Next Article in Journal
Seafood Consumption, Omega-3 Fatty Acids Intake, and Life-Time Prevalence of Depression in the PREDIMED-Plus Trial
Previous Article in Journal
Tectorigenin, a Flavonoid-Based Compound of Leopard Lily Rhizome, Attenuates UV-B-Induced Apoptosis and Collagen Degradation by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress in Human Keratinocytes
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1999;

Positive Association between Dietary Inflammatory Index and the Risk of Osteoporosis: Results from the KoGES_Health Examinee (HEXA) Cohort Study

Cancer Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, National Cancer Center, 10408 Goyang, Gyeonggi do, Korea
Department of Food and Nutrition, Wonkwang University, 54538 Iksan, Korea
Cancer Prevention and Control Program, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
Connecting Health Innovations LLC, Columbia, SC 29201, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [692 KB, uploaded 20 December 2018]   |  
  |   Review Reports


Previous studies have found that diet’s inflammatory potential is related to various diseases. However, little is known about its relationship with osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) and osteoporosis risk in a large-scale prospective cohort study in Korea. This prospective cohort study included 159,846 participants (men 57,740; women 102,106) from South Korea with a mean follow-up of 7.9 years. The DII was calculated through a validated semi-quantitative FFQ (SQFFQ), and information on osteoporosis was self-reported by the participants. Analyses were performed by using a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model. Higher DII scores were associated with higher osteoporosis risk (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.12–1.58). In women, a higher DII score indicated a higher risk of osteoporosis (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.11–1.59). However, a hazards ratio of similar magnitude in men was not significant (HR 1.32; 95% CI 0.64–2.71). Post-menopausal women had higher risks of osteoporosis for higher DII scores (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.09–1.63), whereas among pre-menopausal women, the relationship was not statistically significant (HR 1.39; 95% CI 0.87–2.21). Also, there was an increase in osteoporosis risk when the DII increased among women participants with irregular physical activity (HR 1.53; 95% CI 1.17–2.01); however, there was no statistically significant increase in osteoporosis risk among women participants with regular physical activity (HR 1.19; 95% CI 0.93–1.52). A more pro-inflammatory diet was significantly associated with higher osteoporosis risk in women. Given the similar magnitude of the hazards ratio, studies with sufficient numbers of men are warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteoporosis; inflammation; nutrition; epidemiology osteoporosis; inflammation; nutrition; epidemiology

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, H.S.; Sohn, C.; Kwon, M.; Na, W.; Shivappa, N.; Hébert, J.R.; Kim, M.K. Positive Association between Dietary Inflammatory Index and the Risk of Osteoporosis: Results from the KoGES_Health Examinee (HEXA) Cohort Study. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1999.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top