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Sustainability, Volume 7, Issue 12 (December 2015)

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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Mitigation Measures on Flood Damage Prevention in Korea
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16866-16884; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215851
Received: 2 October 2015 / Revised: 9 December 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 21 December 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2265 | PDF Full-text (5604 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study analyzed the characteristics of flood damages and the effects of structural and non-structural flood damage mitigation measures in Korea. First, a theoretical discussion of the structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages was used to select the variables and devise [...] Read more.
This study analyzed the characteristics of flood damages and the effects of structural and non-structural flood damage mitigation measures in Korea. First, a theoretical discussion of the structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages was used to select the variables and devise the hypotheses. An analysis was conducted using the Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving-Average (ARIMA) time series methodology, Korean socioeconomic data, and damage characteristics of major flood events. The effects of flood damage mitigation measures on the extent of flood damages were assessed using an intervention time series model. The major findings were that the intervention effects of structural and non-structural measures were statistically significant from 1958 to 2013 (a period of 55 years) and that while the former were ineffective at mitigating flood damages, the latter were successful in doing so. Based on the above findings, policy suggestions for future flood damage mitigation measures in Korea were offered. For structural measures, the government should manage its existing facilities, recover ecosystems of damaged rivers, and devise mitigation measures for urban areas. For non-structural measures, the government should enhance its flood forecasting capacity, revise laws related to flood control and prevention, and update and rationalize land-use plans. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Urban Residential Land Use Reconstruction under Dual-Track Mechanism of Market Socialism in China: A Case Study of Chengdu
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16849-16865; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215850
Received: 11 August 2015 / Revised: 15 December 2015 / Accepted: 16 December 2015 / Published: 21 December 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2295 | PDF Full-text (1556 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We study urban residential land use changes by analyzing the massive migration and relocation of two typical social classes: employees in government departments (EGD) and urban demolition displaced households (UDDH). After the reform and opening-up of China that has taken place during the [...] Read more.
We study urban residential land use changes by analyzing the massive migration and relocation of two typical social classes: employees in government departments (EGD) and urban demolition displaced households (UDDH). After the reform and opening-up of China that has taken place during the last 30 years, the residential land use of both the EGD and UDDH groups has been notable in terms of the changing urban landscape in China’s cities. A considerable number of studies highlight the large scale relocations of weaker groups usually through sample surveys at a microscopic scale, which sheds light on the relationships between market forces and government intervention and power. However, employees hired by state government departments and related branches (Shiye Danwei) have been neglected. Bridging the empirical research gap and using Chengdu as a case study, we compare residential relocations of EGD and UDDH groups in Chengdu. Our analysis based on field surveys conducted from 2009–2013 indicates that the relocations of EGD and UDDH are spatially agglomerated due to China’s unique dual-track mechanism driven by market forces and government power since the late 1970s. The study shows that most of the UDDH are migrated from urban centers to fringes, while a large number of EGD still agglomerate close to urban centers. Government interventions differentiate residential relocations of EGD and UDDH, and market mechanisms reinforce these relocations. Potential problems caused by the dual-track mechanism are finally discussed and summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Land and Sustainable Development) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Employees’ Work Values and Organizational Management on Corporate Performance for Chinese and Taiwanese Construction Enterprises
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16836-16848; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215852
Received: 20 July 2015 / Revised: 29 November 2015 / Accepted: 16 December 2015 / Published: 21 December 2015
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Abstract
Through questionnaire surveys, this study explored the discrepancies in work values and organizational management between employees and cadre members of construction enterprises on the two sides of the Taiwan Strait. Statistical methods including data reliability, regression analysis, and tests of significance were utilized [...] Read more.
Through questionnaire surveys, this study explored the discrepancies in work values and organizational management between employees and cadre members of construction enterprises on the two sides of the Taiwan Strait. Statistical methods including data reliability, regression analysis, and tests of significance were utilized for modelling a case study. The findings of this study included: (1) in terms of work values, employees from China focused on their lives “at present”, while those from Taiwan focused on their lives “in the future”, expecting to improve the quality of their lives later on through advanced studies and promotion; (2) according to the data obtained from the questionnaires, the answers regarding income and welfare in terms of work values and satisfaction were contradictory on the two sides of the Strait, which could be interpreted in terms of influence from society; and (3) there was a significant influence of organizational management on employees’ intentions to resign. If enterprises could improve current organizational management systems, their employees’ work attitudes would be improved and the tendency to resign would be reduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Business Models) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Eco-Innovation for Sustainability: Evidence from 49 Countries in Asia and Europe
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16820-16835; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215849
Received: 11 October 2015 / Revised: 26 November 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 21 December 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2597 | PDF Full-text (732 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Following the trend on focusing on a nation’s economic-growth, side effects such as resource exhaustion, environmental pollution, and social injustice have begun to appear. As a solution, eco-innovation has received a great amount of attention from European countries and as a result, many [...] Read more.
Following the trend on focusing on a nation’s economic-growth, side effects such as resource exhaustion, environmental pollution, and social injustice have begun to appear. As a solution, eco-innovation has received a great amount of attention from European countries and as a result, many efforts to analyze the development of eco-innovation quantitatively have been made. This study aims to evaluate the validity of an eco-innovation index developed to support the sustainable development goal. For this purpose, four factors of eco-innovation—capacity, supportive environment, activity, and performance—were applied to three categories of the Triple-Bottom-Line (TBL) concept in sustainability to compare the eco-innovation development level of 49 Asia-Europe Meeting countries. Factors for eco-innovation and TBL at the country level were organized in quartile and compared to see strength and weaknesses for each nation. In order to test if eco-innovation factors of a nation adequately reflect its sustainability, we used various comparisons of ANOVA. The results of this study are as follows: First, the one-way ANOVA tests present the scores for capacity, supportive environment, and performance as grouped into four quartiles in the same pattern as their economic, social, and environmental scores. The three-way ANOVA tests showed significance for the economic category. Scores for capacity, supportive environment, activity and performance were significant at a nation’s economic level. Lastly, the MANOVA test revealed that TBL significantly explains four eco-innovation factors. In addition, the eco-innovation performance level of European nations and Asian nations were compared. The possibility that many nations still have room to be competitive in their eco-innovation efforts was identified. Nations with unbalanced eco-innovation growth are urged to implement new strategies to balance their growth. Therefore, this research contributes to extending research on eco-innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
Biogas Power Plants in Poland—Structure, Capacity, and Spatial Distribution
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16801-16819; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215846
Received: 13 July 2015 / Revised: 9 December 2015 / Accepted: 15 December 2015 / Published: 21 December 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2550 | PDF Full-text (2773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the analysis and evaluation of biogas power plant capacity in Poland based on the generic structure and energy production. These issues are also presented from the point of view of the obtained energy and biogas energy production in Poland against [...] Read more.
This paper presents the analysis and evaluation of biogas power plant capacity in Poland based on the generic structure and energy production. These issues are also presented from the point of view of the obtained energy and biogas energy production in Poland against selected European Union countries. The paper also indicates a significant diversity in the spatial distribution of biogas plants in Poland. It also discusses the importance of biogas plants as one of the elements of bottom-up development of the second tier administrative units. There are 231 biogas power plants in Poland (as of 2013), which are based on biogas from landfill sites, biogas from wastewater treatment plants, and agricultural biogas. The generic structure of biogas power plants in Poland is dominated by power plants based on biogas from landfill. Despite the fact that Poland has large resources of agricultural substrate, there are very few biogas power plants based on agricultural biogas. There are no biogas power plants in almost 60% of poviats in Poland, despite the fact that every poviat in Poland has enough of this substrate at its disposal. This article contributes innovative elements to existing knowledge on biogas power plants in Poland, thanks to its comprehensive treatment of the problem of biogas power plants in Poland and because it urges local authorities and local communities to behave more ecologically, as well as promoting endogenous factors of the economic development of a given region. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Natural Disasters, Economic Growth and Sustainable Development in China―An Empirical Study Using Provincial Panel Data
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16783-16800; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215847
Received: 6 October 2015 / Revised: 23 November 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 19 December 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2540 | PDF Full-text (372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using a newly developed integrated indicator system with entropy weighting, we analyzed the panel data of 577 recorded disasters in 30 provinces of China from 1985–2011 to identify their links with the subsequent economic growth. Meteorological disasters promote economic growth through human capital [...] Read more.
Using a newly developed integrated indicator system with entropy weighting, we analyzed the panel data of 577 recorded disasters in 30 provinces of China from 1985–2011 to identify their links with the subsequent economic growth. Meteorological disasters promote economic growth through human capital instead of physical capital. Geological disasters did not trigger local economic growth from 1999–2011. Generally, natural disasters overall had no significant impact on economic growth from 1985–1998. Thus, human capital reinvestment should be the aim in managing recoveries, and it should be used to regenerate the local economy based on long-term sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Land and Sustainable Development) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
The Spatial Econometric Analysis of China’s Banking Competition and Its Influential Factors
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16771-16782; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215848
Received: 8 October 2015 / Revised: 14 December 2015 / Accepted: 16 December 2015 / Published: 19 December 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1747 | PDF Full-text (423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper determines alternative indexes to measure banking competition from the perspective of industrial economics. Spatial correlation of competition in China’s banking environment is studied from the perspective of spatial economics. A spatial panel data model is built to make an empirical study [...] Read more.
This paper determines alternative indexes to measure banking competition from the perspective of industrial economics. Spatial correlation of competition in China’s banking environment is studied from the perspective of spatial economics. A spatial panel data model is built to make an empirical study of factors influencing banking competition. The results show that the global autocorrelation test index Moran’s I indicates that China’s banking competition has obvious spatial correlation characteristics and significant spatial clustering. The space LISA map indicates that banking competition in most provinces has the characteristics of spatial dependence, and only a few provinces have the characteristics of spatial heterogeneity. Human capital, economic growth, financial scale of development, and foreign direct investment all have a significant positive effect on improving the degree of banking competition. Government intervention has a significant negative impact on the degree of banking competition, while fixed asset investment has no significant impact on it. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biochar Application in Malaysian Sandy and Acid Sulfate Soils: Soil Amelioration Effects and Improved Crop Production over Two Cropping Seasons
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16756-16770; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215842
Received: 23 October 2015 / Revised: 11 December 2015 / Accepted: 15 December 2015 / Published: 18 December 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2791 | PDF Full-text (934 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The use of biochar as an agricultural soil improvement was tested in acid sulfate and sandy soils from Malaysia, cropped with rice and corn. Malaysia has an abundance of waste rice husks that could be used to produce biochar. Rice husk biochar was [...] Read more.
The use of biochar as an agricultural soil improvement was tested in acid sulfate and sandy soils from Malaysia, cropped with rice and corn. Malaysia has an abundance of waste rice husks that could be used to produce biochar. Rice husk biochar was produced in a gasifier at a local mill in Kelantan as well as in the laboratory using a controlled, specially designed, top lift up draft system (Belonio unit). Rice husk biochar was applied once to both soils at two doses (2% and 5%), in a pot set up that was carried out for two cropping seasons. Positive and significant crop yield effects were observed for both soils, biochars and crops. The yield effects varied with biochar type and dosage, with soil type and over the cropping seasons. The yield increases observed for the sandy soil were tentatively attributed to significant increases in plant-available water contents (from 4%–5% to 7%–8%). The yield effects in the acid sulfate soil were likely a consequence of a combination of (i) alleviation of plant root stress by aluminum (Ca/Al molar ratios significantly increased, from around 1 to 3–5) and (ii) increases in CEC. The agricultural benefits of rice husk biochar application to Malaysian soils holds promise for its future use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Biochar)
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Open AccessArticle
Organizational Green IT Adoption: Concept and Evidence
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16737-16755; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215843
Received: 24 June 2015 / Revised: 27 September 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 18 December 2015
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2387 | PDF Full-text (381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Green IT has emerged as an important research topic in information systems and in other areas, such as business sustainability management. Some progress has been made in our understandings of green IT in a wide area of research topics, ranging from the green [...] Read more.
Green IT has emerged as an important research topic in information systems and in other areas, such as business sustainability management. Some progress has been made in our understandings of green IT in a wide area of research topics, ranging from the green IT definition to the motivation for adopting green IT by organizations. This paper provides a holistic review and explanation of why organizations adopt green IT. Based on an extensive review of extant studies and a broad theoretical foundation, the paper presents a theoretical framework on organizational green IT adoption (OGITA). For researchers, the study provides a comprehensive review of previous green IT adoption studies and a roadmap for future research. For practitioners, the study provides managers and policy makers a systematic analytical framework in guiding their business decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Businesses: Assessment, Approaches and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Forecasting Methodology for Sustainable Management of Defense Technology
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16720-16736; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215844
Received: 14 October 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 15 December 2015 / Published: 18 December 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1730 | PDF Full-text (798 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A dynamic methodology for sustainable management of defense technology is proposed to overcome the limitations of the static methodology, which involves comparative analysis based on the criterion of the highest technology level and has limitations for time series analysis, because the country with [...] Read more.
A dynamic methodology for sustainable management of defense technology is proposed to overcome the limitations of the static methodology, which involves comparative analysis based on the criterion of the highest technology level and has limitations for time series analysis, because the country with the highest level undergoes technical changes over time. To address these limitations, this study applies a technology growth model for a dynamic analysis of the Delphi result. An effective method using patents is also proposed to verify and adjust the analysis results. First, technology levels of the present and future are examined by the Delphi technique, and the growth curve is extracted based on the technology growth model. Second, the technology growth curve based on patents is extracted using the annual number of unexamined and registered patents related to the technology. Lastly, the statistical significance of the two growth curves is examined using regression analysis. Then the growth curves are adjusted by the rate of increase in patents. This methodology could provide dynamic technology level data to facilitate sustainable management of defense technology. The results could be useful to research institutions, as they establish strategies for securing technologies in defense or private domains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
Waste Energy Recovery from Natural Gas Distribution Network: CELSIUS Project Demonstrator in Genoa
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16703-16719; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215841
Received: 5 October 2015 / Revised: 1 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 18 December 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2247 | PDF Full-text (4706 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Increasing energy efficiency by the smart recovery of waste energy is the scope of the CELSIUS Project (Combined Efficient Large Scale Integrated Urban Systems). The CELSIUS consortium includes a world-leading partnership of outstanding research, innovation and implementation organizations, and gather competence and excellence [...] Read more.
Increasing energy efficiency by the smart recovery of waste energy is the scope of the CELSIUS Project (Combined Efficient Large Scale Integrated Urban Systems). The CELSIUS consortium includes a world-leading partnership of outstanding research, innovation and implementation organizations, and gather competence and excellence from five European cities with complementary baseline positions regarding the sustainable use of energy: Cologne, Genoa, Gothenburg, London, and Rotterdam. Lasting four-years and coordinated by the City of Gothenburg, the project faces with an holistic approach technical, economic, administrative, social, legal and political issues concerning smart district heating and cooling, aiming to establish best practice solutions. This will be done through the implementation of twelve new high-reaching demonstration projects, which cover the most major aspects of innovative urban heating and cooling for a smart city. The Genoa demonstrator was designed in order to recover energy from the pressure drop between the main supply line and the city natural gas network. The potential mechanical energy is converted to electricity by a turboexpander/generator system, which has been integrated in a combined heat and power plant to supply a district heating network. The performed energy analysis assessed natural gas saving and greenhouse gas reduction achieved through the smart systems integration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Simplified Methodology for Evaluating the Impact of Point Thermal Bridges on the High-Energy Performance of a Passive House
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16687-16702; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215840
Received: 9 November 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 17 December 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2107 | PDF Full-text (3316 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the design of high-energy performance buildings with ventilated facade systems, the evaluation of point thermal bridges is complicated and is often ignored in practice. This paper analyzes the relationship between the point thermal bridges resulting from aluminum fasteners, which are used for [...] Read more.
In the design of high-energy performance buildings with ventilated facade systems, the evaluation of point thermal bridges is complicated and is often ignored in practice. This paper analyzes the relationship between the point thermal bridges resulting from aluminum fasteners, which are used for installation facades cladding, and the thermal properties of materials that are used in external walls layers and dimension of layers. Research has shown that the influence of the point thermal bridges on the U-value of the entire wall may achieve an average of up to 30% regarding thermal properties of materials of the external wall layers and the dimension of layers. With the increase in thermal conductivity of the bearing layer material and the thickness of the thermal insulation layer, the point thermal transmittance χ-value increased. For this reason, the U-value of the entire wall may increase by up to 35%. With the increase of the thickness of the bearing layer and thermal conductivity value of thermal insulation layer, the point thermal transmittance χ-value decreased by up to 28%. A simplified methodology is presented for the evaluation of point thermal bridges based on the thermal and geometrical properties of external wall layers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Life Cycle Building Carbon Emissions Assessment and Driving Factors Decomposition Analysis Based on LMDI—A Case Study of Wuhan City in China
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16670-16686; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215838
Received: 13 October 2015 / Revised: 9 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 17 December 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2248 | PDF Full-text (2101 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon emissions calculation at the sub-provincial level has issues in limited data and non-unified measurements. This paper calculated the life cycle energy consumption and carbon emissions of the building industry in Wuhan, China. The findings showed that the proportion of carbon emissions in [...] Read more.
Carbon emissions calculation at the sub-provincial level has issues in limited data and non-unified measurements. This paper calculated the life cycle energy consumption and carbon emissions of the building industry in Wuhan, China. The findings showed that the proportion of carbon emissions in the construction operation phase was the largest, followed by the carbon emissions of the indirect energy consumption and the construction material preparation phase. With the purpose of analyzing the contributors of the construction carbon emissions, this paper conducted decomposition analysis using Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI). The results indicated that the increasing buidling area was the major driver of energy consumption and carbon emissions increase, followed by the behavior factor. Population growth and urbanization, to some extent, increased the carbon emissions as well. On the contrary, energy efficiency was the main inhibitory factor for reducing the carbon emissions. Policy implications in terms of low-carbon construction development were highlighted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Based on Selected Optimal Combination of Landslide Predisposing Factors in a Large Catchment
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16653-16669; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215839
Received: 14 September 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 December 2015 / Published: 17 December 2015
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2297 | PDF Full-text (3950 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Landslides are usually initiated under complex geological conditions. It is of great significance to find out the optimal combination of predisposing factors and create an accurate landslide susceptibility map based on them. In this paper, the Information Value Model was modified to make [...] Read more.
Landslides are usually initiated under complex geological conditions. It is of great significance to find out the optimal combination of predisposing factors and create an accurate landslide susceptibility map based on them. In this paper, the Information Value Model was modified to make the Modified Information Value (MIV) Model, and together with GIS (Geographical Information System) and AUC (Area Under Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve) test, 32 factor combinations were evaluated separately, and factor combination group with members Slope, Lithology, Drainage network, Annual precipitation, Faults, Road and Vegetation was selected as the optimal combination group with an accuracy of 95.0%. Based on this group, a landslide susceptibility zonation map was drawn, where the study area was reclassified into five classes, presenting an accurate description of different levels of landslide susceptibility, with 79.41% and 13.67% of the validating field survey landslides falling in the Very High and High zones, respectively, mainly distributed in the south and southeast of the catchment. It showed that MIV model can tackle the problem of “no data in subclass” well, generate the true information value and show real running trend, which performs well in showing the relationship between predisposing factors and landslide occurrence and can be used for preliminary landslide susceptibility assessment in the study area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Landscape Ecological Risk Responses to Land Use Change in the Luanhe River Basin, China
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16631-16652; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215835
Received: 20 September 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 17 December 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2192 | PDF Full-text (5245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land use change has large effects on natural ecosystems, which is considered to be the main factor in eco-environment change. We analyzed the future characters of land use change by the CLUE-S model and explored landscape ecological risk responses to land use change [...] Read more.
Land use change has large effects on natural ecosystems, which is considered to be the main factor in eco-environment change. We analyzed the future characters of land use change by the CLUE-S model and explored landscape ecological risk responses to land use change by the landscape ecological risk index method. Using the Luanhe River Basin as a case study, we simulated future land use change from 2010 to 2030 under 3 scenarios (i.e., trend, high economic growth, and ecological security), and identified the hotspots of land use change. Afterward, we quantitatively investigated the degree of land use development and landscape ecological risk patterns that have occured since 2000 and that are expected to occur until 2030. Results revealed that, under the three scenarios, construction land and forest are expanding mainly at the expense of agriculture land and grassland. The hotspots of land use change are located in the vicinity of Shuangluan and Shuangqiao District of Chengde City in the midstream of the Luanhe River Basin, where urbanization has been strong since 2000 and is projected to continue that way until 2030. During this time period, hotspots of land use development have been gradually transferring from the downstream to the midstream since 2000 and, again, is expected to continue that way until 2030, which will impact the spatial distribution of landscape ecological risk. We found that the landscape ecological risk of the entire basin has shown a negative trend. However, a few areas still have serious ecological risk, which are mainly located in the east of upstream (Duolun County and Weichang County), the middle region (Shuangluan and Shuangqiao District, Chengde County, and Xinglong County), and the downstream (Qinglong County). These can provide key information for land use management, and for helping to prepare future eco-environmental policies in the Luanhe River Basin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cultural Values and Sustainable Tourism Governance in Bhutan
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16616-16630; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215837
Received: 30 September 2015 / Revised: 8 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 December 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2505 | PDF Full-text (202 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Governance is recognized as a means to promote sustainable outcomes by democratizing the policy process and potentially harmonizing competing policy interests. This is particularly critical for sustainable tourism policy with its multiple sectors and multiple stakeholders at multiple scales. Yet little is known [...] Read more.
Governance is recognized as a means to promote sustainable outcomes by democratizing the policy process and potentially harmonizing competing policy interests. This is particularly critical for sustainable tourism policy with its multiple sectors and multiple stakeholders at multiple scales. Yet little is known about the kinds of governance processes and instruments that are able to effectively harmonize competing power interests to better balance economic, ecological, and social concerns. This study analyzes the case of Bhutan and its Gross National Happiness (GNH) strategy as it is applied to sustainable tourism policy. Based on semi-structured interviews and focus groups with 57 state and non-state governance actors, it explores whether Bhutan’s unique GNH governance framework successfully harmonizes competing interests in the pursuit of sustainable tourism policy. It argues that the implementation of Bhutanese tourism policy is characterized by diverse and unexpected applications of power by multiple policy stakeholders. These complex power dynamics are not shaped in a meaningful way by the GNH governance instruments. Nor are they rooted in a common understanding of GNH itself. While this situation should subvert sustainable tourism policy, a commitment among state and non-state governance actors to a common set of Buddhist-infused cultural values shapes and constrains policy actions in a manner that promotes sustainable tourism outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Government Policy and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle
Distributional Challenges of Sustainability Policies—The Case of the German Energy Transition
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16599-16615; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215834
Received: 30 September 2015 / Revised: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2720 | PDF Full-text (696 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainability policies based on the economic rationale of providing incentives to get prices right inevitably place a significant burden on society and often raise distributional concerns. The social acceptability of Germany’s energy transition towards more sustainable generation and usage of energy is frequently [...] Read more.
Sustainability policies based on the economic rationale of providing incentives to get prices right inevitably place a significant burden on society and often raise distributional concerns. The social acceptability of Germany’s energy transition towards more sustainable generation and usage of energy is frequently the subject of such critical appraisals. The discourse centres upon the burden imposed on electricity users as a result of the promotion of renewable energy sources in the electricity sector in accordance with the German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). A regressive EEG surcharge is suspected of driving up energy prices unreasonably and of being socially unjust. It is also argued that high-income utility owners profit from the EEG system at the expense of low-income electricity consumers (redistribution from bottom to top). The aim of this paper is to examine the validity of these two hypotheses and to show that both exhibit substantial theoretical and empirical weaknesses, with climate and environmental policy being played off against social policy in a questionable manner. At the same time, the article points out remaining conflicts between energy policy and social policy and makes corresponding policy recommendations for their resolution, thus contributing to reconciling distributional concerns arising in the context of incentive-oriented sustainability governance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Government Policy and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
An Empirical Assessment of the Economic Damage Caused by Apple Marssonina Blotch and Pear Scab Outbreaks in Korea
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16588-16598; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215836
Received: 16 September 2015 / Revised: 9 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1801 | PDF Full-text (508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marssonina blotch in apples and pear scab are diseases that may affect apple and pear production as well as related industries significantly. The range and scale of the economic influence of such outbreaks should be clarified to ensure the sustainable growth of these [...] Read more.
Marssonina blotch in apples and pear scab are diseases that may affect apple and pear production as well as related industries significantly. The range and scale of the economic influence of such outbreaks should be clarified to ensure the sustainable growth of these industries. This study evaluates the direct and indirect economic effects of outbreaks through a partial equilibrium approach and an input–output model; direct influences are measured on the basis of reduced production, and the estimated costs are 34,926 million Korean Won (mKRW) (US$ 29.79 million) and 11,767 mKRW (US$ 10.04 million) for apples and pears, respectively. The indirect effects are determined according to changes in the quantity of apples and pears supplied to the market; these effects can induce social welfare losses. These costs are estimated to be 305,065 mKRW (US$ 259.08 million) for apples infected with Marssonina blotch, which accounts for 186,628 mKRW (US$ 158.50 million) in producer surplus and 118,437 mKRW (US$ 100.58 million) in consumer surplus and 72,693 mKRW (US$ 61.74 million) for pears infected with scab, which accounts for 44,106 mKRW (US$ 37.46 million) in producer surplus and 28,587 mKRW (US$ 24.28 million) in consumer surplus. The findings from this study can be referenced by the Korean government in designing more effective control measures toward sustainable growth of related industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
An Evaluation of Holistic Sustainability Assessment Framework for Palm Oil Production in Malaysia
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16561-16587; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215833
Received: 27 October 2015 / Revised: 6 December 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2835 | PDF Full-text (2873 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Palm oil based biodiesel offers an alternative energy source that can reduce current dependence on conventional fossil fuels and may reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions depending on the type of feedstock and processes used. In the Malaysian context, the palm oil industry not [...] Read more.
Palm oil based biodiesel offers an alternative energy source that can reduce current dependence on conventional fossil fuels and may reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions depending on the type of feedstock and processes used. In the Malaysian context, the palm oil industry not only provides high-yield, renewable feedstock to the world, it brings socio-economic development to the Malaysian rural community and contributes to the national income. However, the sustainability of palm oil remains controversial, due to deforestation, pollution and social conflicts associated with its production. Sustainability assessment is vital for the palm oil industry to identify weaknesses, improve its sustainability performance and improve consumer confidence. This paper proposes a holistic sustainability assessment framework for palm oil production with the aim to address the weaknesses of existing palm oil sustainability assessment methods. It identifies environmental, social and economic Headline Performance Indicators, Key Performance Indicators and their Performance Measures in crude palm oil production in a structured framework. Each quantitative/semi-quantitative performance measure is translated into Likert Scale of 1–5, where 3 is the threshold value, 5 is the ideal condition, and 1 is the worst case scenario. Calculation methods were established for the framework to provide quantitative assessment results. The framework was tested using a hypothetical example with data from existing studies. The results suggest that crude palm oil production in Malaysia is below the sustainability threshold. Evaluations of this sustainability assessment framework also demonstrate that it is a comprehensive assessment method for assessing sustainability of feedstock for biofuel production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Which Subsidy Mode Improves the Financial Performance of Renewable Energy Firms? A Panel Data Analysis of Wind and Solar Energy Companies between 2009 and 2014
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16548-16560; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215831
Received: 22 September 2015 / Revised: 6 December 2015 / Accepted: 8 December 2015 / Published: 15 December 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2274 | PDF Full-text (576 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effectiveness of subsidies in improving the performance of renewable energy firms has aroused significant research attention in recent years. As subsidy modes may affect corporate financial performance,we have chosen companies specializing in wind and solar energy in the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock [...] Read more.
The effectiveness of subsidies in improving the performance of renewable energy firms has aroused significant research attention in recent years. As subsidy modes may affect corporate financial performance,we have chosen companies specializing in wind and solar energy in the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets as samples.The relationships between the subsidy modes and financial performance of these two types of companies are investigated with a panel data model. Results of the total sample indicate that both indirect and non-innovative subsidy have significant effects on the financial performance of renewable energy companies. The regressive coefficient of the former,however, is a negative value, which illustrates that taxation, bonus, and other market-based mechanisms impair corporate profitability. Moreover, the influence of innovative subsidy is weak, which means that the subsidy used for research and development, technical demonstration, and other innovations of renewable energy enterprises have failed to effectively enhance corporate financial performance. In terms of sub-industries, the direct subsidy for wind energy companies has achieved a significant effect. Incomparison, the indirect subsidy and innovative subsidy acquired by solar energy companies have notably reduced corporate profitability. Thissuggests an urgent reform of subsidy policy for this industry is needed. The government should consider differences in the effects subsidies have for wind and solar energy companies when improving subsidy policy. In addition, market-based subsidy mechanisms should be perfected, and the structure of innovative subsidies should be ameliorated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Regional Water Footprint Assessment: A Case Study of Leshan City
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16532-16547; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215829
Received: 26 September 2015 / Revised: 1 December 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 15 December 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1989 | PDF Full-text (3630 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an assessment of urban water footprint in the period of 2001 to 2012 by taking Leshan City, China as a typical case study. The water footprint is calculated by the sum of the water footprints of various sectors, i.e., [...] Read more.
This paper presents an assessment of urban water footprint in the period of 2001 to 2012 by taking Leshan City, China as a typical case study. The water footprint is calculated by the sum of the water footprints of various sectors, i.e., crop production, animal products, industrial processes, domestic waster, eco-environment, and virtual water trade. Results show that the water footprints of the various sectors rose by degrees varying from 19% to 55%, which gave rise to an increase of the total water footprint of 43.13% from 2001 to 2012. Crop production and animal products are identified as the major water intensive sectors, accounting for about 68.97% of the total water footprint. The water footprint in the Northeastern area of Leshan City is greater than that of the Southwestern area in the period 1992–2012, resulted in an expansion of water footprint in the Sha Wan and Wu Tongqiao Districts due to the development of urbanization. The application of water footprint assessment is expected to provide insight into the improvement of urban water efficiency, and thus aid in better water resources management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Changes of Water Conservation Service of Typical Ecosystems in China within a Year Based on Data from CERN
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16513-16531; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215827
Received: 26 August 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 9 December 2015 / Published: 15 December 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1715 | PDF Full-text (1627 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we compared and analyzed the dynamic changes of water conservation and its value of some typical forests, grasslands, and farmlands in China within a year based on the dataset of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Net (CERN). Results showed that forest, [...] Read more.
In this study, we compared and analyzed the dynamic changes of water conservation and its value of some typical forests, grasslands, and farmlands in China within a year based on the dataset of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Net (CERN). Results showed that forest, grassland, and farmland provide different kinds of water conservation services which vary in size and dynamic processes within a year. Water conservation of forest consisted of water regulation service, here referred to as water retaining service, and water supply service, while water conservation of grassland and farmland was mainly water regulation service. Different types of forests/grasslands/farmlands can serve different water conservation services in both size and change patterns. In general, the water conservation service and value of forests is the largest (Xishuangbanna forest being $712·hm−2·year−1, Dingshu Mountains forest being $823·hm−2·year−1, and Changbai Mountains forest being $366·hm−2·year−1), and then is the farmlands (Yucheng farmland being $147·hm−2·year−1, Changshu farmland being $92·hm−2·year−1, Qianyanzhou farmland being $247 hm−2·year−1), and that of the grasslands is the least (Haibei alpine meadow being $75·hm−2·year−1, Mongolia grassland being $30·hm−2·year−1). The monthly water conservation and its value of each ecosystem had its own changing pattern throughout the year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Green Template for Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings Based on Building Information Modeling: Focus on Embodied Environmental Impact
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16498-16512; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215830
Received: 14 November 2015 / Revised: 6 December 2015 / Accepted: 7 December 2015 / Published: 14 December 2015
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3380 | PDF Full-text (4826 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increased popularity of building information modeling (BIM) for application in the construction of eco-friendly green buildings has given rise to techniques for evaluating green buildings constructed using BIM features. Existing BIM-based green building evaluation techniques mostly rely on externally provided evaluation tools, [...] Read more.
The increased popularity of building information modeling (BIM) for application in the construction of eco-friendly green buildings has given rise to techniques for evaluating green buildings constructed using BIM features. Existing BIM-based green building evaluation techniques mostly rely on externally provided evaluation tools, which pose problems associated with interoperability, including a lack of data compatibility and the amount of time required for format conversion. To overcome these problems, this study sets out to develop a template (the “green template”) for evaluating the embodied environmental impact of using a BIM design tool as part of BIM-based building life-cycle assessment (LCA) technology development. Firstly, the BIM level of detail (LOD) was determined to evaluate the embodied environmental impact, and constructed a database of the impact factors of the embodied environmental impact of the major building materials, thereby adopting an LCA-based approach. The libraries of major building elements were developed by using the established databases and compiled evaluation table of the embodied environmental impact of the building materials. Finally, the green template was developed as an embodied environmental impact evaluation tool and a case study was performed to test its applicability. The results of the green template-based embodied environmental impact evaluation of a test building were validated against those of its actual quantity takeoff (2D takeoff), and its reliability was confirmed by an effective error rate of ≤5%. This study aims to develop a system for assessing the impact of the substances discharged from concrete production process on six environmental impact categories, i.e., global warming (GWP), acidification (AP), eutrophication (EP), abiotic depletion (ADP), ozone depletion (ODP), and photochemical oxidant creation (POCP), using the life a cycle assessment (LCA) method. To achieve this, we proposed an LCA method specifically applicable to concrete and tailored to the Korean concrete industry by adapting the ISO standards to suit the Korean situations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling and Enhancement of Organizational Resilience Potential in Process Industry SMEs
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16483-16497; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215828
Received: 2 October 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 14 December 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2063 | PDF Full-text (2010 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The business environment is rapidly changing and puts pressure on enterprises to find effective ways to survive and develop. Since it is almost impossible to identify the multitude of complex conditions and business risks, an organization has to build its resilience in order [...] Read more.
The business environment is rapidly changing and puts pressure on enterprises to find effective ways to survive and develop. Since it is almost impossible to identify the multitude of complex conditions and business risks, an organization has to build its resilience in order to be able to overcome issues and achieve long term sustainability. This paper contributes by establishing a two-step model for assessment and enhancement of organizational resilience potential oriented towards Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the process industry. Using a dynamic modelling technique and statistical tools, a sample of 120 SMEs in Serbia has been developed as a testing base, and one randomly selected enterprise was used for model testing and verification. Uncertainties regarding the relative importance of organizational resilience potential factors (ORPFs) and their value at each level of business are described by pre-defined linguistic expressions. The calculation of the relative importance of ORPFs for each business level is stated as a fuzzy group decision making problem. First, the weighted ORPFs’ values and resilience potential at each business level are determined. In the second step, near optimal enhancement of ORPFs’ values is achieved by applying a genetic algorithm (GA). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Businesses: Assessment, Approaches and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a High Performance PES Ultrafiltration Hollow Fiber Membrane for Oily Wastewater Treatment Using Response Surface Methodology
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16465-16482; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215826
Received: 17 October 2015 / Revised: 2 December 2015 / Accepted: 8 December 2015 / Published: 11 December 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2228 | PDF Full-text (4726 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study attempts to optimize the spinning process used for fabricating hollow fiber membranes using the response surface methodology (RSM). The spinning factors considered for the experimental design are the dope extrusion rate (DER), air gap length (AGL), coagulation bath temperature (CBT), bore [...] Read more.
This study attempts to optimize the spinning process used for fabricating hollow fiber membranes using the response surface methodology (RSM). The spinning factors considered for the experimental design are the dope extrusion rate (DER), air gap length (AGL), coagulation bath temperature (CBT), bore fluid ratio (BFR), and post-treatment time (PT) whilst the response investigated is rejection. The optimal spinning conditions promising the high rejection performance of polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration hollow fiber membranes for oily wastewater treatment are at the dope extrusion rate of 2.13 cm3/min, air gap length of 0 cm, coagulation bath temperature of 30 °C, and bore fluid ratio (NMP/H2O) of 0.01/99.99 wt %. This study will ultimately enable the membrane fabricators to produce high-performance membranes that contribute towards the availability of a more sustainable water supply system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)
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Open AccessArticle
An Optimised Approach of Protecting and Sustaining Large Vehicle System
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16451-16464; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215825
Received: 5 October 2015 / Revised: 19 November 2015 / Accepted: 7 December 2015 / Published: 11 December 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2008 | PDF Full-text (3878 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article is a synopsis of our research and highlights the outcomes and its impact. It was conducted for the development of a sustainable approach to protect and sustain large vehicles in sheltered environment for their enhanced longevity. In this research, various modes [...] Read more.
This article is a synopsis of our research and highlights the outcomes and its impact. It was conducted for the development of a sustainable approach to protect and sustain large vehicles in sheltered environment for their enhanced longevity. In this research, various modes of failures linked directly or indirectly to the structural ageing of large vehicles were identified, measured, and analysed. Based upon the research conducted, a frame-work with an objective to prolong the structural longevity cost effectively and to retard structural failures has been proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)
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Open AccessArticle
MuSAE: A European Project for the Diffusion of Energy and Environmental Planning in Small-Medium Sized Municipalities
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16435-16450; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215823
Received: 27 October 2015 / Revised: 25 November 2015 / Accepted: 3 December 2015 / Published: 11 December 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1889 | PDF Full-text (2604 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The basic idea of the EU LIFE+ 2011 project MuSAE (“Municipalities Subsidiarity for Actions on Energy”, code LIFE11 ENV/IT/000016) consists of transferring the skills and experience related to energy planning, acquired by the leading beneficiary, the Municipality of Perugia, to three small- or [...] Read more.
The basic idea of the EU LIFE+ 2011 project MuSAE (“Municipalities Subsidiarity for Actions on Energy”, code LIFE11 ENV/IT/000016) consists of transferring the skills and experience related to energy planning, acquired by the leading beneficiary, the Municipality of Perugia, to three small- or medium-sized Umbrian Municipalities (Marsciano, Umbertide and Lisciano Niccone). This transfer is aimed, among other objectives, at the drafting of the Municipal Energy and Environmental Plan (MEEP) and the opening of an energy information office in each partner Municipality, in cooperation with CIRIAF and Umbria Region. The present paper provides a summary of MuSAE activities, analyzing the procedures and modalities of implementation of the various phases of the MEEPs, on the basis of the experience gained over the years through the collaboration with the Municipality of Perugia and adapted to smaller territories such as those represented by the other partner Municipalities. A summary of the dissemination activities and pilot projects is also presented, testifying the first concrete results of the planning activity developed by each administration within the project. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Lake Basin Water Resource Governance in China: The Case of Tai Lake
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16422-16434; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215824
Received: 30 September 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 9 December 2015 / Published: 11 December 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2096 | PDF Full-text (1256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
China’s water pollution is severe and has a negative impact on its residents. Establishing an emissions trading mechanism will be helpful for reducing the pollution. However, the government in China controls the emission rights market. The “GDP Only” preference blocks equitable rules to [...] Read more.
China’s water pollution is severe and has a negative impact on its residents. Establishing an emissions trading mechanism will be helpful for reducing the pollution. However, the government in China controls the emission rights market. The “GDP Only” preference blocks equitable rules to address the externalities. To modify this distortion, we develop a multi-objective primary distribution model that optimizes economic efficiency, environmental contribution, and fairness. In addition, the geographical location of a company and the industry differential are two key factors that would affect the local government’s decision. According to the simulation results using data from Tai Lake in China, this model can effectively help to meet the political expectation that large-scale manufacturers with poor technology can take the initiative to reduce emissions through emission-rights distribution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Significant Impact of Silicon Foundry Sands Mining on LCIA
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16408-16421; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215822
Received: 18 October 2015 / Revised: 23 November 2015 / Accepted: 2 December 2015 / Published: 11 December 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2210 | PDF Full-text (1335 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a case study based on a LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) research program of the silicon foundry sand (SFS) due to the large quantity of produced waste foundry sand (WFS). The foundry waste is a high priority sector within the growing [...] Read more.
This paper presents a case study based on a LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) research program of the silicon foundry sand (SFS) due to the large quantity of produced waste foundry sand (WFS). The foundry waste is a high priority sector within the growing European foundry industry. It is necessary to understand the full life cycle of the foundry waste in order to correctly identify magnitude and types of impacts it has on the environment. System boundary includes the processes: mining, modification, packing, storage and transport to foundry. Inventory analysis data were analyzed and finally converted to the functional unit, which has been defined as one ton of SFS. The resulting environmental impact of SFS production in endpoint is: consumption of natural resources 70.9%, ecosystem quality 18.2% and human health 10.9%. The following portions, with respective percentages, have the greatest overall effect on these results: diesel fuel consumption 32.4% and natural gas consumption 28.7%, electricity usage 17.2%, transport 12.2%, devastation caused by the SFS 5.35% and oil (engine, gear and hydraulic) consumption 4.14%. The highest contributor to the diesel fuel consumption is the SFS exploitation. The overall effect of desiccation was 35.8% and was caused by high consumption of resources and electricity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Analysis of Renewable Energy Use and Policies: Global and Turkish Perspectives
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16379-16407; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215820
Received: 12 March 2015 / Revised: 27 November 2015 / Accepted: 3 December 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2840 | PDF Full-text (2091 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The utilization of renewable energy sources (RES) has become inevitable, not only due to the increasing scarcity of fossil fuels, but also to sustain life on Earth. Consequently, countries have started developing renewable energy policies individually and as part of global organizations and [...] Read more.
The utilization of renewable energy sources (RES) has become inevitable, not only due to the increasing scarcity of fossil fuels, but also to sustain life on Earth. Consequently, countries have started developing renewable energy policies individually and as part of global organizations and networks, such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the European Union (EU) and the International Energy Agency (IEA). Turkey is a developing OECD member country and in the accession process to the EU. Thus, the renewable energy policies should be aligned with those of the EU. Moreover, despite the substantial amount and wide range of RES, it is still in a position to import more than half of its energy demand. In the light of these facts, this study aims to analyze and compare the renewable energy policies in Turkey with those adopted worldwide to lay out possible solutions regarding its energy problems. Full article
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