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Open AccessArticle

Selection of Optimum Working Fluid for Organic Rankine Cycles by Exergy and Exergy-Economic Analyses

Department of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 13967-33364, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pardis Branch, Islamic Azad University, Pardis New City 14778-93855, Iran
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrew Kusiak
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15362-15383;
Received: 22 September 2015 / Revised: 8 November 2015 / Accepted: 10 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
The thermodynamic performance of a regenerative organic Rankine cycle that utilizes low temperature heat sources to facilitate the selection of proper organic working fluids is simulated. Thermodynamic models are used to investigate thermodynamic parameters such as output power, and energy efficiency of the ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle). In addition, the cost rate of electricity is examined with exergo-economic analysis. Nine working fluids are considered as part of the investigation to assess which yields the highest output power and exergy efficiency, within system constraints. Exergy efficiency and cost rate of electricity are used as objective functions for system optimization, and each fluid is assessed in terms of the optimal operating condition. The degree of superheat and the pressure ratio are independent variables in the optimization. R134a and iso-butane are found to exhibit the highest energy and exergy efficiencies, while they have output powers in between the systems using other working fluids. For a source temperature was equal to 120 °C, the exergy efficiencies for the systems using R134a and iso-butane are observed to be 19.6% and 20.3%, respectively. The largest exergy destructions occur in the boiler and the expander. The electricity cost rates for the system vary from 0.08 USD/kWh to 0.12 USD/kWh, depending on the fuel input cost, for the system using R134a as a working fluid. View Full-Text
Keywords: Rankine; exergy; economic Rankine; exergy; economic
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Darvish, K.; Ehyaei, M.A.; Atabi, F.; Rosen, M.A. Selection of Optimum Working Fluid for Organic Rankine Cycles by Exergy and Exergy-Economic Analyses. Sustainability 2015, 7, 15362-15383.

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