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Nutrients, Volume 15, Issue 8 (April-2 2023) – 213 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The impact of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes and mortality risk reduction remains unclear due to conflicting study findings. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), published between 1983 and 2022, that reported the effect of vitamin D supplementation in adults versus placebo or no treatment on all-cause mortality (ACM), cardiovascular mortality (CVM), non-cardiovascular mortality (non-CVM), and cardiovascular morbidities. Only studies with a follow-up period longer than one year were included. The primary outcomes were ACM and CVM. Secondary outcomes were non-CVM, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and major or extended adverse cardiovascular events. View this paper
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14 pages, 24225 KiB  
Article
Processing and Nutritional Quality of Breakfast Cereals Sold in Italy: Results from the Food Labelling of Italian Products (FLIP) Study
by Donato Angelino, Monica Dinu, Barbara Gandossi, Nicoletta Pellegrini and Daniela Martini
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 2013; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15082013 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1928
Abstract
This study aimed to compare the level of processing (as assessed by the NOVA classification) and the nutritional quality (as assessed by nutrition values, Nutri-Score and NutrInform battery) of breakfast cereals currently on the Italian market. A total of 349 items were found, [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare the level of processing (as assessed by the NOVA classification) and the nutritional quality (as assessed by nutrition values, Nutri-Score and NutrInform battery) of breakfast cereals currently on the Italian market. A total of 349 items were found, mostly belonging to the NOVA 4 group (66.5%) and to Nutri-Score C and A (40% and 30%, respectively). The NOVA 4 products showed the highest energy, total fat, saturates, and sugar content per 100 g and had the highest number of items with Nutri-Score C (49%) and D (22%). Conversely, NOVA 1 products had the highest content of fibre and protein, the lowest amounts of sugars and salt, and 82% of them were Nutri-Score A, while few Nutri-Score B and C were found. Differences were attenuated when products were compared for their NutrInform battery, with NOVA 4 items showing only slightly fuller batteries for saturated fats, sugar, and salt than NOVA 1 and NOVA 3 products. Overall, these results suggest that the NOVA classification partially overlaps with systems based on the nutritional quality of foods. The lower nutritional quality of NOVA 4 foods may at least partially explain the association found between the consumption of ultra-processed foods and the risk of chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Processed Foods, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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14 pages, 1968 KiB  
Article
Formula Milk Supplementation and Bone Acquisition in 4–6 Years Chinese Children: A 12-Month Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial
by Bang-Yan Li, Jin-Li Mahe, Jing-Yu Hao, Wen-Hui Ye, Xue-Fei Bai, Hao-Tian Feng, Ignatius Man-Yau Szeto, Li-Peng Jing, Zi-Fu Zhao and Yu-Ming Chen
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 2012; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15082012 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2118
Abstract
Dairy foods are crucial for adequate calcium intake in young children, but scarce data are available on the effects of formula milk on bone acquisition. This cluster-randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of the supplementation of formula milk on bone health in rural [...] Read more.
Dairy foods are crucial for adequate calcium intake in young children, but scarce data are available on the effects of formula milk on bone acquisition. This cluster-randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of the supplementation of formula milk on bone health in rural children accustomed to a low-calcium diet between September 2021 and September 2022. We recruited 196 healthy children aged 4–6 years from two kindergartens in Huining County, Northwest China. A class-based randomization was used to assign them to receive 60 g of formula milk powder containing 720 mg calcium and 4.5 µg vitamin D or 20–30 g of bread per day for 12 months, respectively. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at the left forearm and calcaneus, bone biomarkers, bone-related hormones/growth factors, and body measures were determined at baseline, 6, and 12 months. A total of 174 children completed the trial and were included in the analysis. Compared with the control group, formula milk intervention showed significant extra increments in BMD (3.77% and 6.66%) and BMC (4.55% and 5.76%) at the left forearm at 6th and 12th months post-intervention (all p < 0.001), respectively. Similar trends were observed in BMD (2.83%) and BMC (2.38%) in the left calcaneus at 6 months (p < 0.05). The milk intervention (vs. control) also showed significant changes in the serum concentrations of osteocalcin level (−7.59%, p = 0.012), 25-hydroxy-vitamin-D (+5.54%, p = 0.001), parathyroid hormone concentration (−15.22%, p = 0.003), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (+8.36%, p = 0.014). The percentage increases in height were 0.34%, 0.45%, and 0.42% higher in the milk group than in the control group after 3-, 6-, and 9-month intervention, respectively (p < 0.05). In summary, formula milk supplementation enhances bone acquisition at the left forearm in young Chinese children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Role in Bone and Muscle Health)
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17 pages, 327 KiB  
Review
Complementary Feeding Practices and Childhood Malnutrition in South Africa: The Potential of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Powder as a Fortificant: A Narrative Review
by Hlengiwe Sokhela, Laurencia Govender and Muthulisi Siwela
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 2011; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15082011 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2983
Abstract
Poor complementary feeding is a common practice in developing regions, including South Africa (SA), and is one of the main contributing factors to childhood malnutrition. This paper reviews the literature on complementary feeding practices in SA and the potential of fortifying home-prepared complementary [...] Read more.
Poor complementary feeding is a common practice in developing regions, including South Africa (SA), and is one of the main contributing factors to childhood malnutrition. This paper reviews the literature on complementary feeding practices in SA and the potential of fortifying home-prepared complementary foods with Moringa oleifera to improve their nutritional composition. Studies that investigated complementary feeding practices, indigenous crops, nutritional benefits of Moringa oleifera, and the use of MOLP as a fortificant both locally and globally were included in this review. In SA, maize meal and commercial cereal are the most commonly used complementary infant foods. The diet consumed by children from vulnerable households commonly has insufficient nutrients. Foods consumed are generally high in starch and low in other essential nutrients, including good-quality protein. Impoverished individuals consume poor-quality foods as they are unable to afford a diversified diet with food from different food groups, such as protein, fruits, and vegetables. In SA, various programs have been implemented to reduce the incidence of childhood malnutrition. However, childhood malnutrition remains on the rise. This shows a need for complementary food-based strategies that can be implemented and sustained at a household level. This can be conducted through the use of accessible indigenous crops such as Moringa oleifera. Moringa oleifera contains essential nutrients such as proteins, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Therefore, it could possibly be used as a home-prepared complementary food fortificant to enhance nutritional composition. Before complementary foods can be fortified with Moringa oleifera, popular home-prepared complementary foods must be identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infant Nutrition and Feeding)
17 pages, 5068 KiB  
Article
Selenium and Zinc Intakes of Staple Grains and Their Correlation with Urine Selenium and Zinc in the Tibetan Rural Residents along the Yarlung Zangbo River
by Yumin Jia, Cangjue Nima, Linsheng Yang, Li Wang, Binggan Wei, Yonghua Li, Hairong Li, Yangzong Deji, Shengcheng Zhao, Min Guo, Hongqiang Gong, Chang Kong, Lijuan Gu, Zongji Gesang and Rujun Li
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 2010; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15082010 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1400
Abstract
Grains account for a large proportion of the diet of rural residents in Tibet. The lack of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) threatens the population’s nutrition and health. However, the intakes of selenium and zinc in grains remains unclear. To clarify the nutritional [...] Read more.
Grains account for a large proportion of the diet of rural residents in Tibet. The lack of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) threatens the population’s nutrition and health. However, the intakes of selenium and zinc in grains remains unclear. To clarify the nutritional status of selenium and zinc consumed from staple grains of residents along the Yarlung Zangbo River in Tibet, 341 grain samples and 242 urine samples were collected, and 244 food frequency questionnaires were completed along the Yarlung Zangbo River in 2020–2021. The results showed that the selenium concentrations of 88.5% of self-produced tsampa and 80.8% of self-produced flour were lower than the grain selenium threshold (<25 μg·kg−1). The intake of selenium and zinc from staple grains (tsampa, flour, and rice) contributed 15.0% and 43.5% to the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) on average, respectively. A geographical detector model analyzed factors affecting urinary selenium and zinc levels. Selenium and zinc intakes in rice and flour, and dietary diversity score (DDS) were the main factors affecting urinary selenium and zinc (p < 0.01). Their interaction effects on urinary selenium and zinc were greater than those of a single factor. The staple grains of rural residents along the Yarlung Zangbo River were in a state of selenium deficiency. The zinc content of the staple grain purchased was lower than that of the main grain produced by rural residents. Changing the grain consumption pattern and adjusting the proportion of exogenous grains can improve selenium and zinc nutrition in residents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Micronutrient Intake and Health)
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13 pages, 409 KiB  
Article
Maternal Serum Vitamin B12 during Pregnancy and Offspring Autism Spectrum Disorder
by Andre Sourander, Sanju Silwal, Heljä-Marja Surcel, Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Subina Upadhyaya, Ian W. McKeague, Keely Cheslack-Postava and Alan S. Brown
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 2009; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15082009 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4004
Abstract
This study examined the association between maternal serum vitamin B12 levels during early pregnancy and offspring autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and subtypes. Based on a Finnish national birth cohort, case offspring (n = 1558) born in 1987–2007 and diagnosed with ASD by 2015 [...] Read more.
This study examined the association between maternal serum vitamin B12 levels during early pregnancy and offspring autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and subtypes. Based on a Finnish national birth cohort, case offspring (n = 1558) born in 1987–2007 and diagnosed with ASD by 2015 were matched with one control on date of birth, sex and place of birth. Maternal vitamin B12 levels were measured during first and early second trimesters of pregnancy. High maternal vitamin B12 levels (≥81th percentile) was associated with increased risk for offspring childhood autism, adjusted odds ratio, 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.06–2.41 (p = 0.026). No significant associations were observed between maternal vitamin B12 levels and offspring Asperger’s or pervasive developmental disorder/NOS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue B Vitamin Supplements: Benefits, Deficiencies and Toxicity)
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19 pages, 7802 KiB  
Article
Ginkgo biloba Extract Preventively Intervenes in Citrobacter Rodentium-Induced Colitis in Mice
by Tingting Chen, Yiqiang Chen, Kaiyuan Li, Zhuo Chen, Qingyu Zhao, Yimeng Fan, Ying Liu, Suxia Zhang and Zhihui Hao
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 2008; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15082008 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2235
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) represents a highly recurrent gastrointestinal disorder and global public health issue. However, it lacks effective and safe strategies for its control. Although Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) has been suggested to exhibit preventive and therapeutic activity for the control of [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) represents a highly recurrent gastrointestinal disorder and global public health issue. However, it lacks effective and safe strategies for its control. Although Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) has been suggested to exhibit preventive and therapeutic activity for the control of IBD, whether its activity is associated with its ability to modulate intestinal microbiota remains to be addressed. To investigate the effect of GBE on controlling IBD, a Citrobacter Rodentium (CR)-induced mouse colitis model was used, and then histopathological examinations, biochemical assays, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblotting were performed to detect histological changes, cytokines, and tight junction (TJ) proteins in the intestine samples. We also studied 16s rRNA to detect changes in intestinal microbiota and used GC-MS to determine the microbiota-related metabolites short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The results of our studies revealed that pre-treatment with GBE was sufficient for protecting the animals from CR-induced colitis. As a mechanism for GBE activity, GBE treatment was able to modulate the intestinal microbiota and increase the SCFAs capable of decreasing the pro-inflammatory factors and up-regulating the anti-inflammatory factors while elevating the intestinal-barrier-associated proteins to maintain the integrity of the intestines. Accordingly, our results led to a strong suggestion that GBE should be seriously considered in the preventive control of CR-induced colitis and in the development of effective and safe therapeutic strategies for controlling IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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15 pages, 5613 KiB  
Article
Neuroprotective Effects of Ecklonia cava in a Chronic Neuroinflammatory Disease Model
by Seong-Lae Jo, Hyun Yang, Kang-Joo Jeong, Hye-Won Lee and Eui-Ju Hong
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 2007; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15082007 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1964
Abstract
Inflammation is a natural defense mechanism against noxious stimuli, but chronic inflammation can lead to various chronic diseases. Neuroinflammation in the central nervous system plays an important role in the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Polyphenol-rich natural products, such as Ecklonia cava [...] Read more.
Inflammation is a natural defense mechanism against noxious stimuli, but chronic inflammation can lead to various chronic diseases. Neuroinflammation in the central nervous system plays an important role in the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Polyphenol-rich natural products, such as Ecklonia cava (E. cava), are known to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and can provide treatment strategies for neurodegenerative diseases by controlling neuroinflammation. We investigated the effects of an E. cava extract on neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration under chronic inflammatory conditions. Mice were pretreated with E. cava extract for 19 days and then exposed to E. cava with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 1 week. We monitored pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in the serum, inflammation-related markers, and neurodegenerative markers using Western blotting and qRT-PCR in the mouse cerebrum and hippocampus. E. cava reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in the blood and brain of mice with LPS-induced chronic inflammation. We also measured the activity of genes related to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Surprisingly, E. cava decreased the activity of markers associated with inflammation (NF-kB and STAT3) and a neurodegenerative disease marker (glial fibrillary acidic protein, beta-amyloid) in the cerebrum and hippocampus of mice. We suggest that E. cava extract has the potential as a protective agent against neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Polyphenol-Rich Foods in Neurodegenerative Disorder)
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21 pages, 373 KiB  
Review
The Potential of DHA as Cancer Therapy Strategies: A Narrative Review of In Vitro Cytotoxicity Trials
by Jaqueline de Freitas Rodrigues, Hellen Kempfer Philippsen, Maria Fani Dolabela, Cleusa Yoshiko Nagamachi and Julio Cesar Pieczarka
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 2006; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15082006 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2423
Abstract
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), also known as omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), is a natural compound that has demonstrated pharmacological activity against several malignant neoplasms. Available cancer treatments cause side effects, affect healthy cells, reduce the quality of life of patients [...] Read more.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), also known as omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), is a natural compound that has demonstrated pharmacological activity against several malignant neoplasms. Available cancer treatments cause side effects, affect healthy cells, reduce the quality of life of patients and may cause resistance to antineoplastics. For these reasons, the search for new therapies is continuous. This narrative review aimed to compile information on in vitro experiments that study the cytotoxic effect of DHA or molecules derived from DHA in tumor and nontumor cells. This was performed to highlight the potential of DHA as a strategy for cancer therapy and to gather information, which will help researchers plan experimental designs and develop research to discover effective therapies against cancer. In addition, studies were presented that demonstrate the dose of DHA that can treat patients with cancer. Thus, a search was conducted for articles on the SCOPUS and Web of Science platforms, published until 2022, that analyzed the action of DHA against breast, lung, colorectal, prostate, stomach and liver cancers. Cytotoxic effects were observed in tumor and nontumor cell lines, and these results varied with the type of cell line studied, drug concentration, incubation time and treatment combination, i.e., with DHA alone, combined with other drugs and with molecules derived from DHA. In patients with cancer, in all analyzed studies, DHA intake was associated with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or proteins to aid chemotherapy, and with this procedure, tumor reduction, chemotherapy tolerance and muscle mass gain were obtained. This work contributes to the community by demonstrating the possible applicability of DHA in the pharmaceutical area of oncological therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
14 pages, 3677 KiB  
Article
Limosilactobacillus fermentum MG4294 and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum MG5289 Ameliorates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High-Fat Diet-Induced Mice
by Ji Yeon Lee, Minju An, Huijin Heo, Jeong-Yong Park, Junsoo Lee and Chang-Ho Kang
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 2005; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15082005 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1930
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease and the leading cause of liver-related deaths worldwide. It has been established that microorganisms are involved in the interaction between the intestinal lumen and the liver; therefore, studies on probiotics as potential [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease and the leading cause of liver-related deaths worldwide. It has been established that microorganisms are involved in the interaction between the intestinal lumen and the liver; therefore, studies on probiotics as potential candidates are increasing. This study evaluated the effects of Limosilactobacillus fermentum MG4294 and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum MG5289 on NAFLD. The MG4294 and MG5289 reduced lipid accumulation in FFA-induced HepG2 by suppressing the adipogenic proteins through the regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The administration of these strains in the HFD-induced mice model lowered body weight, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and cholesterol levels. In particular, MG4294 and MG5289 restored liver TG and TC to normal levels by lowering lipid and cholesterol-related proteins via the modulation of AMPK in the liver tissue. In addition, the administration of MG4294 and MG5289 reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β-, and IL6) in the intestinal tissues of the HFD-induced mouse model. In conclusion, MG4294 and MG5289 can be presented as probiotics with the potential to prevent NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Lactobacillus and Probiotics in Human Health and Diseases)
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4 pages, 226 KiB  
Editorial
Low-Carbohydrate Diet and Human Health
by Sousana K. Papadopoulou and Pantelis T. Nikolaidis
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 2004; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15082004 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2962
Abstract
Low-carbohydrate diets were initially recommended as a therapeutic dietary scheme for epilepsy, while increasing evidence suggests their potential application in the management of several other pathologies, such as diabetes, neoplasms, gastrointestinal and lung diseases, diseases of the cardiovascular system, as well as obesity [...] Read more.
Low-carbohydrate diets were initially recommended as a therapeutic dietary scheme for epilepsy, while increasing evidence suggests their potential application in the management of several other pathologies, such as diabetes, neoplasms, gastrointestinal and lung diseases, diseases of the cardiovascular system, as well as obesity [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Carbohydrate Diet and Human Health)
10 pages, 1022 KiB  
Article
Contribution of Vitamin D Metabolites to Vitamin D Concentrations of Families Residing in Pune City
by Rubina Mandlik, Dipali Ladkat and Anuradha Khadilkar
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 2003; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15082003 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1181
Abstract
The objective was to explore the patterns of contribution from vitamin D metabolites (D2 and D3) to total vitamin D concentrations in Indian families. This cross-sectional study was carried out in slum-dwelling families residing in Pune city. Data on demography, [...] Read more.
The objective was to explore the patterns of contribution from vitamin D metabolites (D2 and D3) to total vitamin D concentrations in Indian families. This cross-sectional study was carried out in slum-dwelling families residing in Pune city. Data on demography, socio-economic status, sunlight exposure, anthropometry, and biochemical parameters (serum 25OHD2, 25OHD3) via the liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method were collected. The results are presented for 437 participants (5 to 80 years). One-third were vitamin-D-deficient. Intake of foods containing vitamin D2 or D3 was rarely reported. Irrespective of gender, age, and vitamin D status, the contribution of D3 to total 25OHD concentrations far exceeded that of D2 (p < 0.05). The contribution of D2 ranged from 8% to 33% while that of D3 to 25OHD concentrations ranged from 67% to 92%. 25OHD3 is a major contributor to overall vitamin D concentrations, and the contribution of 25OHD2 was found to be negligible. This implies that sunlight and not diet is currently the major source of vitamin D. Considering that lifestyle and cultural practices may lead to insufficient sunlight exposure for large sections of the society, especially women, dietary contribution to vitamin D concentrations through fortification may play an important role in improving the vitamin D status of Indians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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20 pages, 857 KiB  
Review
Blood and Tissue Advanced Glycation End Products as Determinants of Cardiometabolic Disorders Focusing on Human Studies
by Yoona Kim
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 2002; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15082002 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2516
Abstract
Cardiometabolic disorders are characterised by a cluster of interactive risk determinants such as increases in blood glucose, lipids and body weight, as well as elevated inflammation and oxidative stress and gut microbiome changes. These disorders are associated with onset of type 2 diabetes [...] Read more.
Cardiometabolic disorders are characterised by a cluster of interactive risk determinants such as increases in blood glucose, lipids and body weight, as well as elevated inflammation and oxidative stress and gut microbiome changes. These disorders are associated with onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). T2DM is strongly associated with CVD. Dietary advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) attributable from modern diets high in sugar and/or fat, highly processed foods and high heat-treated foods can contribute to metabolic etiologies of cardiometabolic disorders. This mini review aims to determine whether blood dAGEs levels and tissue dAGEs levels are determinants of the prevalence of cardiometabolic disorders through recent human studies. ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for blood dAGEs measurement and skin auto fluorescence (SAF) for skin AGEs measurement can be used. Recent human studies support that a diet high in AGEs can negatively influence glucose control, body weight, blood lipid levels and vascular health through the elevated oxidative stress, inflammation, blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction compared with a diet low in AGEs. Limited human studies suggested a diet high in AGEs could negatively alter gut microbiota. SAF could be considered as one of the predictors affecting risks for cardiometabolic disorders. More intervention studies are needed to determine how dAGEs are associated with the prevalence of cardiometabolic disorders through gut microbiota changes. Further human studies are conducted to find the association between CVD events, CVD mortality and total mortality through SAF measurement, and a consensus on whether tissue dAGEs act as a predictor of CVD is required. Full article
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1 pages, 191 KiB  
Reply
Reply to Gurney, T.; Ronca, F. Comment on “Hack et al. Effect of Guarana (Paullinia cupana) on Cognitive Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2023, 15, 434”
by Brian Hack, Eduardo Macedo Penna, Tyler Talik, Rohan Chandrashekhar and Mindy Millard-Stafford
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 2001; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15082001 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 812
Abstract
We thank Dr. Gurney for his interest and comment [...] Full article
2 pages, 183 KiB  
Comment
Comment on Hack et al. Effect of Guarana (Paullinia cupana) on Cognitive Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2023, 15, 434
by Tom Gurney and Flaminia Ronca
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15082000 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1319
Abstract
We have read the recent systematic review and meta-analysis by Hack et al. [...] Full article
12 pages, 1074 KiB  
Article
Megamonas funiformis, Plasma Zonulin, and Sodium Intake Affect C3 Complement Levels in Inactive Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
by Bianca Depieri Balmant, Danielle Cristina Fonseca, Ana Paula Aguiar Prudêncio, Ilanna Marques Rocha, Letícia Callado, Juliana Tepedino Martins Alves, Raquel Susana Matos de Miranda Torrinhas, Eduardo Ferreira Borba and Dan Linetzky Waitzberg
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1999; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081999 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2199
Abstract
The etiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains unclear, with both genetic and environmental factors potentially contributing. This study aimed to explore the relationship among gut microbiota (GM), intestinal permeability, and food intake with inflammatory markers in inactive SLE patients. A total of [...] Read more.
The etiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains unclear, with both genetic and environmental factors potentially contributing. This study aimed to explore the relationship among gut microbiota (GM), intestinal permeability, and food intake with inflammatory markers in inactive SLE patients. A total of 22 women with inactive SLE and 20 healthy volunteers were enrolled, and dietary intake was assessed through 24-h dietary recalls. Plasma zonulin was used to evaluate intestinal permeability, while GM was determined by 16S rRNA sequencing. Regression models were used to analyze laboratory markers of lupus disease (C3 and C4 complement and C-reactive protein). Our results showed that the genus Megamonas was significantly enriched in the iSLE group (p < 0.001), with Megamonas funiformis associated with all evaluated laboratory tests (p < 0.05). Plasma zonulin was associated with C3 levels (p = 0.016), and sodium intake was negatively associated with C3 and C4 levels (p < 0.05). A combined model incorporating variables from each group (GM, intestinal permeability, and food intake) demonstrated a significant association with C3 complement levels (p < 0.01). These findings suggest that increased Megamonas funiformis abundance, elevated plasma zonulin, and higher sodium intake may contribute to reduced C3 complement levels in women with inactive SLE. Full article
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12 pages, 1026 KiB  
Systematic Review
Exercise Programs Combined with Diet Supplementation Improve Body Composition and Physical Function in Older Adults with Sarcopenia: A Systematic Review
by Marco Antonio Hernández-Lepe, Michelle Itzel Miranda-Gil, Edith Valbuena-Gregorio and Francisco Javier Olivas-Aguirre
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1998; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081998 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3463
Abstract
Sarcopenia is a progressive and frequent syndrome among older adults highly related to physical inactivity and malnutrition. Nowadays, it is considered a pathology that triggers multiple health complications associated with the loss of muscle mass, strength, autonomy, and quality of life. The objective [...] Read more.
Sarcopenia is a progressive and frequent syndrome among older adults highly related to physical inactivity and malnutrition. Nowadays, it is considered a pathology that triggers multiple health complications associated with the loss of muscle mass, strength, autonomy, and quality of life. The objective of the present systematic review was to evaluate the effect of exercise programs combined with dietary supplementation on body composition as the primary outcome. This systematic review was carried out in accordance with the elements considered for planning a systematic review by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), and the search was performed in the Scopus, EBSCO, and PubMed databases for the last 10 years. A total of 16 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic review. Regular resistance exercise together with daily essential amino acids or whey protein and vitamin D supplementation improve the maintenance or gains in appendiceal/skeletal muscle mass and total lean mass in sarcopenic older adults. The data suggest a synergistic effect not only on the primary outcome, but also on other variables such as strength, speed, stability, and other indicators of quality of life. This systematic review was registered in PROSPERO, ID: CRD42022344284. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
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15 pages, 726 KiB  
Review
Vitamin D in Diabetes: Uncovering the Sunshine Hormone’s Role in Glucose Metabolism and Beyond
by Jie Wu, Annette Atkins, Michael Downes and Zong Wei
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1997; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081997 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 8633
Abstract
Over the last decades, epidemiology and functional studies have started to reveal a pivotal role of vitamin D in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes pathogenesis. Acting through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), vitamin D regulates insulin secretion in pancreatic islets and [...] Read more.
Over the last decades, epidemiology and functional studies have started to reveal a pivotal role of vitamin D in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes pathogenesis. Acting through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), vitamin D regulates insulin secretion in pancreatic islets and insulin sensitivity in multiple peripheral metabolic organs. In vitro studies and both T1D and T2D animal models showed that vitamin D can improve glucose homeostasis by enhancing insulin secretion, reducing inflammation, reducing autoimmunity, preserving beta cell mass, and sensitizing insulin action. Conversely, vitamin D deficiency has been shown relevant in increasing T1D and T2D incidence. While clinical trials testing the hypothesis that vitamin D improves glycemia in T2D have shown conflicting results, subgroup and meta-analyses support the idea that raising serum vitamin D levels may reduce the progression from prediabetes to T2D. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of vitamin D in insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and immunity, as well as the observational and interventional human studies investigating the use of vitamin D as a treatment for diabetes. Full article
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15 pages, 2174 KiB  
Article
Effect of Rotavirus Infection and 2′-Fucosyllactose Administration on Rat Intestinal Gene Expression
by Laura Sáez-Fuertes, Ignasi Azagra-Boronat, Malén Massot-Cladera, Karen Knipping, Johan Garssen, Àngels Franch, Margarida Castell, Francisco J. Pérez-Cano and María J. Rodríguez-Lagunas
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1996; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081996 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1731
Abstract
Viral infections are described as modifying host gene expression; however, there is limited insight regarding rotavirus (RV) infections. This study aimed to assess the changes in intestinal gene expression after RV infection in a preclinical model, and the effect of 2-fucosyllactose (2′-FL) on [...] Read more.
Viral infections are described as modifying host gene expression; however, there is limited insight regarding rotavirus (RV) infections. This study aimed to assess the changes in intestinal gene expression after RV infection in a preclinical model, and the effect of 2-fucosyllactose (2′-FL) on this process. From days 2 to 8 of life, rats were supplemented with the dietary oligosaccharide 2′-FL or vehicle. In addition, an RV was inoculated on day 5 to nonsupplemented animals (RV group) and to 2′-FL-fed animals (RV+2′-FL group). Incidence and severity of diarrhea were established. A portion from the middle part of the small intestine was excised for gene expression analysis by microarray kit and qPCR. In nonsupplemented animals, RV-induced diarrhea upregulated host antiviral genes (e.g., Oas1a, Irf7, Ifi44, Isg15) and downregulated several genes involved in absorptive processes and intestinal maturation (e.g., Onecut2, and Ccl19). The 2′-FL-supplemented and infected animals had less diarrhea; however, their gene expression was affected in a similar way as the control-infected animals, with the exception of some immunity/maturation markers that were differentially expressed (e.g., Ccl12 and Afp). Overall, assessing the expression of these key genes may be useful in the evaluation of the efficacy of nutritional interventions or treatments for RV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Nutraceuticals in Immune Function)
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15 pages, 1867 KiB  
Systematic Review
Absence of Effects of L-Arginine and L-Citrulline on Inflammatory Biomarkers and Oxidative Stress in Response to Physical Exercise: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
by Andrey A. Porto, Luana A. Gonzaga, Cicero Jonas R. Benjamim and Vitor E. Valenti
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1995; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081995 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2106
Abstract
Background: The repercussions on oxidative and inflammatory stress markers under the effects of arginine and citrulline in response to exercise are not fully reached. We completed a systematic review to investigate the effects of L-Citrulline or L-Arginine on oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers [...] Read more.
Background: The repercussions on oxidative and inflammatory stress markers under the effects of arginine and citrulline in response to exercise are not fully reached. We completed a systematic review to investigate the effects of L-Citrulline or L-Arginine on oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers following exercise. EMBASE, MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Library, CINAHL, LILACS, and Web of Science databases were used to record the trials. This study includes randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs with subjects over 18 years old. Those under the intervention protocol consumed L-Citrulline or L-Arginine, and the controls ingested placebo. We recognized 1080 studies, but only 7 were included (7 studies in meta-analysis). We observed no difference between pre- vs. post-exercise for oxidative stress (subtotal = −0.21 [CI: −0.56, 0.14], p = 0.24, and heterogeneity = 0%. In the sub-group “L-Arginine” we found a subtotal = −0.29 [−0.71, 0.12], p = 0.16, and heterogeneity = 0%. For the “L-Citrulline” subgroup we observed a subtotal = 0.00 [−0.67, 0.67], p = 1.00, and heterogeneity was not applicable. No differences were observed between groups (p = 0.47), and I² = 0%) or in antioxidant activity (subtotal = −0.28 [−1.65, 1.08], p = 0.68, and heterogeneity = 0%). In the “L-Arginine” sub-group, we found a subtotal = −3.90 [−14.18, 6.38], p = 0.46, and heterogeneity was not applicable. For the “L-Citrulline” subgroup, we reported a subtotal = −0.22 [−1.60, 1.16], p = 0.75, and heterogeneity was not applicable. No differences were observed between groups (p = 0.49), and I² = 0%), inflammatory markers (subtotal = 8.38 [−0.02, 16.78], p = 0.05, and heterogeneity = 93%. Tests for subgroup differences were not applicable, and anti-inflammatory markers (subtotal = −0.38 [−1.15, 0.39], p = 0.34 and heterogeneity = 15%; testing for subgroup differences was not applicable). In conclusion, our systematic review and meta-analysis found that L-Citrulline and L-Arginine did not influence inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress after exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Proteins and Amino Acids)
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14 pages, 8588 KiB  
Article
Impact of Maternal Ketogenic Diet on NLRP3 Inflammasome Response in the Offspring Brain
by Sevsen Altınöz, Serap Cilaker Micili, Sıla Soy, Defne Engür, Bora Baysal and Abdullah Kumral
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1994; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081994 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1821
Abstract
The effects of maternal diet on the neuroimmune responses of the offspring remain to be elucidated. We investigated the impact of maternal ketogenic diet (KD) on the NLRP3 inflammasome response in the offspring’s brain. C57BL/6 female mice were randomly allocated into standard diet [...] Read more.
The effects of maternal diet on the neuroimmune responses of the offspring remain to be elucidated. We investigated the impact of maternal ketogenic diet (KD) on the NLRP3 inflammasome response in the offspring’s brain. C57BL/6 female mice were randomly allocated into standard diet (SD) and ketogenic diet (KD) groups for 30 days. After mating, the presence of sperm in the vaginal smear was considered day 0 of pregnancy, and female mice continued their respective diets during pregnancy and the lactation period. Following birth, pups were further allocated into two groups and given either LPS or intraperitoneal saline on postnatal (PN) days 4, 5 and 6; they were sacrificed on PN11 or PN21. Neuronal densities were significantly lower globally in the KD group when compared to the SD group at PN11. Neuronal density in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dentate gyrus (DG) regions were also significantly lower in the KD group when compared to the SD group at PN21. Following administration of LPS, the decrease in the neuronal count was more prominent in the SD group when compared to the KD group in the PFC and DG regions at PN11 and PN21. NLRP3 and IL-1β were higher in the KD group than in the SD group at PN21 in the PFC, CA1 and DG regions, and were significantly lower in the DG region of the KD group especially when compared to the SD group following LPS. Results of our study reveal that maternal KD negatively affects the offspring’s brain in the mouse model. The effects of KD exhibited regional variations. On the other hand, in the presence of KD exposure, NLRP3 expression after LPS injection was lower in the DG and CA1 areas but not in the PFC when compared to SD group. Further experimental and clinical studies are warranted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the impact of antenatal KD exposure and regional discrepancies on the developing brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal and Infant Nutrition Strategy)
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14 pages, 2850 KiB  
Article
Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Alleviates Liver Oxidative Damage Caused by Iron Overload in Mice through Inhibiting Ferroptosis
by Chunjing Yang, Aimin Wu, Liqiang Tan, Dandan Tang, Wei Chen, Xin Lai, Ke Gu, Junzhou Chen, Daiwen Chen and Qian Tang
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1993; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081993 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2428
Abstract
Ferroptosis, a form of regulated cell death, has been widely explored as a novel target for the treatment of diseases. The failure of the antioxidant system can induce ferroptosis. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) is a natural antioxidant in tea; however, whether EGCG can regulate ferroptosis [...] Read more.
Ferroptosis, a form of regulated cell death, has been widely explored as a novel target for the treatment of diseases. The failure of the antioxidant system can induce ferroptosis. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) is a natural antioxidant in tea; however, whether EGCG can regulate ferroptosis in the treatment of liver oxidative damage, as well as the exact molecular mechanism, is unknown. Here, we discovered that iron overload disturbed iron homeostasis in mice, leading to oxidative stress and damage in the liver by activating ferroptosis. However, EGCG supplementation alleviated the liver oxidative damage caused by iron overload by inhibiting ferroptosis. EGCG addition increased NRF2 and GPX4 expression and elevated antioxidant capacity in iron overload mice. EGCG administration attenuates iron metabolism disorders by upregulating FTH/L expression. Through these two mechanisms, EGCG can effectively inhibit iron overload-induced ferroptosis. Taken together, these findings suggest that EGCG is a potential ferroptosis suppressor, and may be a promising therapeutic agent for iron overload-induced liver disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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13 pages, 638 KiB  
Review
Applying Lipidomics to Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Clinical Perspective
by Jian Huang, Giordano Sigon, Benjamin H. Mullish, Dan Wang, Rohini Sharma, Pinelopi Manousou and Roberta Forlano
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1992; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081992 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2859
Abstract
The prevalence of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated complications, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is growing worldwide, due to the epidemics of metabolic risk factors, such as obesity and type II diabetes. Among other factors, an aberrant lipid metabolism represents a [...] Read more.
The prevalence of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated complications, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is growing worldwide, due to the epidemics of metabolic risk factors, such as obesity and type II diabetes. Among other factors, an aberrant lipid metabolism represents a crucial step in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and the development of HCC in this population. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the application of translational lipidomics in NAFLD patients and NAFLD associated HCC in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Metabolism and Relevance to Chronic Disease)
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23 pages, 963 KiB  
Review
Nutritional Status and Its Detection in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
by Beata Jabłońska and Sławomir Mrowiec
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1991; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081991 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3746
Abstract
Malnutrition is an important issue in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). It is caused by altered digestion and absorption within the small bowel, inadequate food intake, and drug–nutrient interactions in patients. Malnutrition is an [...] Read more.
Malnutrition is an important issue in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). It is caused by altered digestion and absorption within the small bowel, inadequate food intake, and drug–nutrient interactions in patients. Malnutrition is an essential problem because it is related to an increased risk of infections and poor prognosis in patients. It is known that malnutrition is also related to an increased risk of postsurgery complications in IBD patients. Basic nutritional screening involves anthropometric parameters with body mass index (BMI) and others (fat mass, waist-to-hip ratio, muscle strength), medical history concerning weight loss, and biochemical parameters (including the Prognostic Nutritional Index). Besides standard nutritional screening tools, including the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), Nutritional Risk Score 2002 (NRS 2002), and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), specific nutritional screening tools are used in IBD patients, such as the Saskatchewan Inflammatory Bowel Disease–Nutrition Risk Tool (SaskIBD-NR Tool and IBD-specific Nutritional Screening Tool). There is a higher risk of nutrient deficiencies (including iron, zinc, magnesium) and vitamin deficiencies (including folic acid, vitamin B12 and D) in IBD patients. Therefore, regular evaluation of nutritional status is important in IBD patients because many of them are undernourished. An association between plasma ghrelin and leptin and nutritional status in IBD patients has been observed. According to some authors, anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNFα) therapy (infliximab) can improve nutritional status in IBD patients. On the other hand, improvement in nutritional status may increase the response rate to infliximab therapy in CD patients. Optimization of nutritional parameters is necessary to improve results of conservative and surgical treatment and to prevent postoperative complications in patients with IBDs. This review presents basic nutritional screening tools, anthropometric and laboratory parameters, dietary risk factors for IBDs, common nutrient deficiencies, associations between anti-TNFα therapy and nutritional status, selected features regarding the influence of nutritional status, and surgical outcome in IBD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Nutrition and Physical Activity in Autoimmune Diseases)
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40 pages, 1306 KiB  
Review
Nutritional and Lifestyle Therapy for NAFLD in People with HIV
by Felice Cinque, Annalisa Cespiati, Rosa Lombardi, Giovanni Guaraldi and Giada Sebastiani
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1990; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081990 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4139
Abstract
HIV infection and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are two major epidemics affecting millions of people worldwide. As people with HIV (PWH) age, there is an increased prevalence of metabolic comorbidities, along with unique HIV factors, such as HIV chronic inflammation and life-long [...] Read more.
HIV infection and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are two major epidemics affecting millions of people worldwide. As people with HIV (PWH) age, there is an increased prevalence of metabolic comorbidities, along with unique HIV factors, such as HIV chronic inflammation and life-long exposure to antiretroviral therapy, which leads to a high prevalence of NAFLD. An unhealthy lifestyle, with a high dietary intake of refined carbohydrates, saturated fatty acids, fructose added beverages, and processed red meat, as well as physical inactivity, are known to trigger and promote the progression of NAFLD to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, with no currently approved pharmacotherapy and a lack of clinical trials that are inclusive of HIV, nutritional and lifestyle approaches still represent the most recommended treatments for PWH with NAFLD. While sharing common features with the general population, NAFLD in PWH displays its own peculiarities that may also reflect different impacts of nutrition and exercise on its onset and treatment. Therefore, in this narrative review, we aimed to explore the role of nutrients in the development of NAFLD in PWH. In addition, we discussed the nutritional and lifestyle approaches to managing NAFLD in the setting of HIV, with insights into the role of gut microbiota and lean NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Guidelines for Liver Metabolism)
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32 pages, 2366 KiB  
Review
Interplay between Phytochemicals and the Colonic Microbiota
by Chohee Kwon, Meran Keshawa Ediriweera and Somi Kim Cho
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1989; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081989 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3860
Abstract
Phytochemicals are natural compounds found in food ingredients with a variety of health-promoting properties. Phytochemicals improve host health through their direct systematic absorption into the circulation and modulation of the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota increases the bioactivity of phytochemicals and is a [...] Read more.
Phytochemicals are natural compounds found in food ingredients with a variety of health-promoting properties. Phytochemicals improve host health through their direct systematic absorption into the circulation and modulation of the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota increases the bioactivity of phytochemicals and is a symbiotic partner whose composition and/or diversity is altered by phytochemicals and affects host health. In this review, the interactions of phytochemicals with the gut microbiota and their impact on human diseases are reviewed. We describe the role of intestinal microbial metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids, amino acid derivatives, and vitamins, from a therapeutic perspective. Next, phytochemical metabolites produced by the gut microbiota and the therapeutic effect of some selected metabolites are reviewed. Many phytochemicals are degraded by enzymes unique to the gut microbiota and act as signaling molecules in antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and metabolic pathways. Phytochemicals can ameliorate diseases by altering the composition and/or diversity of the gut microbiota, and they increase the abundance of some gut microbiota that produce beneficial substances. We also discuss the importance of investigating the interactions between phytochemicals and gut microbiota in controlled human studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lifestyle, the Gut Microbiome, and Our Well-Being)
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22 pages, 6904 KiB  
Article
Alpine Diet in Valmalenco (Lombardy, Italy): Nutritional Features of Spontaneous Plants and Traditional Dishes
by Fabrizia Milani, Martina Bottoni, Claudia Giuliani, Lorenzo Colombo, Maria Cristina Casiraghi, Paola Sira Colombo, Piero Bruschi, Daniela Erba and Gelsomina Fico
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1988; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081988 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1533
Abstract
Background: Along the Alps, the Alpine diet is considered to be one of the most common nutritional models. Next to traditional animal-based products, spontaneous plants of the territory are collected and eaten. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the nutritional [...] Read more.
Background: Along the Alps, the Alpine diet is considered to be one of the most common nutritional models. Next to traditional animal-based products, spontaneous plants of the territory are collected and eaten. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the nutritional features of selected autochthonous plants of the territory and the typical recipe of green gnocchi. Methods: The analyses of proximate composition, carotenoid, total phenol, and mineral contents in raw and cooked plant samples and the chemical composition and in vitro starch digestibility in green and control gnocchi were performed. Results: Except for Aruncus dioicus, all the wild plants contained high levels of carotenoids (15–20 mg/100 g FW), mainly as xanthophylls. Rumex acetosa showed the highest levels of total phenols (554 mg GAE/100 g FW), and Urtica dioica can be considered to be a good dietary source of iron, calcium, and magnesium (4.9, 410, and 72 mg/100 g FW). Cooking significantly decreased the potassium and magnesium contents in all wild species, and total phenols and carotenoids in Aruncus dioicus, Blitum bonus-henricus, and Silene vulgaris (p < 0.05). The slowly digestible fraction of starch (%SDS/available starch), which is inversely correlated to insulin demand, was significantly increased in green gnocchi compared to matched control gnocchi (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Traditional consumption of spontaneous plants in the Alpine regions might increase the dietary intakes of several bioactive substances and contribute to cover the nutritional needs of micronutrients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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13 pages, 2144 KiB  
Article
Independent and Joined Association between Socioeconomic Indicators and Pediatric Obesity in Spain: The PASOS Study
by Clara Homs, Paula Berruezo, Albert Arcarons, Julia Wärnberg, Maddi Osés, Marcela González-Gross, Narcis Gusi, Susana Aznar, Elena Marín-Cascales, Miguel Ángel González-Valeiro, Lluis Serra-Majem, Nicolás Terrados, Josep A. Tur, Marta Segú, Montserrat Fitó, Juan Carlos Benavente-Marín, Idoia Labayen, Augusto G. Zapico, Jesús Sánchez-Gómez, Fabio Jiménez-Zazo, Pedro E. Alcaraz, Marta Sevilla-Sanchez, Estefanía Herrera-Ramos, Susana Pulgar-Muñoz, Cristina Bouzas, Raimon Milà, Helmut Schröder and Santiago F. Gómezadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1987; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081987 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2773
Abstract
Childhood obesity is a public health problem worldwide. An important determinant of child and adolescent obesity is socioeconomic status (SES). However, the magnitude of the impact of different SES indicators on pediatric obesity on the Spanish population scale is unclear. The aim of [...] Read more.
Childhood obesity is a public health problem worldwide. An important determinant of child and adolescent obesity is socioeconomic status (SES). However, the magnitude of the impact of different SES indicators on pediatric obesity on the Spanish population scale is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the association between three SES indicators and obesity in a nationwide, representative sample of Spanish children and adolescents. A total of 2791 boys and girls aged 8 to 16 years old were included. Their weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. SES was assessed using two parent/legal guardian self-reported indicators (educational level -University/non-University- and labor market status -Employed/Unemployed-). As a third SES indicator, the annual mean income per person was obtained from the census section where the participating schools were located (≥12.731€/<12.731€). The prevalence of obesity, severe obesity, and abdominal obesity was 11.5%, 1.4%, and 22.3%, respectively. Logistic regression models showed an inverse association of both education and labor market status with obesity, severe obesity, and abdominal obesity (all p < 0.001). Income was also inversely associated with obesity (p < 0.01) and abdominal obesity (p < 0.001). Finally, the highest composite SES category (University/Employed/≥12.731€ n = 517) showed a robust and inverse association with obesity (OR = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.16–0.48), severe obesity (OR = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.05–0.81), and abdominal obesity (OR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.23–0.54) in comparison with the lowest composite SES category (Less than University/Unemployed/<12.731€; n = 164). No significant interaction between composite SES categories and age and gender was found. SES is strongly associated with pediatric obesity in Spain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lifestyle, Behaviors, and Environment Related to Childhood Obesity)
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13 pages, 807 KiB  
Article
The Association between Dietary Iron Intake, SNP of the MTNR1B rs10830963, and Glucose Metabolism in Chinese Population
by Liping Shen, Zhengyuan Wang, Jiajie Zang, Hong Liu, Ye Lu, Xin He, Chunfeng Wu, Jin Su and Zhenni Zhu
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1986; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081986 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1189
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes is associated with both dietary iron intake and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of intronic rs10830963 in melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B); however, it is unclear whether they interact. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between dietary iron intake, [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes is associated with both dietary iron intake and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of intronic rs10830963 in melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B); however, it is unclear whether they interact. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between dietary iron intake, SNP of rs10830963, and glucose metabolism. Data were obtained from the Shanghai Diet and Health Survey (SDHS) during 2012–2018. Standardized questionnaires were carried out through face-to-face interviews. A 3-day 24 h dietary recall was used to evaluate dietary iron intake. Anthropometric and laboratory measurements were applied. Logistic regression and general line models were used to evaluate the association between dietary iron intake, SNP of the MTNR1B rs10830963, and glucose metabolism. In total, 2951 participants were included in this study. After adjusting for age, sex, region, years of education, physical activity level, intentional physical exercise, smoking status, alcohol use, and total energy, among G allele carriers, dietary iron intake was associated with a risk of elevated fasting glucose, higher fasting glucose, and higher HbA1c, while no significant results were observed among G allele non-carriers. The G allele of intronic rs10830963 in MTNR1B potentially exacerbated unfavorable glucose metabolism with the increasing dietary iron intake, and it was possibly a risk for glucose metabolism homeostasis in the Chinese population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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3 pages, 489 KiB  
Reply
Mind the Gap: Tools for the Diagnosis and Assessment of Orthorexia Nervosa Based on the Recent Consensus Definition. Reply to Meule, A. Comment on “Sifakaki et al. Orthorexia Nervosa Practices in Rheumatoid Arthritis: The DORA Study. Nutrients 2023, 15, 713”
by Maria G. Grammatikopoulou, Konstantinos Gkiouras, Georgios Marakis, Maria Sifakaki, Anastasia Petropoulou, Lorenzo M. Donini, Helen M. Lindqvist and Dimitrios P. Bogdanos
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1985; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081985 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1104
Abstract
In a recent manuscript, our team published the results of an original pilot cross-sectional study assessing orthorexia nervosa (ON) tendencies among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Nutrition in Healthy and Unhealthy Immune System)
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2 pages, 201 KiB  
Comment
Comment on Sifakaki et al. Orthorexia Nervosa Practices in Rheumatoid Arthritis: The DORA Study. Nutrients 2023, 15, 713
by Adrian Meule
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1984; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081984 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 866
Abstract
In a recently published article, Sifakaki and colleagues [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Nutrition in Healthy and Unhealthy Immune System)
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