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Special Issue "Energy Intake and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Neil A. King

Queensland Univ Technol, Fac Hlth, Inst Hlth & Biomed Innovat, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Qld 4001, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: appetite regulation; energy balance; food preferences; weight management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

When people think of energy intake and health, there is a tendency to think of meeting micronutrient and vitamin requirements, and avoiding chronic disease. An important component of energy intake and health is energy balance; that is maintaining energy blalance to avoid weight gain. Overconsumption is an important compnent of human health. There are a range of factors that affect the frequency and amount of food intake. Appetite regulation plays an important role. Hedonic and homeostatic processes influence food preferences and energy intake. Part of the aim of this Special Issue is to provide up to date inrormation about the processes involved in appetite regulation and eneregy intake, and in turn, how this affects human health.

Prof. Neil A. King
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Metabolism
  • Appetite
  • Energy balance
  • Intermittent fasting

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Oral Glutamine Supplementation Reduces Obesity, Pro-Inflammatory Markers, and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in DIO Wistar Rats and Reduces Waist Circumference in Overweight and Obese Humans
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030536
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 24 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether chronic oral glutamine (Gln) supplementation may alter metabolic parameters and the inflammatory profile in overweight and obese humans as well as whether Gln may modulate molecular pathways in key tissues linked to the insulin [...] Read more.
In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether chronic oral glutamine (Gln) supplementation may alter metabolic parameters and the inflammatory profile in overweight and obese humans as well as whether Gln may modulate molecular pathways in key tissues linked to the insulin action in rats. Thirty-nine overweight/obese volunteers received 30 g of Gln or alanine (Ala-control) for 14 days. Body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC), hormones, and pro-inflammatory markers were evaluated. To investigate molecular mechanisms, Gln or Ala was given to Wistar rats on a high-fat diet (HFD), and metabolic parameters, euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp with tracers, and Western blot were done. Gln reduced WC and serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in overweight volunteers. In the obese group, Gln diminished WC and serum insulin. There was a positive correlation between the reduction on WC and LPS. In rats on HFD, Gln reduced adiposity, improved insulin action and signaling, and reversed both defects in glucose metabolism in the liver and muscle. Gln supplementation increased muscle glucose uptake and reversed the increased hepatic glucose production, in parallel with a reduced glucose uptake in adipose tissue. This insulin resistance in AT was accompanied by enhanced IRS1 O-linked-glycosamine association in this tissue, but not in the liver and muscle. These data suggest that Gln supplementation leads to insulin resistance specifically in adipose tissue via the hexosamine pathway and reduces adipose mass, which is associated with improvement in the systemic insulin action. Thus, further investigation with Gln supplementation should be performed for longer periods in humans before prescribing as a beneficial therapeutic approach for individuals who are overweight and obese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Longitudinal Associations between Emotion Regulation and Adiposity in Late Adolescence: Indirect Effects through Eating Behaviors
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030517
Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (421 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The prevalence of obesity among U.S. youth continues to increase, with many adolescents engaging in unhealthy eating behaviors. Increasingly, research points to the role of self-regulation in obesity development, yet existing work has largely focused on young children and/or clinical adult populations. This [...] Read more.
The prevalence of obesity among U.S. youth continues to increase, with many adolescents engaging in unhealthy eating behaviors. Increasingly, research points to the role of self-regulation in obesity development, yet existing work has largely focused on young children and/or clinical adult populations. This multi-method longitudinal study (N = 153) utilized a path analysis to delineate links between emotion regulation (age 15), emotional eating and dietary restraint (age 16), and adiposity (% body fat) using a BodPod for body composition assessment (age 19). Emotion regulation was negatively associated with emotional eating (β = −0.30, p < 0.001) and positively associated with dietary restraint (β = 0.15, p < 0.05) at age 16, but was not associated with age 19 adiposity (β = −0.01, p = ns). Emotional eating was positively associated with adiposity (β = 0.24, p < 0.01). Indirect effects suggested that emotional eating, but not dietary restraint, at age 16 serves as a mechanism that helps explain the associations between emotion regulation and adiposity four years later. Results from this study suggest that both emotion regulation and emotional eating represent promising targets for that should be included in future interventions aimed at preventing adolescent obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Daidzein Intake Is Associated with Equol Producing Status through an Increase in the Intestinal Bacteria Responsible for Equol Production
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020433
Received: 9 January 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2599 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Equol is a metabolite of isoflavone daidzein and has an affinity to estrogen receptors. Although equol is produced by intestinal bacteria, the association between the status of equol production and the gut microbiota has not been fully investigated. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Equol is a metabolite of isoflavone daidzein and has an affinity to estrogen receptors. Although equol is produced by intestinal bacteria, the association between the status of equol production and the gut microbiota has not been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the intestinal bacteria responsible for equol production in gut microbiota between equol producer and non-producer subjects regarding the intake of daidzein. A total of 1044 adult subjects who participated in a health survey in Hirosaki city were examined. The concentration of equol in urine was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The relative abundances of 8 bacterial species responsible for equol production in the gut microbiota was assessed using 16S rRNA amplification. There were 458 subjects identified as equol producers. The proportion of equol production status and the intake of daidzein increased with age. Daily intake of daidzein was larger in equol-producer. The intestinal bacteria, which convert daidzein to equol were present in both equol producers and non-producers. However, the relative abundance and the prevalence of Asaccharobacter celatus and Slackia isoflavoniconvertens were significantly higher in equol producers than those in equol non-producers. The intestinal bacteria that convert daidzein to equol are present in not only the equol producers but also in the non-producers. The daidzein intake is associated with the equol production status through an increase of A. celatus and S. isoflavoniconvertens in the gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Effect of Resistant Starch on Food Intake, Appetite and Satiety in Overweight/Obese Males
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1993; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121993
Received: 10 November 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
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Abstract
Several studies have linked increased intake of dietary fibre to improvement in the management of body weight. Dietary fibre from resistant starch (RS) has been shown to have an impact on food intake in normal weight individuals, but its role in obesity is [...] Read more.
Several studies have linked increased intake of dietary fibre to improvement in the management of body weight. Dietary fibre from resistant starch (RS) has been shown to have an impact on food intake in normal weight individuals, but its role in obesity is unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the short-term effects of RS on appetite, satiety and postprandial metabolism in overweight/obese subjects. In this single-blind randomized crossover study, overweight/obese healthy males consumed a test breakfast and lunch containing either 48 g RS or a placebo. Postprandial qualitative appetite, glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 were measured every 30 min for 7 h. Energy intake values from an ad libitum dinner and for a 24-h period were assessed. Acute consumption of RS at breakfast/lunch significantly reduced the energy intake at the ad libitum dinner (p = 0.017). No significant effect over 24 h or qualitative feelings of satiety were observed. Significant treatment × time effects were found for postprandial glucose (p = 0.004) for RS compared to placebo, with a trend for higher C-peptide concentrations following RS. The postprandial insulin and GLP-1 responses were not significantly different. RS may indeed have short-term beneficial effects in obese individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Intake and Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Associations of ADIPOQ and LEP Gene Variants with Energy Intake: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040750
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 30 March 2019
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Abstract
This systematic review aims to evaluate the association of adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and leptin (LEP) gene variants with energy intake. Cross-sectional, cohort, and case–control studies that reported an association of leptin and/or adiponectin gene variants with energy intake were included [...] Read more.
This systematic review aims to evaluate the association of adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and leptin (LEP) gene variants with energy intake. Cross-sectional, cohort, and case–control studies that reported an association of leptin and/or adiponectin gene variants with energy intake were included in this review. Human studies without any age restrictions were considered eligible. Detailed individual search strategies were developed for each of the following bibliographic databases: Cochrane, Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (LILACS), PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science. Risk of bias assessment was adapted from the Downs and Black scale and was used to evaluate the methodology of the included studies. Seven studies with a pooled population of 2343 subjects were included. The LEP and ADIPOQ gene variants studied were LEP-rs2167270 (k = 1), LEP-rs7799039 (k = 5), ADIPOQ-rs2241766 (k = 2), ADIPOQ-rs17300539 (k = 1), and ADIPOQ marker D3S1262 (k = 1). Two of the seven studies reviewed demonstrated a positive association between the LEP-rs7799039 polymorphism and energy intake. Two other studies—one involving a marker of the ADIPOQ gene and one examining the ADIPOQ-rs17300539 polymorphism—also reported associations with energy intake. More research is needed to further elucidate the contributions of genetic variants to energy metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Measurement, Determinants, and Implications of Energy Intake in Athletes
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030665
Received: 3 February 2019 / Revised: 9 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
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Abstract
Appropriate energy intake is important for the health and performance of athletes. When an athlete’s energy intake is not concordant with energy expenditure, short- and long-term performance can be compromised and negative health effects may arise. The energy intake patterns of athletes are [...] Read more.
Appropriate energy intake is important for the health and performance of athletes. When an athlete’s energy intake is not concordant with energy expenditure, short- and long-term performance can be compromised and negative health effects may arise. The energy intake patterns of athletes are subject to numerous effectors, including exercise response, time, and availability of food. To assess different determinants of energy intake in athletes, we reviewed recent literature regarding the response of appetite-regulating hormones to exercise, appetite perceptions following exercise, chronic exercise-induced adaptations regarding appetite, and social factors regarding energy intake. Additionally, we discussed consequences of aberrant energy intake. The purpose of this review is to clarify understanding about energy intake in athletes and provide insights into methods toward maintaining proper energy intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Intake and Human Health)
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