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Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 2011; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10122011

Quality of Dietary Fat Intake and Body Weight and Obesity in a Mediterranean Population: Secondary Analyses within the PREDIMED Trial

1
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, 6708 Wageningen, The Netherlands
2
Department of Preventive Medicine & Public Health, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
3
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spanish Government, 28029 Madrid, Spain
4
Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Pere Virgili Health Research Institute, Rovira i Virgili University, 43002 Reus, Spain
5
Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
6
Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Málaga, 29016 Málaga, Spain
7
Institute of Health Sciences IUNICS, University of Balearic Islands and Hospital Son Espases, 07010 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
8
Department of Internal Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition Biomedical Research Institute August Pi Sunyer (IDI- BAPS), Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
9
Department of Family Medicine, Research Unit, Distrito Sanitario Atención Primaria Sevilla, Centro de Salud Universitario San Pablo, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
10
Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research Group (Regicor Study Group), Hospital del Mar Research Institute (IMIM), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
11
CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spanish Government, 28029 Madrid, Spain
12
Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Alava, 48940 Vitoria, Spain
13
Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Service of Preventive Medicine, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno Infantil (CHUIMI), Canary Health Service, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
14
Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario de Bellvitge, Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08907 Barcelona, Spain
15
Lipid Clinic, Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition Biomedical Research Institute August Pi Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
16
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences and Physiology, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Abstract

A moderately high-fat Mediterranean diet does not promote weight gain. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary intake of specific types of fat and obesity and body weight. A prospective cohort study was performed using data of 6942 participants in the PREDIMED trial, with yearly repeated validated food-frequency questionnaires, and anthropometric outcomes (median follow-up: 4.8 years). The effects of replacing dietary fat subtypes for one another, proteins or carbohydrates were estimated using generalized estimating equations substitution models. Replacement of 5% energy from saturated fatty acids (SFA) with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) resulted in weight changes of −0.38 kg (95% Confidece Iinterval (CI): −0.69, −0.07), and −0.51 kg (95% CI: −0.81, −0.20), respectively. Replacing proteins with MUFA or PUFA decreased the odds of becoming obese. Estimates for the daily substitution of one portion of red meat with white meat, oily fish or white fish showed weight changes up to −0.87 kg. Increasing the intake of unsaturated fatty acids at the expense of SFA, proteins, and carbohydrates showed beneficial effects on body weight and obesity. It may therefore be desirable to encourage high-quality fat diets like the Mediterranean diet instead of restricting total fat intake. View Full-Text
Keywords: fat; obesity; body weight; cohort study; substitution models fat; obesity; body weight; cohort study; substitution models
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Beulen, Y.; Martínez-González, M.A.; Van de Rest, O.; Salas-Salvadó, J.; Sorlí, J.V.; Gómez-Gracia, E.; Fiol, M.; Estruch, R.; Santos-Lozano, J.M.; Schröder, H.; Alonso-Gómez, A.; Serra-Majem, L.; Pintó, X.; Ros, E.; Becerra-Tomas, N.; González, J.I.; Fitó, M.; Martínez, J.A.; Gea, A. Quality of Dietary Fat Intake and Body Weight and Obesity in a Mediterranean Population: Secondary Analyses within the PREDIMED Trial. Nutrients 2018, 10, 2011.

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