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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Charge Management Optimization for Future TOU Rates

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Co 80007, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(2), 521-530;
Published: 24 June 2016
PDF [643 KB, uploaded 16 May 2018]


The effectiveness of future time of use (TOU) rates to enable managed charging depends on the vehicle’s flexibility and the benefits to owners. This paper adopts opportunity, delayed, and smart charging methods to quantify these impacts, flexibilities, and benefits. Simulation results show that delayed and smart charging methods can shift most charging events to lower TOU rate periods without compromising the charged energy and individual driver mobility needs.
Keywords: EV (electric vehicle); smart grid; charging; off-peak; renewable EV (electric vehicle); smart grid; charging; off-peak; renewable
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, J.; Markel, T. Charge Management Optimization for Future TOU Rates. World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8, 521-530.

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