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 was related to greater reduction in the visuospatial composite score over time (β = −0.093; p = 0.020). Regarding participants aged >75 years, 3-year maintenance of a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 contributed to a slower rate of decline in the memory composite score over time (β = 0.102; p = 0.042), whereas weight loss—from overweight to normal BMI—was associated with a decreased attention/processing speed composite score longitudinally (β = −0.275; p = 0.043). Our findings indicated that the association between changes in BMI and cognitive functioning was modified by age. Weight management may have the potential to delay cognitive decline in older adults. Full article
16 pages, 932 KiB  
Article
The Hidden Dangers of Plant-Based Diets Affecting Bone Health: A Cross-Sectional Study with U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Data from 2005–2018
by Yi Zheng, Jiacheng Wang, Yawen Wang, Kelin Xu and Xingdong Chen
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1794; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071794 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 8267
Abstract
The plant-based dietary pattern has been recommended for its potential health and environmental benefits, but its association with bone loss needs to be further explored. This study aimed to investigate the association between three plant-based diet indexes and bone loss in 16,085 adults, [...] Read more.
The plant-based dietary pattern has been recommended for its potential health and environmental benefits, but its association with bone loss needs to be further explored. This study aimed to investigate the association between three plant-based diet indexes and bone loss in 16,085 adults, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Three plant-based diet indexes (PDI, hPDI, and uPDI) were calculated from two NHANES 24-h dietary recall interviews, to characterize a plant-based diet. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Higher hPDI and PDI were associated with increased risk of bone loss (ORQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.24–1.81 for hPDI; ORQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03–1.45 for PDI), while higher uPDI was associated with increased risk of osteoporosis (ORQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.04–2.11). A harmful association between plant-based diet indexes (hPDI and PDI) and osteopenia was observed at the lumbar spine rather than the femoral neck. We conducted several sensitivity analyses to ensure the robustness of results, including subgroup analysis, exclusion of people taking anti-osteoporotic and estrogenic drugs, further adjustment for menopausal status, corticosteroid usage, and dietary supplements, and calculation of E-value. Our study demonstrates the deleterious effects of a plant-based diet on bone health and emphasizes the importance of a balanced diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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10 pages, 259 KiB  
Article
Vitamin B6 Levels and Impaired Folate Status but Not Vitamin B12 Associated with Low Birth Weight: Results from the MAASTHI Birth Cohort in South India
by R. Deepa, Siddhartha Mandal, Onno C. P. Van Schayck and Giridhara R. Babu
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1793; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071793 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1838
Abstract
Vitamins B12 and B6 and folate are known to have implications for pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to describe B6, B12, and folate status in pregnancy and investigate their associations with low birth weight and preterm delivery in mothers recruited from public hospitals in [...] Read more.
Vitamins B12 and B6 and folate are known to have implications for pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to describe B6, B12, and folate status in pregnancy and investigate their associations with low birth weight and preterm delivery in mothers recruited from public hospitals in urban Bengaluru. Pregnant women between 18 and 45 years were included in the MAASTHI prospective cohort study. Each participant’s age, socioeconomic status, and anthropometry were recorded during baseline and followed up after delivery. Blood samples were collected between the 24th and 32nd weeks of gestation and stored at −80° for analysis. B6, B12, folate, homocysteine, and methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels were analyzed in the stored samples. We found low plasma vitamin B12, folate, and B6 levels in 48.5%, 42.0%, and 10.4% of the women (n = 230), respectively. Elevated MMA and homocysteine were observed among 73.6% and 6.1% of the women, respectively. We found B6 levels were significantly associated with birth weight (β(SE) −0.002(0.0), p = 0.001) after adjusting for age, parity, adiposity, gestational diabetes, and socioeconomic status of the mother. Those with impaired folate deficiency were twice at risk (AOR 1.95 (1.29, 3.07), p = 0.002) of low birth weight. Vitamin B6 levels and impaired folate status were associated with low birth weight in the MAASTHI birth cohort. Full article
16 pages, 1905 KiB  
Article
Effects on Serum Hormone Concentrations after a Dietary Phytoestrogen Intervention in Patients with Prostate Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Rebecca Ahlin, Natalja P. Nørskov, Sanna Nybacka, Rikard Landberg, Viktor Skokic, Johan Stranne, Andreas Josefsson, Gunnar Steineck and Maria Hedelin
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1792; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071792 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1952
Abstract
Phytoestrogens have been suggested to have an anti-proliferative role in prostate cancer, potentially by acting through estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) and modulating several hormones. We primarily aimed to investigate the effect of a phytoestrogen intervention on hormone concentrations in blood depending on the [...] Read more.
Phytoestrogens have been suggested to have an anti-proliferative role in prostate cancer, potentially by acting through estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) and modulating several hormones. We primarily aimed to investigate the effect of a phytoestrogen intervention on hormone concentrations in blood depending on the ERβ genotype. Patients with low and intermediate-risk prostate cancer, scheduled for radical prostatectomy, were randomized to an intervention group provided with soybeans and flaxseeds (∼200 mg phytoestrogens/d) added to their diet until their surgery, or a control group that was not provided with any food items. Both groups received official dietary recommendations. Blood samples were collected at baseline and endpoint and blood concentrations of different hormones and phytoestrogens were analyzed. The phytoestrogen-rich diet did not affect serum concentrations of testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1, or sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). However, we found a trend of decreased risk of increased serum concentration of estradiol in the intervention group compared to the control group but only in a specific genotype of ERβ (p = 0.058). In conclusion, a high daily intake of phytoestrogen-rich foods has no major effect on hormone concentrations but may lower the concentration of estradiol in patients with prostate cancer with a specific genetic upset of ERβ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Status and Interventions for Patients with Cancer)
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15 pages, 751 KiB  
Article
Estimated Phytate Intake Is Associated with Bone Mineral Density in Mediterranean Postmenopausal Women
by Pilar Sanchis, Rafael María Prieto, Jadwiga Konieczna, Félix Grases, Itziar Abete, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Vicente Martín, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Nancy Babio, Jesús Francisco García-Gavilán, Albert Goday, Antonia Costa-Bauza, José Alfredo Martínez and Dora Romaguera
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1791; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071791 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2444
Abstract
The main objective of this work was to explore the association of dietary phytate intake with bone mineral density (BMD) in a Mediterranean population of postmenopausal women. For this purpose, a cross-sectional analysis of 561 women aged 55–75 years with overweight/obesity and metabolic [...] Read more.
The main objective of this work was to explore the association of dietary phytate intake with bone mineral density (BMD) in a Mediterranean population of postmenopausal women. For this purpose, a cross-sectional analysis of 561 women aged 55–75 years with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome from a Mediterranean area and with data on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans in femur and lumbar spine was performed. Estimated phytate intake was calculated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Our results indicated that phytate intake was associated with BMD [β(95%CI) per each 25 mg/100 kcal] in femoral neck [0.023(0.060–0.040) g/cm2], femoral Ward’s triangle [0.033(0.013–0.054) g/cm2], total femur [0.018(0.001–0.035) g/cm2], and all the analyzed lumbar spine sites [L1–L4: 0.033(0.007–0.059) g/cm2] after adjusting for potential confounders. The sensitivity analysis showed that phytate intake was directly associated with lumbar spine BMD in women younger than 66 years, with a body mass index higher than 32.6 kg/cm2 and without type 2 diabetes (all p-for interactions < 0.05). The overall results indicated that phytate, a substance present in food as cereals, legumes and nuts, was positively associated with BMD in Mediterranean postmenopausal women. Phytate may have a protective effect on bone resorption by adsorbing on the surfaces of HAP. Nevertheless, large, long-term, and randomized prospective clinical studies must be performed to assess the possible benefits of phytate consumption on BMD in postmenopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition in Women)
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14 pages, 3486 KiB  
Review
Phase Angle, Handgrip Strength, and Other Indicators of Nutritional Status in Cancer Patients Undergoing Different Nutritional Strategies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Desirée Victoria-Montesinos, Ana María García-Muñoz, Julia Navarro-Marroco, Carmen Lucas-Abellán, María Teresa Mercader-Ros, Ana Serrano-Martínez, Oriol Abellán-Aynés, Pablo Barcina-Pérez and Pilar Hernández-Sánchez
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1790; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071790 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2385
Abstract
Malnutrition in cancer patients is one of the most influential factors in the evolution and mortality of such patients. To reduce the incidence of malnutrition, it is necessary to establish a correct nutritional intervention. For this purpose, precise tools and indicators must be [...] Read more.
Malnutrition in cancer patients is one of the most influential factors in the evolution and mortality of such patients. To reduce the incidence of malnutrition, it is necessary to establish a correct nutritional intervention. For this purpose, precise tools and indicators must be developed to determine the patient’s condition. The main objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to analyze the relationship between different nutritional strategies, phase angle (PA), and handgrip strength in patients with cancer, with the secondary objectives being the modification of other indicators of nutritional status, such as weight and body mass index (BMI). A systematic review of randomized clinical trials was carried out in March 2023 in the databases PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, and Scopus. As a risk-of-bias tool, RoB 2.0 was utilized. A total of 8 studies with a total of 606 participants were included in the analysis. A significant increase in PA was observed after the different nutritional strategies (SMD: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.77; p = 0.01; I2 = 65.63%), also detecting a significant increase in handgrip strength (SMD: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.47; p = 0.01; I2 = 30.70%). A significant increase in PA and handgrip were observed in cancer patients subjected to different nutritional strategies. These results suggest that these indicators could be used in the nutritional and functional assessment of the patients. Full article
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22 pages, 871 KiB  
Article
The Association between Plant-Based Diets and Dietary Patterns with Cardiometabolic Risk in a Sample of Commercial Taxi Drivers in South Africa
by Tatum Lopes, Annalise Edith Zemlin, Machoene Derrick Sekgala, Zandile June-Rose Mchiza, Rajiv Timothy Erasmus and Andre Pascal Kengne
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1789; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071789 - 6 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2149
Abstract
The consumption of unhealthy foods and a sedentary lifestyle predispose individuals to non-communicable diseases. This study investigated the distribution and the association of plant-based diets (PBDs) and dietary patterns in relation to the cardiometabolic risks in commercial taxi drivers. A cross-sectional analysis was [...] Read more.
The consumption of unhealthy foods and a sedentary lifestyle predispose individuals to non-communicable diseases. This study investigated the distribution and the association of plant-based diets (PBDs) and dietary patterns in relation to the cardiometabolic risks in commercial taxi drivers. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among males (≥19 years) who consumed street foods sold by vendors in the Cape Metropole. A validated questionnaire was administered, including a quantified 24 h dietary recall, and fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses. Statistical analyses were performed to investigate the association between dietary habits and cardiometabolic risks, while adjusting for confounding variables. The analytic sample consisted of 189 males with a median age of 38 years. The taxi drivers who ranked in the top-third of the healthy plant-based diet index (hPDI) had a 1–4% lower likelihood of having raised triglycerides (TG). Furthermore, consumption patterns including refined grains and meat conferred a 33% lower likelihood of dysglycaemia (p = 0.049), while fish/seafood, potatoes, and vegetables conferred a 43% greater likelihood of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (p = 0.026) and 44% greater probability of raised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p = 0.027). Consumption patterns, including sugar-sweetened beverages and eggs, conferred a 37% greater probability of hypertension (p = 0.047) and 53% greater likelihood of subclinical inflammation (p = 0.017). These preliminary findings require larger and more elaborate studies to explore the associations between PBDs and dietary patterns in at-risk African populations, with or without sedentary lifestyles, and exposure to unhealthy food environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Dietary Patterns, Health and Sustainability)
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17 pages, 1051 KiB  
Article
Energy Expenditure, Dietary Energy Intake, and Nutritional Supplements in Adolescent Volleyball Athletes versus Nonathletic Controls
by Madison Bell, Ravneet Ghatora, Maria Ilektra Retsidou, Efthalia (Elia) Chatzigianni and Panagiota Klentrou
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1788; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071788 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3633
Abstract
Evidence suggests that athletes competing in team sports do not follow dietary recommendations. However, only few studies have investigated energy needs and supplement use in adolescent athletes, and whether they are meeting their energy requirements. This observational study examined energy expenditure, dietary energy [...] Read more.
Evidence suggests that athletes competing in team sports do not follow dietary recommendations. However, only few studies have investigated energy needs and supplement use in adolescent athletes, and whether they are meeting their energy requirements. This observational study examined energy expenditure, dietary energy intake, and use of nutritional supplements in 58 adolescent (14–17 years old) volleyball athletes (15 males, 43 females) and 58 age-matched nonathletic controls (13 males, 45 females). Participants completed an online survey including questions on demographic information, body mass, and a series of standardized questionnaires assessing energy expenditure, dietary energy, macronutrient, micronutrient, and supplement intake. Energy expenditure relative to body mass was higher in athletes than nonathletes by 13 kcal/kg/day (group effect, p < 0.001), and in males compared to females by 5.7 kcal/kg/day (sex effect, p = 0.004). Athletes had higher energy intake than nonathletes (+6.4 kcal/kg/day, p = 0.019) and greater consumption of fruits (p = 0.034), vegetables (p = 0.047), grains (p = 0.016), dairy (p = 0.038), meats and meat alternatives (p < 0.001), as well as higher intakes of fat (p < 0.001), carbohydrates, protein, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, calcium, and sodium (p = 0.05) compared to nonathletes. The average protein intakes exceeded the upper recommendations in all groups, suggesting that this is not a nutrient of concern for young volleyball athletes. However, athletes were only meeting 60% of the estimated energy requirements (EER) for their age, height, body mass, and physical activity score, (3322 ± 520 kcal/day), while nonathletes were meeting 74% of the EER (p < 0.001). The relative energy balance of male athletes was lower compared to both female athletes (p = 0.006) and male nonathletes (p = 0.004). Finally, more athletes reported using performance-related supplements than nonathletes, but there were no differences in the consumption of other dietary supplements. Overall, when compared to nonathletic controls, both male and female adolescent volleyball athletes were found to match their higher energy expenditure with a greater dietary energy intake; however, all adolescents were below the estimated energy requirements, a finding more profound among the volleyball athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
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10 pages, 1147 KiB  
Article
Lifestyle Intervention Guided by Group and Internet-Based Counseling in the T2D-GENE Trial Supports Its Applicability and Feasibility
by Ursula Schwab, Maria Lankinen, Matti Uusitupa and Markku Laakso
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1787; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071787 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1435
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be prevented or postponed by lifestyle modifications as shown by previous intervention studies. In most of these studies, participants have received resource-demanding individual counseling. In the 3-year T2D-GENE trial with lifestyle intervention, we investigated whether a less resource-demanding [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be prevented or postponed by lifestyle modifications as shown by previous intervention studies. In most of these studies, participants have received resource-demanding individual counseling. In the 3-year T2D-GENE trial with lifestyle intervention, we investigated whether a less resource-demanding form of group and internet-based counseling is feasible and effective in preventing T2D in people with an increased risk for T2D. Altogether, 628 middle-aged to elderly men either with a high number or low number of T2D risk alleles were recruited. Five to seven group sessions were organized during the intervention, in addition to information and activities delivered via the web portal, and weekly monitoring of body weight and physical activity. Four-day food records with personal feedback were documented five times during the study. Of the 549 participants completing the study, over 90% participated in the group sessions and kept the food records. The four self-feedback tasks delivered during the second and the third years of the study were completed by 80–89% of the participants. In conclusion, a group and web portal-based lifestyle intervention is applicable for middle-aged to elderly men as a lifestyle modification aiming to prevent T2D. Full article
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13 pages, 509 KiB  
Review
Nutritional State and COPD: Effects on Dyspnoea and Exercise Tolerance
by Angela Tramontano and Paolo Palange
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1786; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071786 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3226
Abstract
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a disease that is spreading worldwide and is responsible for a huge number of deaths annually. It is characterized by progressive and often irreversible airflow obstruction, with a heterogeneous clinical manifestation based on disease severity. Along with [...] Read more.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a disease that is spreading worldwide and is responsible for a huge number of deaths annually. It is characterized by progressive and often irreversible airflow obstruction, with a heterogeneous clinical manifestation based on disease severity. Along with pulmonary impairment, COPD patients display different grades of malnutrition that can be linked to a worsening of respiratory function and to a negative prognosis. Nutritional impairment seems to be related to a reduced exercise tolerance and to dyspnoea becoming a major determinant in patient-perceived quality of life. Many strategies have been proposed to limit the effects of malnutrition on disease progression, but there are still limited data available to determine which of them is the best option to manage COPD patients. The purpose of this review is to highlight the main aspects of COPD-related malnutrition and to underline the importance of poor nutritional state on muscle energetics, exercise tolerance and dyspnoea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Lung Disease)
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18 pages, 3258 KiB  
Systematic Review
Damage from Carbonated Soft Drinks on Enamel: A Systematic Review
by Angelo Michele Inchingolo, Giuseppina Malcangi, Laura Ferrante, Gaetano Del Vecchio, Fabio Viapiano, Antonio Mancini, Francesco Inchingolo, Alessio Danilo Inchingolo, Daniela Di Venere, Gianna Dipalma and Assunta Patano
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1785; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071785 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5288
Abstract
The present study was conducted to analyze the erosive potential of the ever-increasing consumption of carbonated drinks on the dental surface. To identify relevant studies, a comprehensive search was conducted on PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science covering the last 5 years (2018–2023) [...] Read more.
The present study was conducted to analyze the erosive potential of the ever-increasing consumption of carbonated drinks on the dental surface. To identify relevant studies, a comprehensive search was conducted on PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science covering the last 5 years (2018–2023) using the following Boolean keywords: “soft drinks AND tooth”. Finally, a total of 19 studies were included. The initial search provided a total of 407 items. Nineteen records were finally involved in the inclusion phase, seven of which were in vivo and twelve in vitro. An abuse of carbonated acid substances leads to an increase in the possibility of dental erosion with consequent structural disintegration and reduction of the physical and mechanical properties of the enamel. There is thus greater bacterial adhesion on rougher surfaces, determined by the erosive process, and therefore a greater risk of caries. The pH of most commercialized carbonated drinks is lower than the critical pH for the demineralization of the enamel. Carbonated drinks’ pH and duration of exposure have different deleterious effects on enamel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Association of Dietary Factors and Disease Risk)
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16 pages, 9747 KiB  
Article
Lipid Profiling Reveals Lipidomic Signatures of Weight Loss Interventions
by Kaiqing Lin, Wei Cheng, Qiwei Shen, Hui Wang, Ruwen Wang, Shanshan Guo, Xianmin Wu, Wei Wu, Peijie Chen, Yongfei Wang, Hongying Ye, Qiongyue Zhang and Ru Wang
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1784; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071784 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1856
Abstract
Obesity is an epidemic all around the world. Weight loss interventions that are effective differ from each other with regard to various lipidomic responses. Here, we aimed to find lipidomic biomarkers that are related to beneficial changes in weight loss. We adopted an [...] Read more.
Obesity is an epidemic all around the world. Weight loss interventions that are effective differ from each other with regard to various lipidomic responses. Here, we aimed to find lipidomic biomarkers that are related to beneficial changes in weight loss. We adopted an untargeted liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to measure 953 lipid species for Exercise (exercise intervention cohort, N = 25), 1388 lipid species for LSG (laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy cohort, N = 36), and 886 lipid species for Cushing (surgical removal of the ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas cohort, N = 25). Overall, the total diacylglycerol (DG), triacylglycerol (TG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylserine (PS), and sphingomyelin (SM) levels were associated with changes in BMI, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride, and total cholesterol according to weight loss interventions. We found that 73 lipid species changed among the three weight loss interventions. We screened 13 lipid species with better predictive accuracy in diagnosing weight loss situations in either Exercise, LSG, or Cushing cohorts (AUROC > 0.7). More importantly, we identified three phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid species, PC (14:0_18:3), PC (31:1), and PC (32:2) that were significantly associated with weight change in three studies. Our results highlight potential lipidomic biomarkers that, in the future, could be used in personalized approaches involving weight loss interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Tissue Metabolism and Exercise in Health and Disease)
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8 pages, 1780 KiB  
Communication
E-Cigarette Vapour Alters High-Fat Diet-Induced Systemic Inflammatory Responses but Has No Effect on High-Fat Diet-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiota
by Hui Chen, Catherine Burke, Chantal Donovan, Alen Faiz, Sonia Saad and Brian G. Oliver
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1783; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071783 - 6 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2167
Abstract
Background: The gut microbiome, which can be altered by different diets or smoking, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of lung conditions. E-cigarette vaping is now recognised to have detrimental health effects, with several of these being similar to cigarette smoking. However, whether [...] Read more.
Background: The gut microbiome, which can be altered by different diets or smoking, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of lung conditions. E-cigarette vaping is now recognised to have detrimental health effects, with several of these being similar to cigarette smoking. However, whether e-cigarettes can alter high-fat diet (HFD)-induced systemic effects and gut microbiota is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of HFD in the absence/presence of e-cigarette exposure on systemic inflammation, lipid metabolic markers, and the gut microbiome. Methods: Mice were fed a HFD (or chow) in the absence/presence of e-vapour exposure (±nicotine) and serum inflammation, lipid levels, and microbial diversity were assessed. Results: HFD increased the circulating levels of both triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids, which were significantly reduced by e-vapour exposure in HFD-fed mice. Serum TNF-α was increased by HFD consumption or e-vapour. HFD had a significant effect on microbial diversity, but there were no additional effects of e-vapour exposure. Conclusions: This study highlights both similarities and differences in how the body responds to e-cigarette vapours, and it is therefore likely that the long-term sequelae of e-cigarette vapour exposure/vaping might not involve the significant alteration of the gut microbiome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Disease Development: Mechanisms, Prevention and Treatment)
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14 pages, 1401 KiB  
Article
Interleukin-18 Is a Potential Biomarker Linking Dietary Fatty Acid Quality and Insulin Resistance: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Northern Italy
by Domenico Sergi, Juana Maria Sanz, Stefano Lazzer, Gloria Brombo, Giovanni Zuliani, Gianni Biolo, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Edoardo Dalla Nora and Angelina Passaro
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1782; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071782 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1921
Abstract
Dietary lipids are pivotal in modulating metabolic inflammation. Among the inflammatory mediators characterizing metabolic inflammation, interleukin 18 (IL-18) has been consistently associated with obesity and insulin resistance. This study aims to evaluate whether the quality of lipid intake impacts upon IL-18 plasma levels [...] Read more.
Dietary lipids are pivotal in modulating metabolic inflammation. Among the inflammatory mediators characterizing metabolic inflammation, interleukin 18 (IL-18) has been consistently associated with obesity and insulin resistance. This study aims to evaluate whether the quality of lipid intake impacts upon IL-18 plasma levels and the implications on insulin resistance computed by the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Using a cross-sectional design, this study confirmed that IL-18 correlated positively with insulin resistance and individuals with a HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 displayed higher circulating IL-18 levels compared with their insulin-sensitive counterparts. In terms of the effect of the quality of dietary lipids on IL-18 circulating levels, the ratio between monounsaturated, omega-3, polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids as well as the intake of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids correlated negatively with IL-18. Despite this, IL-18 circulating levels, but not dietary fatty acid quality, predicted insulin resistance. Nevertheless, the ratio between omega 3 and saturated fatty acids was a predictor of IL-18 plasma levels. Thus, the downregulation of IL-18 may underpin, at least partially, the beneficial metabolic effects of substituting omega 3 for saturated fatty acids with this cytokine potentially representing a biomarker linking dietary lipids and metabolic outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
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13 pages, 1044 KiB  
Article
Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and VDR Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs2228570 Influence on COVID-19 Susceptibility among the Kazakh Ethnic Group—A Pilot Study
by Valeriya V. Protas, Gayane P. Pogossyan, Konstantin G. Li, Assel G. Zhumina, Anar K. Bisseneva and Dinara N. Shaikina
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1781; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071781 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1792
Abstract
Low plasma levels of the vitamin D metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with the body’s susceptibility to infectious diseases, including COVID-19. In this pilot retrospective study, representatives of the Kazakh [...] Read more.
Low plasma levels of the vitamin D metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with the body’s susceptibility to infectious diseases, including COVID-19. In this pilot retrospective study, representatives of the Kazakh population (central Kazakhstan) were divided into groups based on the test for IgM and IgG for coronavirus infection. We compared the 25(OH)D plasma levels and concluded that the COVID-19-positive group values (25.17 ng/mL ± 16.65) were statistically lower (p = 0.0114) compared to the COVID-19-negative ones (35.58 ng/mL ± 20.67). There was no association between age, gender and 25(OH)D concentration within the groups (p > 0.05). The genotyping of rs2228570 was performed using a TaqMan Real-Time PCR assay. Allele C predominated among the COVID-19-negative participants and significantly reduced the likelihood of coronavirus infection (p < 0.0001; OR = 0.0804; 95% CI 0.02357–0.2798). There were no statistically significant differences in the frequencies of the A, G and T alleles in the studied groups (p > 0.05). The GG genotype of rs2228570 was associated with a 4.131-fold increased likelihood of COVID-19 infection (p = 0.0288; χ2 = 5.364; OR = 4.131; 95% CI 1.223–13.71). Comprehensive studies are required to determine whether low 25(OH)D plasma concentrations and genetic background represent a risk factor for COVID-19 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Vitamin D on Respiratory Disease)
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15 pages, 620 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Obesity Paradox and Mortality in Older Adults: A Systematic Review
by Moustapha Dramé and Lidvine Godaert
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1780; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071780 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4214
Abstract
“Obesity paradox” describes the counterintuitive finding that aged overweight and obese people with a particular disease may have better outcomes than their normal weight or underweight counterparts. This systematic review was performed to summarize the publications related to the obesity paradox in older [...] Read more.
“Obesity paradox” describes the counterintuitive finding that aged overweight and obese people with a particular disease may have better outcomes than their normal weight or underweight counterparts. This systematic review was performed to summarize the publications related to the obesity paradox in older adults, to gain an in-depth understanding of this phenomenon. PubMed©, Embase©, and Scopus© were used to perform literature search for all publications up to 20 March 2022. Studies were included if they reported data from older adults on the relation between BMI and mortality. The following article types were excluded from the study: reviews, editorials, correspondence, and case reports and case series. Publication year, study setting, medical condition, study design, sample size, age, and outcome(s) were extracted. This review has been registered with PROSPERO (no. CRD42021289015). Overall, 2226 studies were identified, of which 58 were included in this systematic review. In all, 20 of the 58 studies included in this review did not find any evidence of an obesity paradox. Of these 20 studies, 16 involved patients with no specific medical condition, 1 involved patients with chronic diseases, and 2 involved patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Seven out of the nine studies that looked at short-term mortality found evidence of the obesity paradox. Of the 28 studies that examined longer-term mortality, 15 found evidence of the obesity paradox. In the studies that were conducted in people with a particular medical condition (n = 24), the obesity paradox appeared in 18 cases. Our work supports the existence of an obesity paradox, especially when comorbidities or acute medical problems are present. These findings should help guide strategies for nutritional counselling in older populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Interventions for Healthy Ageing)
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13 pages, 13112 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of the Gut Microbiome and Serum Metabolome in Patients with Functional Constipation
by Jialiang Wang, Linlin Wang, Qiangqing Yu, Nan Tang, Chunxia Mei, Hao Zhang, Gang Wang, Jian Lu and Wei Chen
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1779; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071779 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2431
Abstract
Functional constipation (FC) is a gastrointestinal disorder with high incidence, and it seriously affects patients’ physical and mental health. Several studies have shown that the gut microbiome is associated with FC, but these studies have produced inconsistent findings, with few reflecting the relationship [...] Read more.
Functional constipation (FC) is a gastrointestinal disorder with high incidence, and it seriously affects patients’ physical and mental health. Several studies have shown that the gut microbiome is associated with FC, but these studies have produced inconsistent findings, with few reflecting the relationship between the gut microbiome and metabolites. This study used 16S rRNA microbial genomics and non-target metabolome based on liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry to analyze the gut microbiota composition and serum metabolic profiles of 30 FC patients and 28 healthy individuals. We found that patients with FC and healthy individuals have different gut microbiota structures and serum metabolic profiles. FC patients had more Bacteroides and butyrate-producing bacteria (Roseburia, Faecaliberium, Butyriccoccus). The upstream products of host arginine biosynthesis (2-oxoglutaric acid, L-glutamic acid, N-acetylornithine, and L-ornithine) were significantly reduced in FC patients’ serum metabolites. In summary, our study describes the gut microbiome and serum metabolome of patients with functional constipation. It reveals that functional constipation may be associated with increased Bacteroidetes and downregulation of upstream products of host arginine biosynthesis, which may be potential markers for diagnosing functional constipation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Disease Development: Mechanisms, Prevention and Treatment)
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15 pages, 948 KiB  
Review
Recent Progress on Fructose Metabolism—Chrebp, Fructolysis, and Polyol Pathway
by Katsumi Iizuka
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1778; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071778 - 5 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4637
Abstract
Excess fructose intake is associated with obesity, fatty liver, tooth decay, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Even after the ingestion of fructose, fructose concentration in the portal blood is never high; fructose is further metabolized in the liver, and the blood fructose concentration is [...] Read more.
Excess fructose intake is associated with obesity, fatty liver, tooth decay, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Even after the ingestion of fructose, fructose concentration in the portal blood is never high; fructose is further metabolized in the liver, and the blood fructose concentration is 1/100th of the glucose concentration. It was previously thought that fructose was metabolized in the liver and not in the small intestine, but it has been reported that metabolism in the small intestine also plays an important role in fructose metabolism. Glut5 knockout mice exhibit poor fructose absorption. In addition, endogenous fructose production via the polyol pathway has also received attention; gene deletion of aldose reductase (Ar), ketohexokinase (Khk), and triokinase (Tkfc) has been found to prevent the development of fructose-induced liver lipidosis. Carbohydrate response element-binding protein (Chrebp) regulates the expression of Glut5, Khk, aldolase b, and Tkfc. We review fructose metabolism with a focus on the roles of the glucose-activating transcription factor Chrebp, fructolysis, and the polyol pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fructose Metabolism and Diabetes – Where Do We Stand Now?)
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20 pages, 2245 KiB  
Article
The Impact of the ENDORSE Digital Weight Management Program on the Metabolic Profile of Children and Adolescents with Overweight and Obesity and on Food Parenting Practices
by Panagiota Pervanidou, Evi Chatzidaki, Nicolas C. Nicolaides, Antonis Voutetakis, Nektaria Polychronaki, Vassiliki Chioti, Rosa-Anna Kitani, Eleni Kyrkopoulou, Konstantia Zarkogianni, Eleftherios Kalafatis, Kostas Mitsis, Κonstantinos Perakis, Konstantina Nikita and Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1777; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071777 - 5 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2209
Abstract
Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem worldwide. The ENDORSE platform is an innovative software ecosystem based on Artificial Intelligence which consists of mobile applications for parents and health professionals, activity trackers, and mobile games for children. This study explores the impact [...] Read more.
Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem worldwide. The ENDORSE platform is an innovative software ecosystem based on Artificial Intelligence which consists of mobile applications for parents and health professionals, activity trackers, and mobile games for children. This study explores the impact of the ENDORSE platform on metabolic parameters associated with pediatric obesity and on the food parenting practices of the participating mothers. Therefore, the metabolic parameters of the 45 children (mean age: 10.42 years, 53% girls, 58% pubertal, mean baseline BMI z-score 2.83) who completed the ENDORSE study were evaluated. The Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire was used for the assessment of food parenting practices. Furthermore, regression analysis was used to investigate possible associations between BMI z-score changes and changes in metabolic parameters and food parenting practices. Overall, there was a statistically significant reduction in glycated hemoglobin (mean change = −0.10, p = 0.013), SGOT (mean change = −1.84, p = 0.011), and SGPT (mean change = −2.95, p = 0.022). Emotional feeding/food as reward decreased (mean change −0.21, p = 0.007) and healthy eating guidance increased (mean change = 0.11, p = 0.051). Linear regression analysis revealed that BMI z-score change had a robust and significant correlation with important metabolic parameters: HOMA-IR change (beta coefficient = 3.60, p-value = 0.046), SGPT change (beta coefficient = 11.90, p-value = 0.037), and cortisol change (beta coefficient = 9.96, p-value = 0.008). Furthermore, healthy eating guidance change had a robust negative relationship with BMI z-score change (beta coefficient = −0.29, p-value = 0.007). Conclusions: The Endorse digital weight management program improved several metabolic parameters and food parenting practices. Full article
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18 pages, 619 KiB  
Review
Effects of Immunonutrition on Cancer Patients Undergoing Surgery: A Scoping Review
by Katherine García-Malpartida, Carmen Aragón-Valera, Francisco Botella-Romero, María Julia Ocón-Bretón and Juan J. López-Gómez
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1776; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071776 - 5 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3049
Abstract
Introduction: There is a large body of evidence about immunonutrition formulas; however, there are still doubts about their usefulness in routine clinical practice as compared with standard formulas. In the age of personalized medicine, new studies appear every year regarding several types of [...] Read more.
Introduction: There is a large body of evidence about immunonutrition formulas; however, there are still doubts about their usefulness in routine clinical practice as compared with standard formulas. In the age of personalized medicine, new studies appear every year regarding several types of patients; therefore, an updated point of view on these formulas is necessary. Methods: The Embase database was searched from 2016 to 14 March 2022. Our criteria were articles published in English and Spanish. The evidence quality was evaluated using GRADEpro, and the review was developed according to the PRISMA statement. Results: In this review, a total of 65 unique records were retrieved; however, 36 articles did not meet the inclusion criteria and were thus excluded. In total, 29 articles were included in the final analysis. In the last few years, many meta-analyses have attempted to identify additional existing studies of surgical patients with certain pathologies, mainly oncological patients. Immunonutrition prior to oncological surgery was shown to cause a decrease in inflammatory markers in most of the studies, and the main clinical events that changed were the infectious complications after surgery. The length of stay and mortality data are controversial due to the specific risk factors associated with these events. Conclusions: The use of immunonutrition in patients who have undergone oncological surgery decreases the levels of inflammatory markers and infectious postoperative complications in almost all localizations. However, more studies are needed to assess the use of immunonutrition based on Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Therapy: Personal Diet and Lifestyle and Human Health)
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23 pages, 6638 KiB  
Article
Use of a Silkworm (Bombyx mori) Larvae By-Product for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis: Inhibition of NF-κB Nuclear Translocation and MAPK Signaling
by Meiqi Fan, Young-Jin Choi, Nishala Erandi Wedamulla, Qun Zhang, Seong Wan Kim, Sung Moon Bae, Young-Seek Seok and Eun-Kyung Kim
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1775; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071775 - 5 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1631
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a long-lasting inflammatory skin disease that contributes to the global health burden and impacts 10–20% of the world’s population. In this study, we determined the anti-AD effect of a by-product of silkworm (Bombyx mori) larval powder, strain [...] Read more.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a long-lasting inflammatory skin disease that contributes to the global health burden and impacts 10–20% of the world’s population. In this study, we determined the anti-AD effect of a by-product of silkworm (Bombyx mori) larval powder, strain Yeonnokjam (SLPY), as a sustainable, natural source for the development of therapeutic agents for AD. HaCaT cells were used to assess the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of SLPY, and a 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB)-induced mouse model was used to study the in vivo anti-AD effects. SLPY treatment downregulated the expression of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL1β, IL-8, and Cox-2 in stimulated HaCaT cells. Similarly, the topical application of SLPY in DNCB-treated mice downregulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines and proteins while ameliorating the clinical features of AD. Further, SLPY treatment inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κb p65, thereby supporting the efficacy of SLPY in the treatment of AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Immunology)
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23 pages, 1086 KiB  
Review
Hydroxytyrosol Interference with Inflammaging via Modulation of Inflammation and Autophagy
by Francesca Velotti and Roberta Bernini
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1774; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071774 - 5 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3067
Abstract
Inflammaging refers to a chronic, systemic, low-grade inflammation, driven by immune (mainly macrophages) and non-immune cells stimulated by endogenous/self, misplaced or altered molecules, belonging to physiological aging. This age-related inflammatory status is characterized by increased inflammation and decreased macroautophagy/autophagy (a degradation process that [...] Read more.
Inflammaging refers to a chronic, systemic, low-grade inflammation, driven by immune (mainly macrophages) and non-immune cells stimulated by endogenous/self, misplaced or altered molecules, belonging to physiological aging. This age-related inflammatory status is characterized by increased inflammation and decreased macroautophagy/autophagy (a degradation process that removes unnecessary or dysfunctional cell components). Inflammaging predisposes to age-related diseases, including obesity, type-2 diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, as well as vulnerability to infectious diseases and vaccine failure, representing thus a major target for anti-aging strategies. Phenolic compounds—found in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO)—are well known for their beneficial effect on longevity. Among them, hydroxytyrosol (HTyr) appears to greatly contribute to healthy aging by its documented potent antioxidant activity. In addition, HTyr can modulate inflammation and autophagy, thus possibly counteracting and reducing inflammaging. In this review, we reference the literature on pure HTyr as a modulatory agent of inflammation and autophagy, in order to highlight its possible interference with inflammaging. This HTyr-mediated activity might contribute to healthy aging and delay the development or progression of diseases related to aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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13 pages, 3304 KiB  
Article
Amelioration of Sensorineural Hearing Loss through Regulation of Trpv1, Cacna1h, and Ngf Gene Expression by a Combination of Cuscutae Semen and Rehmanniae Radix Preparata
by Bin Na Hong, Sung Woo Shin, Youn Hee Nam, Ji Heon Shim, Na Woo Kim, Min Cheol Kim, Wanlapa Nuankaew, Jong Hwan Kwak and Tong Ho Kang
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1773; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071773 - 5 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2119
Abstract
Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a common condition that results from the loss of function of hair cells, which are responsible for converting sound into electrical signals within the cochlea and auditory nerve. Despite the prevalence of SNHL, a universally effective treatment has [...] Read more.
Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a common condition that results from the loss of function of hair cells, which are responsible for converting sound into electrical signals within the cochlea and auditory nerve. Despite the prevalence of SNHL, a universally effective treatment has yet to be approved. To address this absence, the present study aimed to investigate the potential therapeutic effects of TS, a combination of Cuscutae Semen and Rehmanniae Radix Preparata. To this end, both in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to evaluate the efficacy of TS with respect to SNHL. The results showed that TS was able to protect against ototoxic neomycin-induced damage in both HEI-OC1 cells and otic hair cells in zebrafish. Furthermore, in images obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), an increase in the number of kinocilia, which was prompted by the TS treatment, was observed in the zebrafish larvae. In a noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) mouse model, TS improved hearing thresholds as determined by the auditory brainstem response (ABR) test. Additionally, TS was found to regulate several genes related to hearing loss, including Trpv1, Cacna1h, and Ngf, as determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. In conclusion, the findings of this study suggest that TS holds promise as a potential treatment for sensorineural hearing loss. Further research is necessary to confirm these results and evaluate the safety and efficacy of TS in a clinical setting. Full article
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11 pages, 549 KiB  
Article
Relationship between the Mediterranean Diet Score in Pregnancy and the Incidence of Asthma at 4 Years of Age: The Japan Environment and Children’s Study
by Kaita Nakano, Shohei Kuraoka, Masako Oda, Takashi Ohba, Hiroshi Mitsubuchi, Kimitoshi Nakamura, Takahiko Katoh and the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS) Group
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1772; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071772 - 5 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
Several scoring methods for the Mediterranean diet, which is considered as a healthy diet, are available, but studies that have compared more than one of these scores are rare. In addition, the applicability of Mediterranean diet scoring has not been sufficiently examined outside [...] Read more.
Several scoring methods for the Mediterranean diet, which is considered as a healthy diet, are available, but studies that have compared more than one of these scores are rare. In addition, the applicability of Mediterranean diet scoring has not been sufficiently examined outside of Mediterranean regions. We collected data on the Mediterranean diet during pregnancy and the incidence of type 1 allergies in offspring from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study. Using multiple Mediterranean diet scoring methods, we analyzed the effect of adherence to the Mediterranean diet in pregnancy on the allergies of the offspring. Overall, 46,532 pairs of mothers and children were analyzed. In Japan, a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet during pregnancy was associated with a lower incidence of asthma in the offspring (odds ratio: 0.896, 95% confidence interval: 0.835, 0.962). Furthermore, we found that the selection of the Mediterranean diet scoring method and the setting of the reference value significantly altered the results. Our findings suggest that an appropriate selection of scoring methods and a reference value for food items are important to analyze the effects of adherence to the Mediterranean diet inside and outside of Mediterranean regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutritional Status and Gut Microbiome Composition)
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22 pages, 4804 KiB  
Article
Pomegranate Extract Affects Gut Biofilm Forming Bacteria and Promotes Intestinal Mucosal Healing Regulating the Crosstalk between Epithelial Cells and Intestinal Fibroblasts
by Giulia Rizzo, Samuel Elias Pineda Chavez, Elisa Vandenkoornhuyse, Cindy Lorena Cárdenas Rincón, Valeria Cento, Valentina Garlatti, Marek Wozny, Giusy Sammarco, Alessia Di Claudio, Lisa Meanti, Sudharshan Elangovan, Andrea Romano, Giulia Roda, Laura Loy, Arianna Dal Buono, Roberto Gabbiadini, Sara Lovisa, Roberto Rusconi, Alessandro Repici, Alessandro Armuzzi and Stefania Vetranoadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1771; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071771 - 5 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 6519
Abstract
Background: Pomegranate (Punica granatum) can be used to prepare a bioactive extract exerting anti-inflammatory activities. Clinical studies demonstrated an improvement in clinical response in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients when pomegranate extract (PG) was taken as a complement to [...] Read more.
Background: Pomegranate (Punica granatum) can be used to prepare a bioactive extract exerting anti-inflammatory activities. Clinical studies demonstrated an improvement in clinical response in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients when pomegranate extract (PG) was taken as a complement to standard medications. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects are still scarcely investigated. This study investigates the effect of PG on bacterial biofilm formation and the promotion of mucosal wound healing. Methods: The acute colitis model was induced in C57BL/6N mice by 3% dextran sodium sulfate administration in drinking water for 5 days. During the recovery phase of colitis, mice received saline or PG (200 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage for 11 days. Colitis was scored daily by evaluating body weight loss, bleeding, and stool consistency. In vivo intestinal permeability was evaluated by fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated dextran assay, bacterial translocation was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization on tissues, whereas epithelial and mucus integrity were monitored by immunostaining for JAM-A and MUC-2 markers. Bacterial biofilm formation was assessed using microfluidic devices for 24 or 48 h. Primary fibroblasts were isolated from healthy and inflamed areas of 8 IBD patients, and Caco-2 cells were stimulated with or without PG (5 μg/mL). Inflammatory mediators were measured at the mRNA and protein level by RT-PCR, WB, or Bio-plex multiplex immunoassay, respectively. Results: In vivo, PG boosted the recovery phase of colitis, promoting a complete restoration of the intestinal barrier with the regeneration of the mucus layer, as also demonstrated by the absence of bacterial spread into the mucosa and the enrichment of crypt-associated fibroblasts. Microfluidic experiments did not highlight a specific effect of PG on Enterobacterales biofilm formation, even though Citrobacter freundii biofilm was slightly impaired in the presence of PG. In vitro, inflamed fibroblasts responded to PG by downregulating the release of metalloproteinases, IL-6, and IL-8 and upregulating the levels of HGF. Caco-2 cells cultured in a medium supplemented with PG increased the expression of SOX-9 and CD44, whereas in the presence of HGF or plated with a fibroblast-conditioned medium, they displayed a decrease in SOX-9 and CD44 expression and an increase in AXIN2, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling. Conclusions: These data provide new insight into the manifold effects of PG on promoting mucosal homeostasis in IBD by affecting pathogen biofilm formation and favoring the regeneration of the intestinal barrier through the regulation of the crosstalk between epithelial and stromal cells. Full article
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