Special Issue "Fish and Meat Consumption: Risks and Benefits"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Octavio Pérez Luzardo
Website
Guest Editor
Affiliation 1: Toxicology Department, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain. Affiliation 2: CIBER OBN, Biomedical Research Networking Center for Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Carlos III Health Institute, Madrid, Spain.
Interests: toxicology; food safety; risk assessment; chromatography; mass spectrometry; environmental health; applied chemical analysis; chemical pollution
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Lluis Serra-Majem
grade Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Professor of Preventive Medicine & Public Health, Director of the Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
Interests: Mediterranean diet, public health, nutrition, obesity, epidemiology, diet, macro and micronutrients, hydration
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The consumption of meats and fish today is facing a paradoxical situation: it is about foods that have always been considered as essential sources of valuable nutrients for human nutrition, and yet they are currently the subject of controversy and are in the research point of view by the scientific community because their excessive consumption may be related to the increase in the incidence of numerous diseases.

On the one hand, fish provides a healthy source of protein and is very rich in valuable nutrients such as omega 3 fatty acids. Evidence of the benefits of fish consumption on coronary heart disease, heart attack, age-related muscle degeneration, and the growth and development of children have been clearly established. However, all these benefits can be masked by the risk posed by the increasing presence of environmental contaminants in seafood, such as chlorinated organic pollutants (chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and furans), other organohalogenated compounds (polybrominated and perfluorinated compounds), heavy metals (methylmercury, lead, cadmium), metalloids like arsenic and many other toxic elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and a host of emerging contaminants such as new agrochemicals, veterinary and human drugs, ultraviolet filters, or hormones for therapeutic use, among many others. All these chemicals are increasingly contaminating the seas, oceans and surface continental waters. For many of these pollutants to which the consumer may be exposed through the consumption of fish and shellfish, the international food safety bodies have established maximum tolerable consumption limits, due to their high toxicity and their proven relationship with the development of cancer, immunotoxicity, and toxicity on the endocrine system, reproduction, neurological system or development. All this situation has led the health authorities to recommend a moderate consumption of fish and shellfish, and even to establish safe limits of consumption in populations that are at special risk, such as children, pregnant women and women of childbearing age.

On the other hand, meat is one of the staple foods of the human diet, as it provides high quality nutrients, but it also constitutes a relevant source of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids. Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of red or processed meat with obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Most epidemiological studies suggest that a high consumption of meat, especially processed meat, is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. In fact, recently the WHO has cataloged the consumption of red meat and processed meats as a potentially carcinogenic activity, recommending a moderate consumption of this type of food to the general population. Possible reasons for the association between high meat intake and risk of colorectal cancer include some chemicals naturally contained in meat, or generated by processing and cooking, but also as in the case of fish, to an increasing content in meats of chemical environmental pollutants of all kinds, many of them with toxicological potential. From the literature it can be concluded that there is sufficient epidemiological evidence that relates the consumption of processed meat and the risk of colorectal cancer. On the contrary, there is only limited evidence linking meat intake with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes or other cancers.

Additionally, and from another point of view, both intensive livestock farming and fishing (whether extractive fishing or aquaculture), are growing activities, that parallel the increasing demand of meat and fish. These activities leave an important chemical footprint on the planet, which contributes to increasing the exposure of the general population to all types of contaminants through the whole diet, since the contaminants reach food items through a complex chains of events that reinforce themselves, entering in a feedback loop.

The final idea through this special issue is to achieve a more precise knowledge of what are the risk-benefit relationships of the consumption of fish and meat, in order to promote the adequate consumption of these highly nutritious foods while exposure to toxic pollutants is minimized.

Prof. Dr. Octavio P Luzardo
Prof. Dr. Lluis Serra-Majem
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Organic and Inorganic Pollutants
  • Food Safety
  • Risk-benefit analysis
  • Nutrients intake
  • Adults, Pregnat Women, Infants (population)
  • Seafood
  • Processed meat
  • Cancer
  • Developmental neurotoxicity

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Intake of Essential, Toxic, and Potentially Toxic Elements from Mussels (Mytilus spp.) in the Spanish Population: A Nutritional Assessment
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 864; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040864 - 17 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The levels of forty-three elements were determined in fresh, preserved, and frozen mussels (n = 208) with the purpose of evaluating their contribution to the recommended dietary intake of essential elements and their potential risk to Spanish consumers’ health. We found relevant [...] Read more.
The levels of forty-three elements were determined in fresh, preserved, and frozen mussels (n = 208) with the purpose of evaluating their contribution to the recommended dietary intake of essential elements and their potential risk to Spanish consumers’ health. We found relevant differences in the element content in relation to the mode of conservation of mussels as well as in relation to their geographical origin, brand, or mode of production. According to our estimates, mussels are important contributors to the intake of most essential elements, contributing almost 70% of daily requirements of Se, 30–35% of Mo, Zn, and Co, and around 15% of Fe. At the same time, the pattern of average consumption of mussels in Spain does not seem to imply an excessive risk associated with any of the 36 toxic elements studied. However, it should be noted that, in the high percentile of consumption the exposure to Cd and As may be high, in particular that associated with the consumption of fresh and/or frozen mussels. According to the results of this study, a moderate consumption of mussels can be recommended as a valuable and safe source of trace elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish and Meat Consumption: Risks and Benefits)
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Open AccessArticle
Seafood Consumption, Omega-3 Fatty Acids Intake, and Life-Time Prevalence of Depression in the PREDIMED-Plus Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10122000 - 18 Dec 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Background: The aim of this analysis was to ascertain the type of relationship between fish and seafood consumption, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) intake, and depression prevalence. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Fish and seafood consumption and ω-3 PUFA intake [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this analysis was to ascertain the type of relationship between fish and seafood consumption, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) intake, and depression prevalence. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Fish and seafood consumption and ω-3 PUFA intake were assessed through a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Self-reported life-time medical diagnosis of depression or use of antidepressants was considered as outcome. Depressive symptoms were collected by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between seafood products and ω-3 PUFA consumption and depression. Multiple linear regression models were fitted to assess the association between fish and long-chain (LC) ω-3 PUFA intake and depressive symptoms. Results: Out of 6587 participants, there were 1367 cases of depression. Total seafood consumption was not associated with depression. The odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quintiles of consumption of fatty fish were 0.77 (0.63–0.94), 0.71 (0.58–0.87), and 0.78 (0.64–0.96), respectively, and p for trend = 0.759. Moderate intake of total LC ω-3 PUFA (approximately 0.5–1 g/day) was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of depression. Conclusion: In our study, moderate fish and LC ω-3 PUFA intake, but not high intake, was associated with lower odds of depression suggesting a U-shaped relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish and Meat Consumption: Risks and Benefits)
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Open AccessArticle
Meat, Meat Products and Seafood as Sources of Energy and Nutrients in the Average Polish Diet
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1412; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101412 - 02 Oct 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify the share of meat, meat products and seafood in the contribution of energy and 22 nutrients to the average Polish diet. Data from the nationally representative sample of Polish population (2016 Household Budget Survey) on [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to identify the share of meat, meat products and seafood in the contribution of energy and 22 nutrients to the average Polish diet. Data from the nationally representative sample of Polish population (2016 Household Budget Survey) on meat and seafood product consumption from 38,886 households (n = 99,230) were calculated into one person per month. The analyses were conducted for seven food groups (e.g., red meat, poultry) and 16 products (e.g., beef, chicken). Approximately 18.5% of energy is delivered from the sources such as meat, meat products and seafood, providing a higher percentage of 18 nutrients to the diet (e.g., 56.0% of vitamin B12, 52.3% of niacin, 44.9% of cholesterol, 41.5% of protein, 41.4%of vitamin D, 37.6% of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), 37.4% of thiamin, 33.8% of zinc, 32.0% of total fats, 30.3% of saturated fatty acids (SFA), 29.6% of vitamin B6, 25.3% of riboflavin, 24.9% of phosphorus, 24.8% of iron, 22.5% of vitamin A, 21.6% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and 20.3% of sodium). For the contribution of 18 nutrients and energy, processed meat products were ranked first. These results should be taken into consideration in order to compose diets with adequate energy and nutrient contribution and also to analyze benefits and risk resulting from the current level of consumption of red and processed meat, fish and other seafood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish and Meat Consumption: Risks and Benefits)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Maternal Fish Intake on the Anthropometric Indices of Children in the Western Amazon
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091146 - 23 Aug 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
We studied trends in fish intake among pregnant women living in the Madeira River Basin in Rondônia State, Brazil, to investigate the influence of maternal fish intake on anthropometric indices of children followed up to 5 years. Maternal fish intake was assessed using [...] Read more.
We studied trends in fish intake among pregnant women living in the Madeira River Basin in Rondônia State, Brazil, to investigate the influence of maternal fish intake on anthropometric indices of children followed up to 5 years. Maternal fish intake was assessed using hair mercury concentrations of mothers and children at delivery and 6, 24, and 59 months. Data analysis was performed using a linear mixed-effect model. Mothers were predominantly young, had low incomes and limited schooling, and breastfed for >6 months. Only 1.9% of children had low birth weight. Anthropometric indices in approximately 80% of the study population showed Z-score values ranging from ≥−2 to ≤1. The influence of maternal fish intake on anthropometric indices, including height-to-age (H/A), weight-to-age (W/A), and weight-to-height (W/H) were not statistically significant after model adjustments. However, higher income and larger birth weight had a positive influence on H/A and W/A, whereas W/H gain was favored by higher maternal educational status and breastfeeding duration. Other variables (hemoglobin concentration and maternal age) had a positive significant influence on anthropometric indices. Maternal fish intake (or its attendant MeHg exposure) did not affect children growth. Nevertheless, it is advisable to avoid mercury-contaminated fish during pregnancy and childhood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish and Meat Consumption: Risks and Benefits)
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Open AccessArticle
Limited Benefit of Fish Consumption on Risk of Hip Fracture among Men in the Community-Based Hordaland Health Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070873 - 06 Jul 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hip fractures have a high prevalence worldwide. Few studies have investigated whether fish consumption is associated with risk of hip fractures. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of fish intake on the subsequent risk of a hip fracture [...] Read more.
Hip fractures have a high prevalence worldwide. Few studies have investigated whether fish consumption is associated with risk of hip fractures. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of fish intake on the subsequent risk of a hip fracture because of the low number of studies on this topic. A community-based prospective cohort study of 2865 men and women from Hordaland county in Norway, born between 1925–1927 and enrolled in the study in 1997–1999. Information on hip fracture cases was extracted from hospital records until 31 December 2009. Baseline information on the intake of fish was obtained from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard regression models with death as a competing risk were used to evaluate the association of fish intake with risk of hip fracture. During a mean (SD) follow-up time of 9.6 (2.7) years, 226 hip fractures (72 in men, 154 in women) were observed. The mean (SD) fish intake was 48 (25) g/1000 kcal. The association between fish intake and risk of hip fracture was not linear and displayed a threshold, with low intake of fish being associated with an increased risk of hip fracture in men (HR (Hazard Ratio) = 1.84, 95% CI 1.10, 3.08). In this community-based prospective study of men and women, a low intake of fish was associated with the risk of a hip fracture in men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish and Meat Consumption: Risks and Benefits)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Lean-Seafood and Non-Seafood Diets on Fasting and Postprandial Serum Metabolites and Lipid Species: Results from a Randomized Crossover Intervention Study in Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050598 - 11 May 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
The metabolic effects associated with intake of different dietary protein sources are not well characterized. We aimed to elucidate how two diets that varied in main protein sources affected the fasting and postprandial serum metabolites and lipid species. In a randomized controlled trial [...] Read more.
The metabolic effects associated with intake of different dietary protein sources are not well characterized. We aimed to elucidate how two diets that varied in main protein sources affected the fasting and postprandial serum metabolites and lipid species. In a randomized controlled trial with crossover design, healthy adults (n = 20) underwent a 4-week intervention with two balanced diets that varied mainly in protein source (lean-seafood versus non-seafood proteins). Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses were applied to examine the effects of the two diets on serum metabolites. In the fasting state, the lean-seafood diet period, as opposed to the non-seafood diet period, significantly decreased the serum levels of isoleucine and valine, and during the postprandial state, a decreased level of lactate and increased levels of citrate and trimethylamine N-oxide were observed. The non-seafood diet significantly increased the fasting level of 26 lipid species including ceramides 18:1/14:0 and 18:1/23:0 and lysophosphatidylcholines 20:4 and 22:5, as compared to the lean-seafood diet. Thus, the lean-seafood diet decreased circulating isoleucine and valine levels, whereas the non-seafood diet elevated the levels of certain ceramides, metabolites that are associated with insulin-resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish and Meat Consumption: Risks and Benefits)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Selected Psychological Aspects of Meat Consumption—A Short Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091301 - 14 Sep 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Eating meat is deeply entrenched in Western culture. It is often associated with wealth and a highly nutritional diet; and for many people it is also an established habit that is difficult to change. The second half of the 20th century was a [...] Read more.
Eating meat is deeply entrenched in Western culture. It is often associated with wealth and a highly nutritional diet; and for many people it is also an established habit that is difficult to change. The second half of the 20th century was a period of rapid growth in meat consumption, which resulted in intensified meat production. At the same time, eating meat has recently become subject to criticism for health-related, environmental or humanitarian reasons. This review aims to signal the potential consequences of a change of diet or switching to diets that are rich/poor in certain ingredients on the functioning of the hormonal and nervous system, which translates into changes in mood and behavior. This paper discusses the psychological phenomena which underlie the difficulty of changing one’s food preferences and problems encountered while adding new products to the daily diet. Finally, this study summarizes the limitations of modifying eating habits that have resulted from established attitudes and habits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish and Meat Consumption: Risks and Benefits)
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