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Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 2009; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10122009

Gut Microbiota and Endothelial Dysfunction Markers in Obese Mexican Children and Adolescents

1
Departamento de Genética y Biología Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav), Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Ciudad de México 07360, Mexico
2
Departamento de Farmacología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav), Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Ciudad de México 07360, Mexico
3
Departamento de Nutrición y Bioprogramación, Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, Ciudad de México 11000, Mexico
4
Departamento Clínico de Pediatría, Hospital 220 IMSS, Toluca 50150, Mexico
5
Coordinación de Investigación en Salud, IMSS, Toluca 50000, Mexico
6
Departamento de Salud, Universidad Iberoamericana, Ciudad de México 01219, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota and Obesity)
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Abstract

Obesity is a metabolic disease characterized by low-grade inflammation and accompanied by dyslipidemia and up-regulation of other bioactive molecules, creating a predisposition to endothelial dysfunction and metabolic syndrome. We studied the association between gut microbiota diversity and endothelial dysfunction (EDF) markers in obese Mexican children and adolescents. We examined clinical data including metabolic factors and EDF markers in blood samples. Gut bacterial diversity was characterized by high-throughput sequencing of V3-16S rDNA libraries. Triglycerides, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistant (HOMA-IR), leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and EDF marker intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) were significantly higher in obese children and adolescents. Multivariate analysis showed statistically significant positive associations between vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and Veillonellaceae, and between ICAM-1 and Ruminococcus in obese children. In obese adolescents, there was a statistically significant positive association between total cholesterol and Ruminococcus, and between ICAM-1 and Bacteroides. LEfSe analysis showed that the genus Lactobacillus and family Coriobacteriaceae were enriched in children, and genera Collinsella and Prevotella were enriched in obese adolescents. Obese children and adolescents had higher levels of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that obese Mexican children and adolescents had increased levels of CRP and a reduction of adiponectin, which causes higher expression of EDF markers, affecting endothelial function and associating with changes in the gut microbiota. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; endothelial dysfunction; obesity; high throughput DNA sequencing; metabolic syndrome; insulin resistance gut microbiota; endothelial dysfunction; obesity; high throughput DNA sequencing; metabolic syndrome; insulin resistance
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Nirmalkar, K.; Murugesan, S.; Pizano-Zárate, M.L.; Villalobos-Flores, L.E.; García-González, C.; Morales-Hernández, R.M.; Nuñez-Hernández, J.A.; Hernández-Quiroz, F.; Romero-Figueroa, M.S.; Hernández-Guerrero, C.; Hoyo-Vadillo, C.; García-Mena, J. Gut Microbiota and Endothelial Dysfunction Markers in Obese Mexican Children and Adolescents. Nutrients 2018, 10, 2009.

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