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Open AccessArticle

Serum Nutrient Levels and Aging Effects on Periodontitis

Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, University of Nevada Las Vegas, 1001 Shadow Lane, B221, MS 7425, Las Vegas, NV 89106, USA
College of Nursing, University of Cincinnati; Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA
Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Kentucky; Lexington, KY 40536, USA
Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, Medical University of South Carolina; Charleston, SC 29425, USA
Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89106, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1986;
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
Periodontal disease damages tissues as a result of dysregulated host responses against the chronic bacterial biofilm insult and approximately 50% of US adults >30 years old exhibit periodontitis. The association of five blood nutrients and periodontitis were evaluated due to our previous findings regarding a potential protective effect for these nutrients in periodontal disease derived from the US population sampled as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004). Data from over 15,000 subjects was analyzed for blood levels of cis-β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, folate, vitamin D, and vitamin E, linked with analysis of the presence and severity of periodontitis. Moderate/severe disease patients had lower cis-β-carotene levels across all racial/ethnic groups and these decreased levels in moderate/severe periodontitis were exacerbated with age. β-cryptoxanthin demonstrated lower levels in severe disease patients across the entire age range in all racial/ethnic groups. Folate differences were evident across the various age groups with consistently lower levels in periodontitis patients >30 years and most pronounced in females. Lower levels of vitamin D were consistently noted across the entire age range of patients with a greater difference seen in females with periodontitis. Finally, an analytical approach to identify interactions among these nutrients related to age and periodontitis showed interactions of vitamin D in females, and folate with race in the population. These findings suggest that improving specific nutrient intake leading to elevated blood levels of a combination of these protective factors may provide a novel strategy to affect the significant increase in periodontitis that occurs with aging. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutrients; periodontitis; aging nutrients; periodontitis; aging
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Ebersole, J.L.; Lambert, J.; Bush, H.; Huja, P.E.; Basu, A. Serum Nutrient Levels and Aging Effects on Periodontitis. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1986.

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