Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Sustainability, Volume 7, Issue 11 (November 2015) , Pages 14427-15784

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-68
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessCase Report
Carbon Footprint Analysis for Mechanization of Maize Production Based on Life Cycle Assessment: A Case Study in Jilin Province, China
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15772-15784; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115772
Received: 1 August 2015 / Revised: 18 November 2015 / Accepted: 19 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2028 | PDF Full-text (991 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The theory on the carbon footprint of agriculture can systematically evaluate the carbon emissions caused by artificial factors from the agricultural production process, which is the theoretical basis for constructing low-carbon agriculture and has important guiding significance for realizing low-carbon agriculture. Based on [...] Read more.
The theory on the carbon footprint of agriculture can systematically evaluate the carbon emissions caused by artificial factors from the agricultural production process, which is the theoretical basis for constructing low-carbon agriculture and has important guiding significance for realizing low-carbon agriculture. Based on farm production survey data from Jilin Province in 2014, this paper aims to obtain a clear understanding of the carbon footprint of maize production through the following method: (1) one ton of maize production was evaluated systematically by using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); (2) the carbon emissions of the whole system were estimated based on field measurement data, (3) using the emission factors we estimated Jilin’s carbon footprint for the period 2006–2013, and forecasted it for the period from 2014 to 2020 using the grey system model GM (1, 1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Issues on Soil Management and Conservation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEssay
Social Justice as a Link between Sustainability and Educational Sciences
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15754-15771; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115754
Received: 19 August 2015 / Revised: 18 November 2015 / Accepted: 19 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2461 | PDF Full-text (720 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This position paper defines and substantiates the relevance of educational sciences as design elements of socially sustainable development in economics and society. Therefore, a theoretical-normative link of the fields of social sustainability, social justice, and educational sciences is discussed to build a foundation [...] Read more.
This position paper defines and substantiates the relevance of educational sciences as design elements of socially sustainable development in economics and society. Therefore, a theoretical-normative link of the fields of social sustainability, social justice, and educational sciences is discussed to build a foundation for further concepts that may synergistically address social sustainability and education. Because social sustainability currently seems to be the least addressed dimension of sustainability research and practice, this paper might provide a new impulse in this field. The linkage of the three fields will be accomplished with a hermeneutic-analytical approach, identifying possible interdependencies in the relevant theories and concepts of the disciplines and suggesting necessary modifications. Based on this foundation, a theoretical-normative construct will be designed that describes the link and may be used to deduct practice-related concepts in order to construct related measures. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Risky Business: Sustainability and Industrial Land Use across Seattle’s Gentrifying Riskscape
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15718-15753; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115718
Received: 21 July 2015 / Revised: 7 November 2015 / Accepted: 16 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2564 | PDF Full-text (14080 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This paper examines the spatial and temporal trajectories of Seattle’s industrial land use restructuring and the shifting riskscape in Seattle, WA, a commonly recognized urban model of sustainability. Drawing on the perspective of sustainability as a conflicted process, this research explored the intersections [...] Read more.
This paper examines the spatial and temporal trajectories of Seattle’s industrial land use restructuring and the shifting riskscape in Seattle, WA, a commonly recognized urban model of sustainability. Drawing on the perspective of sustainability as a conflicted process, this research explored the intersections of urban industrial and nonindustrial land use planning, gentrification, and environmental injustice. In the first part of our research, we combine geographic cluster analysis and longitudinal air toxic emission comparisons to quantitatively investigate socioeconomic changes in Seattle Census block-groups between 1990, 2000, and 2009 coupled with measures of pollution volume and its relative potential risk. Second, we qualitatively examine Seattle’s historical land use policies and planning and the growing tension between industrial and nonindustrial land use. The gentrification, green cities, and growth management conflicts embedded within sustainability/livability lead to pollution exposure risk and socioeconomic vulnerability converging in the same areas and reveal one of Seattle’s significant environmental challenges. Our mixed-method approach can guide future urban sustainability studies to more effectively examine the connections between land use planning, industrial displacement, and environmental injustice. Our results also help sustainable development practitioners recognize that a more just sustainability in Seattle and beyond will require more planning and policy attention to mitigate obscured industrial land use conflicts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Land and Sustainable Development) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Effectiveness of Education for Sustainable Development
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15693-15717; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115693
Received: 17 September 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 3666 | PDF Full-text (904 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Perhaps the most important issue in our time is how to sustain our planet’s resources, while developing wealth and well-being for a growing population. This monumental task has been defined in the concept of sustainable development (SD). During the last few decades the [...] Read more.
Perhaps the most important issue in our time is how to sustain our planet’s resources, while developing wealth and well-being for a growing population. This monumental task has been defined in the concept of sustainable development (SD). During the last few decades the world communities have agreed upon addressing SD through international treaties. As a response Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) has been launched as an answer to cope with sustainability. However, empirical studies are a missing link in the discourse around ESD, where decisions and implementation strategies are heavily based on policy recommendations and gut feelings by practitioners. We used data from 2413 students in grades 6, 9, and 12 from 51 schools across Sweden to study the effectiveness of ESD. In line with the current debate on the definition of ESD, we quantified the extent to which teaching can be labeled as holistic and/or pluralistic. Through a series of descriptive analyses and the estimation of structural equation models, our results indicate that ESD can indeed impact on student outcomes in terms of their sustainability consciousness. The results of this study reveal the key role ESD plays in addressing SD, paving the way for a more sustainable future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Education and Approaches)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Enhancing Green Absorptive Capacity, Green Dynamic Capacities and Green Service Innovation to Improve Firm Performance: An Analysis of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15674-15692; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115674
Received: 16 September 2015 / Revised: 4 November 2015 / Accepted: 4 November 2015 / Published: 23 November 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2424 | PDF Full-text (737 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study discusses the influences of green absorptive capacity, green dynamic capacities, and green service innovation on firm performance. In order to fill the research gap, this study proposes the concept of green service innovation. The results are as follows: First, this study [...] Read more.
This study discusses the influences of green absorptive capacity, green dynamic capacities, and green service innovation on firm performance. In order to fill the research gap, this study proposes the concept of green service innovation. The results are as follows: First, this study finds that green absorptive capacity has positive effects on green dynamic capacities, green service innovation, and firm performance. Second, this study points out that green dynamic capacities have positive effects on green service innovation and firm performance. Third, this study observes that green dynamic capacities and green service innovation intercede the positive connection between green absorptive capacity and firm performance. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Landscape Pattern Changes in Response to Transhumance Abandonment on Mountain Vermio (North Greece)
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15652-15673; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115652
Received: 28 September 2015 / Revised: 3 November 2015 / Accepted: 16 November 2015 / Published: 23 November 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1796 | PDF Full-text (5430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Transhumance, the seasonal movement of herds between highlands and lowlands following precise, repeated routes, is a common practice in many Mediterranean regions. This livestock movement exploits natural vegetation in both winter and summer pastures. In Greece transhumant herders, drawn by relatively abundant vegetation, [...] Read more.
Transhumance, the seasonal movement of herds between highlands and lowlands following precise, repeated routes, is a common practice in many Mediterranean regions. This livestock movement exploits natural vegetation in both winter and summer pastures. In Greece transhumant herders, drawn by relatively abundant vegetation, usually relocate to mountainous areas between April and October. Mount Vermio was an ideal summer pasture for the nomadic, ethnic group Sarakatsanoi of Thessaly, who used to own big herds. Socio-economic conditions of the 20th century led to the gradual decline of transhumance, resulting in reduction in grazing pressure and changes in vegetation dynamics. The purpose of this study was to monitor changes in landscape patterns in response to transhumance abandonment. Landscape metrics were employed to estimate land use/cover in two altitudinal zones. Results reveal that due to the abandonment of transhumance in the highlands landscape fragmentation increased. Meanwhile, in the lowlands, due to the uninterrupted presence of animals, landscape structure is more stable and diversified. Grasslands and agroforestry systems became smaller and more isolated. In conclusion, the abandonment of transhumance led to the overall deterioration of the rural landscape in the highlands. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Land Use Allocation Based on a Multi-Objective Artificial Immune Optimization Model: An Application in Anlu County, China
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15632-15651; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115632
Received: 15 October 2015 / Revised: 16 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 23 November 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1834 | PDF Full-text (1623 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the main feature of land use planning, land use allocation (LUA) optimization is an important means of creating a balance between the land-use supply and demand in a region and promoting the sustainable utilization of land resources. In essence, LUA optimization is [...] Read more.
As the main feature of land use planning, land use allocation (LUA) optimization is an important means of creating a balance between the land-use supply and demand in a region and promoting the sustainable utilization of land resources. In essence, LUA optimization is a multi-objective optimization problem under the land use supply and demand constraints in a region. In order to obtain a better sustainable multi-objective LUA optimization solution, the present study proposes a LUA model based on the multi-objective artificial immune optimization algorithm (MOAIM-LUA model). The main achievements of the present study are as follows: (a) the land-use supply and demand factors are analyzed and the constraint conditions of LUA optimization problems are constructed based on the analysis framework of the balance between the land use supply and demand; (b) the optimization objectives of LUA optimization problems are defined and modeled using ecosystem service value theory and land rent and price theory; and (c) a multi-objective optimization algorithm is designed for solving multi-objective LUA optimization problems based on the novel immune clonal algorithm (NICA). On the basis of the aforementioned achievements, MOAIM-LUA was applied to a real case study of land-use planning in Anlu County, China. Compared to the current land use situation in Anlu County, optimized LUA solutions offer improvements in the social and ecological objective areas. Compared to the existing models, such as the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II, experimental results demonstrate that the model designed in the present study can obtain better non-dominated solution sets and is superior in terms of algorithm stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Network of Protected Areas in China Based on a Geographic Perspective: Current Status, Issues and Integration
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15617-15631; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115617
Received: 29 September 2015 / Revised: 2 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2107 | PDF Full-text (2519 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the continued growth of protected areas (PAs) in China in terms of the number, coverage and varieties of protected objects, how to efficiently manage the protected areas to ensure both resource protection and environmental protection has become a crucial research question. By [...] Read more.
With the continued growth of protected areas (PAs) in China in terms of the number, coverage and varieties of protected objects, how to efficiently manage the protected areas to ensure both resource protection and environmental protection has become a crucial research question. By applying a geographic perspective in an analysis of the development and evolution of protected areas in China, this paper presents the results of an analysis focused on the status and the types of current approaches to the management of natural protected areas to reveal the problems that exist in their management and to further explore an integration strategy for the protected area network. It proposes that the future management of protected areas should prioritize their legal status, the sustainable livelihood of individuals living in close proximity to them, and the establishment of a unified database to achieve grid and information management of the protected areas. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Out of the Dark: Establishing a Large-Scale Field Experiment to Assess the Effects of Artificial Light at Night on Species and Food Webs
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15593-15616; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115593
Received: 17 August 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4899 | PDF Full-text (2472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Artificial light at night (ALAN) is one of the most obvious hallmarks of human presence in an ecosystem. The rapidly increasing use of artificial light has fundamentally transformed nightscapes throughout most of the globe, although little is known about how ALAN impacts the [...] Read more.
Artificial light at night (ALAN) is one of the most obvious hallmarks of human presence in an ecosystem. The rapidly increasing use of artificial light has fundamentally transformed nightscapes throughout most of the globe, although little is known about how ALAN impacts the biodiversity and food webs of illuminated ecosystems. We developed a large-scale experimental infrastructure to study the effects of ALAN on a light-naïve, natural riparian (i.e., terrestrial-aquatic) ecosystem. Twelve street lights (20 m apart) arranged in three rows parallel to an agricultural drainage ditch were installed on each of two sites located in a grassland ecosystem in northern Germany. A range of biotic, abiotic, and photometric data are collected regularly to study the short- and long-term effects of ALAN on behavior, species interactions, physiology, and species composition of communities. Here we describe the infrastructure setup and data collection methods, and characterize the study area including photometric measurements. None of the measured parameters differed significantly between sites in the period before illumination. Results of one short-term experiment, carried out with one site illuminated and the other acting as a control, demonstrate the attraction of ALAN by the immense and immediate increase of insect catches at the lit street lights. The experimental setup provides a unique platform for carrying out interdisciplinary research on sustainable lighting. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Estimating the Impact of Urbanization on Air Quality in China Using Spatial Regression Models
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15570-15592; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115570
Received: 13 October 2015 / Revised: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 3603 | PDF Full-text (1067 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urban air pollution is one of the most visible environmental problems to have accompanied China’s rapid urbanization. Based on emission inventory data from 2014, gathered from 289 cities, we used Global and Local Moran’s I to measure the spatial autorrelation of Air Quality [...] Read more.
Urban air pollution is one of the most visible environmental problems to have accompanied China’s rapid urbanization. Based on emission inventory data from 2014, gathered from 289 cities, we used Global and Local Moran’s I to measure the spatial autorrelation of Air Quality Index (AQI) values at the city level, and employed Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), Spatial Lag Model (SAR), and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to quantitatively estimate the comprehensive impact and spatial variations of China’s urbanization process on air quality. The results show that a significant spatial dependence and heterogeneity existed in AQI values. Regression models revealed urbanization has played an important negative role in determining air quality in Chinese cities. The population, urbanization rate, automobile density, and the proportion of secondary industry were all found to have had a significant influence over air quality. Per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the scale of urban land use, however, failed the significance test at 10% level. The GWR model performed better than global models and the results of GWR modeling show that the relationship between urbanization and air quality was not constant in space. Further, the local parameter estimates suggest significant spatial variation in the impacts of various urbanization factors on air quality. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Tourism Water Capacity in Agricultural Heritage Sites
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15548-15569; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115548
Received: 21 September 2015 / Revised: 8 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1864 | PDF Full-text (1958 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Agricultural heritage sites have been gaining popularity as tourism destinations. The arrival of large numbers of tourists, however, has created serious challenges to these vulnerable ecosystems. In particular, water resources are facing tremendous pressure. Thus, an assessment of tourism water footprint is suggested [...] Read more.
Agricultural heritage sites have been gaining popularity as tourism destinations. The arrival of large numbers of tourists, however, has created serious challenges to these vulnerable ecosystems. In particular, water resources are facing tremendous pressure. Thus, an assessment of tourism water footprint is suggested before promoting sustainable tourism. This paper uses the bottom-up approach to construct a framework on the tourism water footprint of agricultural heritage sites. The tourism water footprint consists of four components, namely accommodation water footprint, diet water footprint, transportation water footprint and sewage dilution water footprint. Yuanyang County, a representative of the Honghe Hani rice terraces, was selected as the study area. Field surveys including questionnaires, interviews and participant observation approaches were undertaken to study the tourism water footprint and water capacity of the heritage site. Based on the results, measures to improve the tourism water capacity have been put forward, which should provide references for making policies that aim to maintain a sustainable water system and promote tourism development without hampering the sustainability of the heritage system. The sewage dilution water footprint and the diet water footprint were top contributors to the tourism water footprint of the subject area, taking up 38.33% and 36.15% of the tourism water footprint, respectively, followed by the transportation water footprint (21.47%). The accommodation water footprint had the smallest proportion (4.05%). The tourism water capacity of the heritage site was 14,500 tourists per day. The water pressure index was 97%, indicating that the water footprint was still within the water capacity, but there is a danger that the water footprint may soon exceed the water capacity. As a consequence, we suggest that macro and micro approaches, including appropriate technologies, awareness enhancement and diversified tourism product development throughout the whole year that can alleviate the water pressure at critical times, could be taken to optimize the water management of the heritage sites. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Identifying Critical Factors in the Eco-Efficiency of Remanufacturing Based on the Fuzzy DEMATEL Method
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15527-15547; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115527
Received: 2 September 2015 / Revised: 11 November 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 1827 | PDF Full-text (756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Remanufacturing can bring considerable economic and environmental benefits such as cost saving, conservation of energy and resources, and reduction of emissions. With the increasing awareness of sustainable manufacturing, remanufacturing gradually becomes the research priority. Most studies concentrate on the analysis of influencing factors, [...] Read more.
Remanufacturing can bring considerable economic and environmental benefits such as cost saving, conservation of energy and resources, and reduction of emissions. With the increasing awareness of sustainable manufacturing, remanufacturing gradually becomes the research priority. Most studies concentrate on the analysis of influencing factors, or the evaluation of the economic and environmental performance in remanufacturing, while little effort has been devoted to investigating the critical factors influencing the eco-efficiency of remanufacturing. Considering the current development of the remanufacturing industry in China, this paper proposes a set of factors influencing the eco-efficiency of remanufacturing and then utilizes a fuzzy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) method to establish relation matrixes reflecting the interdependent relationships among these factors. Finally, the contributions of each factor to eco-efficiency and mutual influence values among them are obtained, and critical factors in eco-efficiency of remanufacturing are identified. The results of the present work can provide theoretical supports for the government to make appropriate policies to improve the eco-efficiency of remanufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Human-Environment System Knowledge: A Correlate of Pro-Environmental Behavior
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15510-15526; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115510
Received: 18 August 2015 / Revised: 15 October 2015 / Accepted: 6 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2170 | PDF Full-text (710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An effective program of environmental education requires the identification of the knowledge that must be imparted. This paper compares the effects of human-environment system knowledge (i.e., knowledge related to environmental problems caused by humans) and environmental action knowledge (i.e., [...] Read more.
An effective program of environmental education requires the identification of the knowledge that must be imparted. This paper compares the effects of human-environment system knowledge (i.e., knowledge related to environmental problems caused by humans) and environmental action knowledge (i.e., knowledge of possible courses of action to reduce human impact on the environment) on pro-environmental behavior. Environmental knowledge and pro-environmental behavior of 950 Chilean adults were assessed with a survey. Both types of knowledge were related to pro-environmental behavior (r = 0.25 and r = 0.22, respectively, p < 0.001). These results seem to contradict previous studies that found that system knowledge is not directly related to pro-environmental behavior. However, existing scales of environmental system knowledge are behavioral-distant due to their greater number of general geography knowledge items. In contrast, our human-environmental system knowledge scale focuses on understanding global environmental problems and, therefore, can be expected to relate more closely to pro-environmental behavior. To promote pro-environmental behavior, we suggest teaching more human-environment system knowledge and environmental action knowledge. Since different forms of environmental knowledge must work together in a convergent manner in order to foster pro-environmental behavior, the present study represents an important contribution by showing that greater human-environment system knowledge is correlated with pro-environmental behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Education and Approaches)
Open AccessConcept Paper
Expanding Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) Usage in the Corn–Soy–Wheat Rotation
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15487-15509; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115487
Received: 10 August 2015 / Revised: 2 November 2015 / Accepted: 10 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2508 | PDF Full-text (1031 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A common agronomic recommendation is under-seeding red clover to wheat in the corn–soy–wheat rotation. As a leguminous cover crop, red clover boosts agro-ecological resilience and productivity through nitrogen fixation, as well as non-nitrogen-related contributions, such as soil temperature and moisture regulation; reduction of [...] Read more.
A common agronomic recommendation is under-seeding red clover to wheat in the corn–soy–wheat rotation. As a leguminous cover crop, red clover boosts agro-ecological resilience and productivity through nitrogen fixation, as well as non-nitrogen-related contributions, such as soil temperature and moisture regulation; reduction of erosion, runoff, and leaching; weed suppression; and interruption of pest and disease cycles. The objective of this paper is to propose a system that extends red clover usage into the corn phase of the corn–soy–wheat rotation as a living mulch. The system incorporates strip-tillage, strip-mowing, as well as banded herbicide and fertilizer application in order to maximize productivity and minimize competition. We analyzed the feasibility of this proposal by examining red clover’s adequacy for the proposed system in comparison with other broadleaf, leguminous cover crops, and assessed potential agro-ecological benefits. We considered logistical components of the proposition, including the use of strip-tillage, the application of precision technology, as well as the opportunity for further technological developments. We found that the proposed system has potential to increase agro-ecological sustainability, resilience, and the overall productivity of this three-year rotation. Thus, this easily-implemented practice should be formally studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Analysis on Accuracy of Bias, Linearity and Stability of Measurement System in Ball screw Processes by Simulation
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15464-15486; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115464
Received: 21 August 2015 / Revised: 14 November 2015 / Accepted: 16 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1907 | PDF Full-text (2480 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To consistently produce high quality products, a quality management system, such as the ISO9001, 2000 or TS 16949 must be practically implemented. One core instrument of the TS16949 MSA (Measurement System Analysis) is to rank the capability of a measurement system and ensure [...] Read more.
To consistently produce high quality products, a quality management system, such as the ISO9001, 2000 or TS 16949 must be practically implemented. One core instrument of the TS16949 MSA (Measurement System Analysis) is to rank the capability of a measurement system and ensure the quality characteristics of the product would likely be transformed through the whole manufacturing process. It is important to reduce the risk of Type I errors (acceptable goods are misjudged as defective parts) and Type II errors (defective parts are misjudged as good parts). An ideal measuring system would have the statistical characteristic of zero error, but such a system could hardly exist. Hence, to maintain better control of the variance that might occur in the manufacturing process, MSA is necessary for better quality control. Ball screws, which are a key component in precision machines, have significant attributes with respect to positioning and transmitting. Failures of lead accuracy and axial-gap of a ball screw can cause negative and expensive effects in machine positioning accuracy. Consequently, a functional measurement system can incur great savings by detecting Type I and Type II errors. If the measurement system fails with respect to specification of the product, it will likely misjudge Type I and Type II errors. Inspectors normally follow the MSA regulations for accuracy measurement, but the choice of measuring system does not merely depend on some simple indices. In this paper, we examine the stability of a measuring system by using a Monte Carlo simulation to establish bias, linearity variance of the normal distribution, and the probability density function. Further, we forecast the possible area distribution in the real case. After the simulation, the measurement capability will be improved, which helps the user classify the measurement system and establish measurement regulations for better performance and monitoring of the precision of the ball screw. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Revising Payment for Ecosystem Services in the Light of Stewardship: The Need for a Legal Framework
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15449-15463; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115449
Received: 2 September 2015 / Revised: 12 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2093 | PDF Full-text (977 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) highlighted the importance of ecosystem services for human well-being, the payments for such services have increasingly been drawing the attention of governments, the private sector and academia. Nonetheless, there is not yet a specific legal framework which [...] Read more.
Since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) highlighted the importance of ecosystem services for human well-being, the payments for such services have increasingly been drawing the attention of governments, the private sector and academia. Nonetheless, there is not yet a specific legal framework which is able to capture the complexity of managing natural resources and, at the same time, deal with the numerous drawbacks that have been identified by critics, who are opposed to using financialisation of the environment as a tool. This paper, after briefly summarizing some of the main features and criticisms of the Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES), will critically assess the understanding of property rights over natural resources as stewardship, rather than as entitlement, because this interpretation is more coherent with the inherent characteristics of natural resources and, consequently, of ecosystem services. The novel usage of a stewardship dimension to property rights underlines the necessity for a legal framework for PES, constituted by “property-liability rules”. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Project-Based Market Competition and Policy Implications for Sustainable Developments in Building and Construction Sectors
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15423-15448; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115423
Received: 16 October 2015 / Revised: 12 November 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2041 | PDF Full-text (804 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Building and construction sectors are significant contributors to the global economy, but their energy consumption necessitates greater commitment to sustainable developments. There is therefore a growing demand for green innovation in the form of cleaner production and policies to meet the modern requirements [...] Read more.
Building and construction sectors are significant contributors to the global economy, but their energy consumption necessitates greater commitment to sustainable developments. There is therefore a growing demand for green innovation in the form of cleaner production and policies to meet the modern requirements of sustainability. However, the nature in which public work is undertaken is in an environment of project-based market competition, whereby contractors routinely bid for contracts under specific project awarding systems, and variations are accompanied with the unique scope of individual projects before the final goods or services are delivered. A comprehensive understanding of the characteristics and contractors’ behavior in systems could help to identify the leverage points of policies. This paper proposes a system dynamics model, with quantitative analysis and simulations, to demonstrate the problems of a system with different project awarding systems and ineffective market performance. The framework of market efficiency and performance measures has been proposed to evaluate the project-based competition mechanism. Managerial policy implications for market efficiency and sustainable developments can thus be systematically discussed and compared through iterative computer simulations and scenario analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Eco-Efficiency Trends and Decoupling Analysis of Environmental Pressures in Tianjin, China
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15407-15422; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115407
Received: 17 September 2015 / Revised: 2 November 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1702 | PDF Full-text (1764 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study analyzes Tianjin’s eco-efficiency trends during the period 2001–2013 and reasons for their changes, with the aim of contributing to efforts to ensure the city’s sustainable development. While eco-efficiency of all of the indicators that we analyzed showed improvements during the study [...] Read more.
This study analyzes Tianjin’s eco-efficiency trends during the period 2001–2013 and reasons for their changes, with the aim of contributing to efforts to ensure the city’s sustainable development. While eco-efficiency of all of the indicators that we analyzed showed improvements during the study period, a gap remained in comparison to the more advanced eco-efficiency observed both domestically and internationally. We subsequently introduced decoupling indices to examine the decoupling relationship between environmental pressure and economic growth. This analysis demonstrated that some progress occurred during the study period resulting from the implementation of existing policies and measures entailing resource conservation and reduction in the emission of pollutants. The latter applied, especially, to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), which both retained strong decoupling states from 2006 to 2013. Other indicators showed an apparent tendency toward decoupling, but most displayed weak decoupling. These findings indicate that further efforts are urgently required to promote strong decoupling. At the end of the twelfth Five-Year Plan period, Tianjin should consider formulating policies from the perspectives of resource consumption and pollutant emissions reduction to promote further sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Sustainability in Fashion Business Operations
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15400-15406; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115400
Received: 12 November 2015 / Revised: 12 November 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3836 | PDF Full-text (633 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Under the global trend of sustainability, many companies selling fashion products have to reshape their operational strategies. Over the past few years, we have witnessed many fashion companies going green by re-engineering their business processes and establishing their formal sustainability programs. Many important [...] Read more.
Under the global trend of sustainability, many companies selling fashion products have to reshape their operational strategies. Over the past few years, we have witnessed many fashion companies going green by re-engineering their business processes and establishing their formal sustainability programs. Many important topics, such as closed-loop supply chain management, corporate social responsibility, and economic sustainability, are all related to sustainable fashion business operations management. This paper provides a brief review of these critical topics, introduces the special issue, and proposes future research areas to achieve sustainable operations management in the fashion business. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Fashion Business Operations)
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Biomass Yield and Water Treatment in Two Aquaponic Systems Using the Dynamic Root Floating Technique (DRF)
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15384-15399; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115384
Received: 4 August 2015 / Revised: 23 October 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2907 | PDF Full-text (1215 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The experiment evaluates the food production and water treatment of TAN, NO2–N, NO3–N, and PO43− in two aquaponics systems using the dynamic root floating technique (DRF). A separate recirculation aquaculture system (RAS) was used as [...] Read more.
The experiment evaluates the food production and water treatment of TAN, NO2–N, NO3–N, and PO43− in two aquaponics systems using the dynamic root floating technique (DRF). A separate recirculation aquaculture system (RAS) was used as a control. The fish cultured was Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The hydroponic culture in one treatment (PAK) was pak choy (Brassica chinensis,) and in the other (COR) coriander (Coriandrum sativum). Initial and final weights were determined for the fish culture. Final edible fresh weight was determined for the hydroponic plant culture. TAN, NO2–N, NO3–N, and PO43− were measured in fish culture and hydroponic culture once a week at two times, morning (9:00 a.m.) and afternoon (3:00 p.m.). The fish biomass production was not different in any treatment (p > 0.05) and the total plant yield was greater (p < 0.05) in PAK than in COR. For the hydroponic culture in the a.m., the PO43− was lower (p < 0.05) in the PAK treatment than in COR, and in the p.m. NO3–N and PO43− were lower (p < 0.05) in PAK than in COR. The PAK treatment demonstrated higher food production and water treatment efficiency than the other two treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Selection of Optimum Working Fluid for Organic Rankine Cycles by Exergy and Exergy-Economic Analyses
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15362-15383; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115362
Received: 22 September 2015 / Revised: 8 November 2015 / Accepted: 10 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2235 | PDF Full-text (1412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The thermodynamic performance of a regenerative organic Rankine cycle that utilizes low temperature heat sources to facilitate the selection of proper organic working fluids is simulated. Thermodynamic models are used to investigate thermodynamic parameters such as output power, and energy efficiency of the [...] Read more.
The thermodynamic performance of a regenerative organic Rankine cycle that utilizes low temperature heat sources to facilitate the selection of proper organic working fluids is simulated. Thermodynamic models are used to investigate thermodynamic parameters such as output power, and energy efficiency of the ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle). In addition, the cost rate of electricity is examined with exergo-economic analysis. Nine working fluids are considered as part of the investigation to assess which yields the highest output power and exergy efficiency, within system constraints. Exergy efficiency and cost rate of electricity are used as objective functions for system optimization, and each fluid is assessed in terms of the optimal operating condition. The degree of superheat and the pressure ratio are independent variables in the optimization. R134a and iso-butane are found to exhibit the highest energy and exergy efficiencies, while they have output powers in between the systems using other working fluids. For a source temperature was equal to 120 °C, the exergy efficiencies for the systems using R134a and iso-butane are observed to be 19.6% and 20.3%, respectively. The largest exergy destructions occur in the boiler and the expander. The electricity cost rates for the system vary from 0.08 USD/kWh to 0.12 USD/kWh, depending on the fuel input cost, for the system using R134a as a working fluid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Environmental Management Practices and Supply Chain Integration on Technological Innovation Performance—Evidence from China’s Manufacturing Industry
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15342-15361; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115342
Received: 21 August 2015 / Revised: 21 October 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2212 | PDF Full-text (746 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
How to effectively implement environmental management practices and supply chain integration to enhance technological innovation performance has become crucial in both research and practice. Based on resource-based view (RBV) theory, a theoretical model to determine the relationship between environmental management practices, supply chain [...] Read more.
How to effectively implement environmental management practices and supply chain integration to enhance technological innovation performance has become crucial in both research and practice. Based on resource-based view (RBV) theory, a theoretical model to determine the relationship between environmental management practices, supply chain integration, supply chain knowledge sharing, and technological innovation performance was proposed. Based on data collected from one hundred and twelve Chinese manufacturing enterprises, the empirical results show that environmental management practices have a significantly positive influence on technological innovation performance, and supply chain integration plays a moderating role on the relationship. In addition, the results indicate that supply chain integration is also a predictive variable of technological innovation performance and supply chain knowledge sharing. Our findings suggest that practitioners should couple environmental management practices with supply chain integration to improve technological innovation performance in addition to environmental performance, which has been substantiated in literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Leadership and Management)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Comparing Potential Unstable Sites and Stable Sites on Revegetated Cut-Slopes of Mountainous Terrain in Korea
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15319-15341; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115319
Received: 25 August 2015 / Revised: 5 October 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 18 November 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1734 | PDF Full-text (2481 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study employs a diverse set of variables to explain slope stabilization on stable versus failure-prone revegetated cut-slopes in Korea. A field survey was conducted at potential unstable sites and stable sites using 23 variables. Through a non-parametric test of the field survey [...] Read more.
This study employs a diverse set of variables to explain slope stabilization on stable versus failure-prone revegetated cut-slopes in Korea. A field survey was conducted at potential unstable sites and stable sites using 23 variables. Through a non-parametric test of the field survey results, 15 variables were identified as primary determinants of slope failure. Of these variables, one described physical characteristics (elapsed year); four variables described vegetation properties (plant community, vegetation coverage rate, number of trees, and number of herbs); and 10 variables represented soil properties (porosity, soil hardness, water content, sand ratio and silt ratio of soil texture, tensile strength, permeability coefficient, soil depth, soil acidity, salt concentration, and organic matter). Slope angle, which was mainly considered in previous studies, of variables in physical characteristics was not statistically selected as one of the 15 variables because most of sites were located on steep slopes. The vegetation community, vegetation coverage, and number of trees influence slope stabilization. Vegetation coverage is highly correlated with other soil and vegetation variables, making it a major indicator of slope stabilization. All soil variables were related to slope failure such that subsequent slope failure was related to the method of slope revegetation rather than the environmental condition of the slope. Slope failure did not occur in revegetated slopes that matched the characteristics of the surrounding landscape and contained a large number of native trees. Most soil and vegetation variables showed differing values for whether a revegetated slope is potentially unstable or stable. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Adsorptive Removal of Reactive Black 5 from Wastewater Using Bentonite Clay: Isotherms, Kinetics and Thermodynamics
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15302-15318; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115302
Received: 16 September 2015 / Revised: 2 November 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 18 November 2015
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2146 | PDF Full-text (852 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The studies of the kinetics and isotherms adsorption of the Reactive Black 5 (RB5) onto bentonite clay were explored in a batch study in a laboratory. The maximum RB5 adsorption conditions of bentonite clay were optimized such as shaking speed (100 rpm), temperature [...] Read more.
The studies of the kinetics and isotherms adsorption of the Reactive Black 5 (RB5) onto bentonite clay were explored in a batch study in a laboratory. The maximum RB5 adsorption conditions of bentonite clay were optimized such as shaking speed (100 rpm), temperature (323 K), pH (10), contact time (40 min), initial dye concentration (170 mg·L−1), and particle size (177 µm). The adsorbent surface was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy spectroscopy. The mechanisms and characteristic parameters of the adsorption process were analyzed using two parameter isotherm models which revealed the following order (based on the coefficient of determination): Harkin-Jura (0.9989) > Freundlich (0.9986) and Halsey (0.9986) > Langmuir (0.9915) > Temkin (0.9818) > Dubinin–Radushkevich (0.9678). This result suggests the heterogeneous nature of bentonite clay. Moreover, the adsorption process was chemisorption in nature because it follows the pseudo-second order reaction model with R2 value of 0.9998, 0.9933 and 0.9891 at 25, 75 and 100 mg·L−1 RB5 dye in the solution, respectively. Moreover, based on the values of standard enthalpy, Gibbs free energy change, and entropy, bentonite clay showed dual nature of exothermic and endothermic, spontaneous and non-spontaneous as well as increased and decreased randomness at solid–liquid interface at 303–313 K and 313–323 K temperature, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Relationship between the Population Trends, Prices, Heat Waves, and the Demands of Energy Consumption in Cities
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15284-15301; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115284
Received: 29 October 2015 / Revised: 6 November 2015 / Accepted: 10 November 2015 / Published: 18 November 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2712 | PDF Full-text (1374 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The demands of energy consumption have been projected as a key factor that affects an economy at the city, national, and international level. Contributions to total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2012 by various urban sectors include electricity (31%), transportation (28%), industry (20%), [...] Read more.
The demands of energy consumption have been projected as a key factor that affects an economy at the city, national, and international level. Contributions to total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2012 by various urban sectors include electricity (31%), transportation (28%), industry (20%), agriculture (10%), and commercial and residential (10%). Yet the heavy demands of energy consumption in the cities by residents, commercial businesses, industries, and transportation are important for maintaining and sustaining sufficient economic growth. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between population trends, historical energy consumptions, the changes of average electricity price, average annual temperature, and extreme weather events for three selected cities: New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles. These cities are exemplary of, metropolitan areas in the East, Middle, and the Western regions of the U.S. We find that the total energy consumptions of New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles are influenced to various degrees by changes in population, temperature and the average price of electricity and that only one city, Los Angeles, does price significantly affect electricity use. This finding has implications for policy making, suggesting that each city’s climate, size and general economic priorities must be considered in developing climate change mitigation strategies and incentives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of Climate Changes: From Sustainability Perspectives)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Improving the Environmental Sustainability of Flash Geothermal Power Plants—A Case Study
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15262-15283; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115262
Received: 8 October 2015 / Revised: 6 November 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 18 November 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2200 | PDF Full-text (1597 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The sustainability of geothermal energy production is analyzed with reference to a production plant located in a specific area (Monte Amiata, Italy). Four solutions combining a flash power plant with an Organic Rankine Cycle in a hybrid configuration are analyzed in terms of [...] Read more.
The sustainability of geothermal energy production is analyzed with reference to a production plant located in a specific area (Monte Amiata, Italy). Four solutions combining a flash power plant with an Organic Rankine Cycle in a hybrid configuration are analyzed in terms of production of electricity, exergy balance and emissions level (CO2, H2S, Hg). The different solutions correspond to increasing environmental performance, and for the most advanced case achieve near-zero emissions (complete reinjection of the natural resource, including incondensable gases). The results show that this can be achieved at the price of a progressive reduction of electrical productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Conversion System Analysis)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Green Transport Balanced Scorecard Model with Analytic Network Process Support
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15243-15261; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115243
Received: 8 September 2015 / Revised: 5 November 2015 / Accepted: 6 November 2015 / Published: 18 November 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2564 | PDF Full-text (1056 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent decades, the performance of economic and non-economic activities has required them to be friendly with the environment. Transport is one of the areas having considerable potential within the scope. The main assumption to achieve ambitious green goals is an effective green [...] Read more.
In recent decades, the performance of economic and non-economic activities has required them to be friendly with the environment. Transport is one of the areas having considerable potential within the scope. The main assumption to achieve ambitious green goals is an effective green transport evaluation system. However, these systems are researched from the industrial company and supply chain perspective only sporadically. The aim of the paper is to design a conceptual framework for creating the Green Transport (GT) Balanced Scorecard (BSC) models from the viewpoint of industrial companies and supply chains using an appropriate multi-criteria decision making method. The models should allow green transport performance evaluation and support of an effective implementation of green transport strategies. Since performance measures used in Balanced Scorecard models are interdependent, the Analytic Network Process (ANP) was used as the appropriate multi-criteria decision making method. The verification of the designed conceptual framework was performed on a real supply chain of the European automotive industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Logistics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Grain-Size Analysis of Debris Flow Alluvial Fans in Panxi Area along Jinsha River, China
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15219-15242; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115219
Received: 10 September 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 18 November 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2071 | PDF Full-text (5964 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The basic geometric parameters of 236 debris flow catchments were determined by interpreting SPOT5 remote sensing images with a resolution of 2.5 m in a 209 km section along the Jinsha River in the Panxi area, China. A total of 27 large-scale debris [...] Read more.
The basic geometric parameters of 236 debris flow catchments were determined by interpreting SPOT5 remote sensing images with a resolution of 2.5 m in a 209 km section along the Jinsha River in the Panxi area, China. A total of 27 large-scale debris flow catchments were selected for detailed in situ investigation. Samples were taken from two profiles in the deposition zone for each debris flow catchment. The φ value gradation method of the grain size was used to obtain 54 histograms with abscissa in a logarithmic scale. Five types of debris flows were summarized from the outline of the histogram. Four grain size parameters were calculated: mean grain size, standard deviation, coefficient of skewness, and coefficient of kurtosis. These four values were used to evaluate the features of the histogram. The grain index that reflects the transport (kinetic) energy information of debris flows was defined to describe the characteristics of the debris-flow materials. Furthermore, a normalized grain index based on the catchment area was proposed to allow evaluation of the debris flow mobility. The characteristics of the debris-flow materials were well-described by the histogram of grain-size distribution and the normalized grain index. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Measuring Shared Social Appreciation of Community Goods: An Experiment for the East Elevated Expressway of Rome
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15194-15218; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115194
Received: 21 October 2015 / Revised: 11 November 2015 / Accepted: 11 November 2015 / Published: 18 November 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1444 | PDF Full-text (3582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many large projects held over the last few decades in Europe have been based on the enhancement of community goods as a strategy to put in place sustainable urban regeneration. The inclusive nature of these goods and the social importance of the related [...] Read more.
Many large projects held over the last few decades in Europe have been based on the enhancement of community goods as a strategy to put in place sustainable urban regeneration. The inclusive nature of these goods and the social importance of the related decision-making processes suggests the need to involve the relevant community and to take into account its intentions and wishes regarding planning and organization. Therefore, before even starting to plan possible interventions, it is crucial to know what the members of the community think about the good in terms of social appreciation, in order to achieve socially sustainable choices. This paper offers a method to measure the social appreciation of community goods and describes the following: (a) deliberative esteem value technology to measure the social appreciation based on a combination between stated preference techniques and deliberative methods; (b) the criterion and methodology of the valuation technique proposed; and (c) an experimental application of the valuation technique pertinent to the specific case of the East Elevated Expressway of Rome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Repetitive Model Refinement for Questionnaire Design Improvement in the Evaluation of Working Characteristics in Construction Enterprises
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15179-15193; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115179
Received: 15 July 2015 / Revised: 4 November 2015 / Accepted: 11 November 2015 / Published: 17 November 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1674 | PDF Full-text (687 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an iterative confidence interval based parametric refinement approach for questionnaire design improvement in the evaluation of working characteristics in construction enterprises. This refinement approach utilizes the 95% confidence interval of the estimated parameters of the model to determine their statistical [...] Read more.
This paper presents an iterative confidence interval based parametric refinement approach for questionnaire design improvement in the evaluation of working characteristics in construction enterprises. This refinement approach utilizes the 95% confidence interval of the estimated parameters of the model to determine their statistical significance in a least-squares regression setting. If this confidence interval of particular parameters covers the zero value, it is statistically valid to remove such parameters from the model and their corresponding questions from the designed questionnaire. The remaining parameters repetitively undergo this sifting process until their statistical significance cannot be improved. This repetitive model refinement approach is implemented in efficient questionnaire design by using both linear series and Taylor series models to remove non-contributing questions while keeping significant questions that are contributive to the issues studied, i.e., employees’ work performance being explained by their work values and cadres’ organizational commitment being explained by their organizational management. Reducing the number of questions alleviates the respondent burden and reduces costs. The results show that the statistical significance of the sifted contributing questions is decreased with a total mean relative change of 49%, while the Taylor series model increases the R-squared value by 17% compared with the linear series model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Business Models) Printed Edition available
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top