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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.

Table of Contents

World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 8, Issue 2 (June 2016) , Pages 315-586

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Open AccessArticle
An Integrated Global Philosophy of EV Charging
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 495-500; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020495 - 30 Jun 2016
Viewed by 288
Abstract
Electric Vehicle (EV) charging methods have evolved over the past two decades to reflect the radical evolution of EVs. In some cases these methods have been of varying usefulness to the EV driver. DC fast charging, which made a brief appearance in the [...] Read more.
Electric Vehicle (EV) charging methods have evolved over the past two decades to reflect the radical evolution of EVs. In some cases these methods have been of varying usefulness to the EV driver. DC fast charging, which made a brief appearance in the late 90s, is now a valuable EV market enabler, but suffers from the political and technical disagreements of multiple protocols. Globally, EV charging will evolve further to meet the demands of the new consumer EVs and the demands of the EV driver. This paper proposes an integrated global philosophy to meet these demands. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Standardization
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 576-586; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020576 - 24 Jun 2016
Viewed by 286
Abstract
One of the most frequently asked questions that a third party safety organization is asked centers on “What standard applies to EV infrastructure products?” This paper will outline the various standardization activities for charging infrastructure for both conductive and wireless power transfer technologies. [...] Read more.
One of the most frequently asked questions that a third party safety organization is asked centers on “What standard applies to EV infrastructure products?” This paper will outline the various standardization activities for charging infrastructure for both conductive and wireless power transfer technologies. It will discuss the development status, expected publication schedules, and technology covered for various UL, SAE, and IEC standards centered on electric vehicle charging use. Further, the paper will discuss the certification aspects of these standards, such as where the standards are applicable and how certification is handled, within various global locations. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A System-based View of the Standards and Certification Landscape for Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 564-575; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020564 - 24 Jun 2016
Viewed by 291
Abstract
This paper provides an overview of the Standards applicable to electric vehicles at the vehicle and system level, including the EVSE, plugs and connectors, and battery pack. Several relevant standard documents are listed, as well as areas of emerging technology for each system. [...] Read more.
This paper provides an overview of the Standards applicable to electric vehicles at the vehicle and system level, including the EVSE, plugs and connectors, and battery pack. Several relevant standard documents are listed, as well as areas of emerging technology for each system. The standards development process is discussed briefly to provide insight into where stakeholders can get involved in the process. General certification requirements for each system are reviewed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Developments and Challenges for EV Charging Infrastructure Standardization
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 557-563; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020557 - 24 Jun 2016
Viewed by 251
Abstract
Although charging infrastructure standardization has come a long way and publicly accessible infrastructure has been deployed in several countries, the standardization process is still going on and several issues remain open. This article aims to highlight current activities in the field on global [...] Read more.
Although charging infrastructure standardization has come a long way and publicly accessible infrastructure has been deployed in several countries, the standardization process is still going on and several issues remain open. This article aims to highlight current activities in the field on global and European levelnl analyzing the described projects. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Best Practices in Hydrogen Fueling and Maintenance Facilities for Transit Agencies
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 553-556; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020553 - 24 Jun 2016
Viewed by 242
Abstract
CALSTART recently completed a Best Practices in Hydrogen Fueling and Maintenance Facilities for Transit Agencies publication for the Federal Transit Administration. The objective of the project was to create a high-level resource that advances the adoption of fuel cell bus technology within the [...] Read more.
CALSTART recently completed a Best Practices in Hydrogen Fueling and Maintenance Facilities for Transit Agencies publication for the Federal Transit Administration. The objective of the project was to create a high-level resource that advances the adoption of fuel cell bus technology within the transit industry. It accomplishes this by compiling a planning and decision-making tool for the best practices in developing hydrogen fueling and maintenance facilities. This comprehensive effort is the first of its kind, and provide an easily digestible – and much needed – document for managers of transit agencies across the United States. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Impact Analysis of Controllable Home Appliances and EVs on Neighbourhood Level Network with Smart Control
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 543-552; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020543 - 24 Jun 2016
Viewed by 288
Abstract
With the advance of manufacturing technologies and increasing attention on environment protection, electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to see a fast development. However, large adoption of EVs may impose a high power demand on the grid and may affect the network infrastructures. Controlled [...] Read more.
With the advance of manufacturing technologies and increasing attention on environment protection, electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to see a fast development. However, large adoption of EVs may impose a high power demand on the grid and may affect the network infrastructures. Controlled power consumption for EV charging and home appliances could help to reduce such pressures on power systems. This paper aims at analyzing the impacts of integration control for EV charging, controllable home appliances, vehicle-to-home (V2H) and home based batteries on neighbourhood level network. Simulation results are presented for Nissan Leaf and Tesla Model S. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Residential Smart-Charging Pilot Program in Toronto: Results of a Utility Controlled Charging Pilot
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 531-542; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020531 - 24 Jun 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 339
Abstract
Thirty plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) owners in Toronto participated in the 15-month ChargeTO program, which actively curtailed their vehicles during charging. The intent was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the smart-charging system and evaluate its limitations, quantify the real-world curtailment availability of [...] Read more.
Thirty plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) owners in Toronto participated in the 15-month ChargeTO program, which actively curtailed their vehicles during charging. The intent was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the smart-charging system and evaluate its limitations, quantify the real-world curtailment availability of the PEVs, and to capture the participant’s impressions and response to various incentive structures. A key feature of this program was the use of vehicle-side data, namely battery state-of-charge (SOC), to ensure that charge curtailments did not negatively affect the participants. This paper summarizes the findings from the ChargeTO program. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Charge Management Optimization for Future TOU Rates
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 521-530; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020521 - 24 Jun 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 285
Abstract
The effectiveness of future time of use (TOU) rates to enable managed charging depends on the vehicle’s flexibility and the benefits to owners. This paper adopts opportunity, delayed, and smart charging methods to quantify these impacts, flexibilities, and benefits. Simulation results show that [...] Read more.
The effectiveness of future time of use (TOU) rates to enable managed charging depends on the vehicle’s flexibility and the benefits to owners. This paper adopts opportunity, delayed, and smart charging methods to quantify these impacts, flexibilities, and benefits. Simulation results show that delayed and smart charging methods can shift most charging events to lower TOU rate periods without compromising the charged energy and individual driver mobility needs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
DynamicWireless Power Transfer System for Electric Vehicles to Simplify Ground Facilities - Real-time Power Control and Efficiency Maximization -
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 511-520; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020511 - 24 Jun 2016
Viewed by 453
Abstract
This paper focuses on dynamic wireless power transfer for electric vehicles and proposes a vehicle-side control method for real-time power control and efficiency maximization. The proposed control strategy and controller design are presented based on a real-time estimation of the mutual inductance between [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on dynamic wireless power transfer for electric vehicles and proposes a vehicle-side control method for real-time power control and efficiency maximization. The proposed control strategy and controller design are presented based on a real-time estimation of the mutual inductance between a transmitter and a receiver. Simulations and experiments demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve the maximum efficiency and the desired power simultaneously. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Magnetic Leakage Field Study of a 7 kW Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging System
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 501-510; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020501 - 24 Jun 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 428
Abstract
This paper presents a study of the magnetic leakage field of a 7 kW wireless electric vehicle charging (WEVC) system. The leakage field was measured in different test configurations and environments. Typical system parameters, such as coil offset and air gap were evaluated [...] Read more.
This paper presents a study of the magnetic leakage field of a 7 kW wireless electric vehicle charging (WEVC) system. The leakage field was measured in different test configurations and environments. Typical system parameters, such as coil offset and air gap were evaluated in order to determine their influence on the leakage field distribution. All measured results were then validated by magnetic field simulations. Based on the results of this study, a magnetic leakage field assessment method based on simulation is proposed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Driving-Scenario Oriented Optimal Design of an Axial- Flux Permanent-Magnet Motor for an Electric Vehicle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 483-494; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020483 - 24 Jun 2016
Viewed by 314
Abstract
This paper proposes a driving-scenario oriented optimal design of an axial-flux permanent-magnet (AFPM) motor for an electric vehicle. The target torque and speed (TN) curve is defined as three operation zones— constant torque, maximum direct current, and maximum voltage—based on the driving scenario. [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a driving-scenario oriented optimal design of an axial-flux permanent-magnet (AFPM) motor for an electric vehicle. The target torque and speed (TN) curve is defined as three operation zones— constant torque, maximum direct current, and maximum voltage—based on the driving scenario. The AFPM motor is designed to minimize energy consumption based on the motor weight and the frequent operating points of a driving cycle. The final result shows that the electric vehicle driven by the proposed AFPM motor consumes about 15% less energy than motors designed using traditional methods. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Mathematical and FEM Design of Novel Axial Field Switched Reluctance Motor for Electrical Vehicle (EV) Application
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 473-482; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020473 - 24 Jun 2016
Viewed by 267
Abstract
Switch reluctance (SR) motors attract attention as a motor that does not use permanent magnet material. So it is a strong candidate for electrical vehicle (EV) application. In EV application axial flux machines are preferred over radial flux machines due to high power [...] Read more.
Switch reluctance (SR) motors attract attention as a motor that does not use permanent magnet material. So it is a strong candidate for electrical vehicle (EV) application. In EV application axial flux machines are preferred over radial flux machines due to high power density. In this Article novel axial field switched reluctance motor (AFSRM) design is presented which intend to improve the output torque by single flux path distribution in C- core stator. Unlike conventional radial field SRMs, the windings of the C-core stator can be individually wound without complex winding equipment. This topology has an 8/6 pole dual air gap single rotor and single C-core stator configuration without overlapping winding arrangement. Computer Aided Design (CAD) is used to calculate the phase inductance and average torque for a novel AFSRM topology. The two and three-dimensional Finite element (FE) analyses is carried out to validate obtained CAD results. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Overview of the Hybrid and Electric Systems R&D at the U.S.–DOE (FY 2015–2016)
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 461-472; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020461 - 24 Jun 2016
Viewed by 691
Abstract
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), often in close partnership with industry, has supported the development/deployment of cleaner, more efficient automotive technologies with electric drive systems. This paper provides an overview of efforts to promote market adoption [...] Read more.
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), often in close partnership with industry, has supported the development/deployment of cleaner, more efficient automotive technologies with electric drive systems. This paper provides an overview of efforts to promote market adoption of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) in the U.S. and the associated VTO R&D and Deployment initiatives for accelerating this adoption. It also highlights the many significant research breakthroughs resulting from R&D in the hybrid vehicle systems areas of research (with particular emphasis on advanced electric drive technologies) funded directly by or in collaboration with VTO. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Stator Segmentation and Manufacturing Degradation on the Performance of IPM Machines, Using iCARe® Electrical Steels
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 450-460; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020450 - 24 Jun 2016
Viewed by 243
Abstract
In order to increase the performance of permanent magnet electrical machines and/or reduce cost, improved manufacturing techniques are continuously being searched for by machine designers. Segmenting the stator core offers the possibility to simplify the winding process, to increase slot fill factor or [...] Read more.
In order to increase the performance of permanent magnet electrical machines and/or reduce cost, improved manufacturing techniques are continuously being searched for by machine designers. Segmenting the stator core offers the possibility to simplify the winding process, to increase slot fill factor or to minimise wastage of electrical steel. This paper investigates some of the benefits that can be gained from stator segmentation, and highlights the effect of magnetic degradation due to the increased requirement on punching, through a series of finite element models. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development of New Motor for Compact-Class Hybrid Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 443-449; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020443 - 24 Jun 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 268
Abstract
To exceed the top-level fuel efficiency of the 2009 Prius, a new motor was developed for installation in compact class hybrid vehicles including the new Prius. For the stator, segment coil stator with distributed winding was developed and achieved weight reduction and copper [...] Read more.
To exceed the top-level fuel efficiency of the 2009 Prius, a new motor was developed for installation in compact class hybrid vehicles including the new Prius. For the stator, segment coil stator with distributed winding was developed and achieved weight reduction and copper loss reduction. As for the rotor, highspeed, low-loss rotor was developed and achieved size reduction and volume of magnet used was reduced. Also, the motor cooling system was newly designed to improve the motor cooling performance. This paper describes the features of the new motor for the compact class hybrid vehicles including the new Prius. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Techno-Economics of a New High Throughput Process for Proton Exchange Membranes Manufacturing
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 431-442; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020431 - 24 Jun 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 267
Abstract
NRC developed an innovative process for efficiently producing one of the PEMFC key components; the polymeric electrolyte. The process developed is based on the use of bifunctional additives and highthroughput melt-processing technologies. This work demonstrates the Techno-economic Cost Modeling (TCM) methodology to model [...] Read more.
NRC developed an innovative process for efficiently producing one of the PEMFC key components; the polymeric electrolyte. The process developed is based on the use of bifunctional additives and highthroughput melt-processing technologies. This work demonstrates the Techno-economic Cost Modeling (TCM) methodology to model the economics of production scale-up of NRC technology, and to analyze the feasibility of commercialization for different Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCV) annual production scenarios. Results were compared with the SOTA process used to manufacture e-PTFE reinforced composite perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) membranes based on solution-casting. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Measurements of GDL Properties for Quality Control in Fuel Cell Mass Production Line
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 422-430; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020422 - 24 Jun 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 335
Abstract
National Research Council Canada (NRC) has been reorienting its fuel cell activities towards manufacturing challenges. Some challenges in industrialization of fuel cell manufacturing concern quality control, supplier development and process development. As the gas diffusion layer (GDL) of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) [...] Read more.
National Research Council Canada (NRC) has been reorienting its fuel cell activities towards manufacturing challenges. Some challenges in industrialization of fuel cell manufacturing concern quality control, supplier development and process development. As the gas diffusion layer (GDL) of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell plays a critical role in cell performance, NRC has been working closely with Vancouver-based fuel cell companies to develop and validate quality assurance methods to characterize GDL attributes and properties, which strongly correlate with PEM fuel cell performances. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Real-Time Estimator Li-ion Cells Internal Resistance for Electric Vehicle Application
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 410-421; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020410 - 24 Jun 2016
Viewed by 266
Abstract
Battery Management Systems (BMS) were introduced into Li-ion battery packs to serve several purposes, among which assertion of the small variations of the cells state of charge and increase of their life cycle. This paper offers a complete real-time working model for the [...] Read more.
Battery Management Systems (BMS) were introduced into Li-ion battery packs to serve several purposes, among which assertion of the small variations of the cells state of charge and increase of their life cycle. This paper offers a complete real-time working model for the on-line measurement of the cells internal resistance, which requires very low computation time and enough precision for electric vehicle applications. Some electric models used for the determination electrical parameters have a huge complexity and are not implementable in automotive processing units. Among many solutions, the proposed approach uses cell modeled as a source-resistance with low complexity, without loss measurement precision, or increase the computation capabilities. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Li-air Battery Technology for Automotive Applications through the Development of a Multi-Electrode Solid-State Prototype
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 398-409; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020398 - 24 Jun 2016
Viewed by 281
Abstract
This report highlights the results of a project carried out at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), with the overall objective to address the major issues of the Li-air battery technology and assemble a multi-electrode pilot-scale prototype. Several innovative ideas and technologies [...] Read more.
This report highlights the results of a project carried out at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), with the overall objective to address the major issues of the Li-air battery technology and assemble a multi-electrode pilot-scale prototype. Several innovative ideas and technologies were investigated along the core concept of a polymer-based solid-state technology. The assessment of the Li-air technology is discussed through the results of the project as well as other sources, especially concerning its readiness and perspectives for automotive applications. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Experimental Protocols and First Results of Calendar and/or Cycling Aging Study of Lithium-Ion Batteries – the MOBICUS Project
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 388-397; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020388 - 24 Jun 2016
Viewed by 285
Abstract
This paper presents the MOBICUS project experiment protocols with some first results. Twelve partners from companies and research labs have joined forces to conduct a large study on lithium-ion batteries (LIB) aging under real automotive conditions. Experiments include not only calendar or cycling [...] Read more.
This paper presents the MOBICUS project experiment protocols with some first results. Twelve partners from companies and research labs have joined forces to conduct a large study on lithium-ion batteries (LIB) aging under real automotive conditions. Experiments include not only calendar or cycling aging tests, which a part of them was built using a D-optimal design, but also mixed sequences with calendar and cycling experiments. The collected data will enable to build rigorous aging laws taking into account combined calendar and cycling phases. Two different technologies of LIB are tested. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Supercapacitors State-of-Health Diagnosis for Electric Vehicle Applications
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 379-387; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020379 - 24 Jun 2016
Viewed by 267
Abstract
(SoH) estimation is an important feature since aging introduces degradation in supercapacitors’ performance, which might eventually lead to their failure. The diagnosis model is based on a sliding mode observer as a well-known technique for its high nonlinear parameters estimation performance. The main [...] Read more.
(SoH) estimation is an important feature since aging introduces degradation in supercapacitors’ performance, which might eventually lead to their failure. The diagnosis model is based on a sliding mode observer as a well-known technique for its high nonlinear parameters estimation performance. The main objective of this paper is the online State-of-Health diagnosis based on supercapacitors’ aging indicators estimation. The effectiveness of the proposed online observer is shown through experimental results. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Realising Serial Hybrid Energy Storage Systems (sHESS) by Implementing Switching Circuits on Battery Cell Level
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 371-378; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020371 - 24 Jun 2016
Viewed by 258
Abstract
One approach to influence the current flow through the battery pack is to implement switching circuits. Two switching elements are necessary for each cell-stage to be bypassed or activated. This allows active load management. Thus the utilisation of the battery pack can be [...] Read more.
One approach to influence the current flow through the battery pack is to implement switching circuits. Two switching elements are necessary for each cell-stage to be bypassed or activated. This allows active load management. Thus the utilisation of the battery pack can be maximised in every situation. Adaptive control algorithms allow several kinds of operating strategies. Furthermore, dynamic output voltage can be generated to serve the best output for the downstream voltage level. A battery pack with an additional connection at its central point allows the generation of sine-shaped output voltages. As consequence of individual load management, different types of batteries or even different kinds of energy storages can be interconnected to built serial hybrid electrical energy storages. This novel approach allows precisely tailored battery packs for each application to enhance performance and energy supply. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Measuring and Analysis of Nonlinear Characterization of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Multisin Excitation Signal
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 362-370; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020362 - 24 Jun 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 255
Abstract
This paper introduces a novel methodology for analysis in the frequency domain. This methodology looks to the battery from a different point of view and covers aspects of the battery that is often neglected in other works and analysis battery precisely. Using periodic [...] Read more.
This paper introduces a novel methodology for analysis in the frequency domain. This methodology looks to the battery from a different point of view and covers aspects of the battery that is often neglected in other works and analysis battery precisely. Using periodic signals such as random phase multisine for system identification, allows separating noise and nonlinear distortions from the linear part of the system’s response. In addition to a shorter test time in comparison with conventional single sine EIS, by performing extra periods and different phase realizations, transients are eliminated and noise disturbance and also nonlinear distortion is detected. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Degradation Mechanism Detection for NMC Batteries based on Incremental Capacity Curves
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 350-361; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020350 - 24 Jun 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 393
Abstract
Path dependence degradation detection is getting lot of attention due to high demand of long lasting batteries for applications with sporadic usage such as electric vehicles. In this regard, this work presents a study of the degradation mechanism of NMC/Graphite cells cycled under [...] Read more.
Path dependence degradation detection is getting lot of attention due to high demand of long lasting batteries for applications with sporadic usage such as electric vehicles. In this regard, this work presents a study of the degradation mechanism of NMC/Graphite cells cycled under different depth of discharges. Analysis will be based on the study of incremental capacity curves. The trends observed on experimental curves will be compared to simulations in order to exemplify the differences and highlight the path dependence of the degradation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Capacity Fade of Lithium-Ion Batteries upon Mixed Calendar/Cycling Aging Protocol
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 339-349; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020339 - 24 Jun 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 461
Abstract
Energy and power fade of lithium-ion batteries over time is a cause of complaints from Electric and Hybrid vehicles customers. Car manufacturers strive to improve accuracy of battery performance degradation predictions, in order to reduce warranty costs. Currently, these predictions are mainly based [...] Read more.
Energy and power fade of lithium-ion batteries over time is a cause of complaints from Electric and Hybrid vehicles customers. Car manufacturers strive to improve accuracy of battery performance degradation predictions, in order to reduce warranty costs. Currently, these predictions are mainly based on accelerated aging tests in cycling mode or on calendar tests. However, testing protocols with combination of calendar and cycling modes representing the usage of a vehicle in real life application are not much used. In this paper, a mixed aging protocol combining cycling and calendar repetitive phases is elaborated. Experimental results obtained on a LIB technology are presented and discussed in comparison with conventional accelerated cycling tests at the same conditions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Defining a Representative Vibration Durability Test for Electric Vehicle (EV) Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems (RESS)
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 327-338; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020327 - 24 Jun 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 276
Abstract
This study defines a process to devise random power spectral density (PSD) profiles that are representative of 100,000 miles of UK customer electric vehicle (EV) usage utilising vibration measurements from three contemporary EV’s, for undertaking vibration durability evaluations of underfloor mounted rechargeable energy [...] Read more.
This study defines a process to devise random power spectral density (PSD) profiles that are representative of 100,000 miles of UK customer electric vehicle (EV) usage utilising vibration measurements from three contemporary EV’s, for undertaking vibration durability evaluations of underfloor mounted rechargeable energy storage systems (RESS). This paper also presents a critical assessment of current random vibration test procedures available to engineers for validating the mechanical performance of EV RESS via comparing the shock response spectrum (SRS) and fatigue damage spectrum (FDS) of these standards to the SRS and FDS of 100,000 miles UK durability. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Energy Optimal Operation of Hybrid Battery Systems and Comparison to a Single-Cell Reference System for Electric Vehicles Including the Aged State of High Energy Cells
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 315-326; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8020315 - 24 Jun 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 305
Abstract
In battery electric vehicles the battery system has to satisfy demanding requirements. On the one hand, high power capabilility has to be provided for varying states of charge and temperature. On the other hand, the battery system should achieve a maximum service life, [...] Read more.
In battery electric vehicles the battery system has to satisfy demanding requirements. On the one hand, high power capabilility has to be provided for varying states of charge and temperature. On the other hand, the battery system should achieve a maximum service life, optimal energy efficiency and a high overall driving range. This paper compares a conventional single-cell battery system with two hybrid battery system topologies that aim at improving the mentioned aspects of the conventional system. The hybrid battery systems each comprise two battery parts connected via a dc-to-dc converter, one part including lithium-ion battery cells optimized for high energy density and the other part equipped with high power density type lithium-ion cells. An optimal control problem is formulated and solved with Dynamic Programming. The mentioned topologies are then compared in terms of energy efficiency, power capability and current distribution. A real life driving cycle power demand is used for this comparison. It can be shown that the hybrid battery system reduces the occurrence of high current rates on the high energy battery part and shows better energy efficiency when operated with aged high energy battery cells. Furthermore the hybrid battery system’s potential to obtain a high power capability in low state of charge regions is shown. Full article
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