Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Materials, Volume 11, Issue 10 (October 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Targeted design of novel, high-power laser materials requires a detailed understanding of how the [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-279
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Evaluating the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar Metal Joints Between a New Cast Superalloy K4750 and Hastelloy X Alloy by Using Different Filler Materials
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2065; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102065
Received: 24 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
Viewed by 355 | PDF Full-text (4139 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two kinds of filler materials were used to join dissimilar alloys between a new cast superalloy K4750 and Hastelloy X by tungsten gas arc welding (GTAW). The segregation behavior, interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of the dissimilar joints were evaluated. The results show
[...] Read more.
Two kinds of filler materials were used to join dissimilar alloys between a new cast superalloy K4750 and Hastelloy X by tungsten gas arc welding (GTAW). The segregation behavior, interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of the dissimilar joints were evaluated. The results show that both filler materials can be used to obtain sound dissimilar joints successfully. Microstructural observation show that no obvious cracking is observed in the joints achieved by both filler materials. The segregation extent of various elements in Hastelloy X weld metal is more severe than that in the K4750 weld metal. No unmixed zones were observed at the interfaces. Transition areas with the chemical compositions various between the K4750 alloy and the Hastelloy X alloy were found at the joint interfaces. The maximum width of the transition area between the K4750 weld metal and Hastelloy X base metal is smaller than that between the Hastelloy X weld metal and K4750 base metal. The ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of the joints with Hastelloy X filler material are slightly higher than those with K4750 filler material, however, the K4750 filler material results in a higher total elongation and fusion zone microhardness than those with Hastelloy X filler material. Both dissimilar joints fractured with a ductile feature which exhibits tearing edges and dimples. Hastelloy X filler material is suggested to be more suitable for joining of K4750 superalloy and Hastelloy X dissimilar metals in terms of obtaining superior comprehensive mechanical properties. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A 3D MoS2/Graphene Microsphere Coated Separator for Excellent Performance Li-S Batteries
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2064; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102064
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
Viewed by 417 | PDF Full-text (4204 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are the most prospective energy storage devices. Nevertheless, the poor conductivity of sulfur and the shuttling phenomenon of polysulfides hinder its application. In this paper, flower-like MoS2/graphene nanocomposite is prepared and deposited on a multi-functional separator to enhance
[...] Read more.
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are the most prospective energy storage devices. Nevertheless, the poor conductivity of sulfur and the shuttling phenomenon of polysulfides hinder its application. In this paper, flower-like MoS2/graphene nanocomposite is prepared and deposited on a multi-functional separator to enhance the electrochemical behavior of Li-S batteries. The results demonstrated that the MoS2/graphene-coated separator is contributing to inhibit the shuttling phenomenon of polysulfides and improve the integrity of sulfur electrode. The initial discharge capacity of the battery using MoS2/graphene-coated separator at 0.2 C was up to 1516 mAh g−1. After 100 cycles, a reversible capacity of 880 mAh g−1 and a coulombic efficiency of 98.7% were obtained. The improved electrochemical behavior can be due to the nanostructure and Mo-S bond of the MoS2/graphene composite, which can combine physical shielding and chemisorption to prohibit the shuttle effect of polysulfides. The results prove that the MoS2/graphene-coated separator has the potential for feasible application in Li-S batteries to enhance their electrochemical performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Materials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of Pyrazine Derivatives and Substituted Positions on the Photoelectric Properties and Electromemory Performance of D–A–D Series Compounds
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2063; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102063
Received: 23 September 2018 / Revised: 13 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
Viewed by 272 | PDF Full-text (3692 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Pyrazine derivatives quinoxaline and pyridopyrazine were selected as the acceptors, and benzocarbazole was used as the donor to synthesize four different D–A–D compounds. The results showed that 2,3-bis(decyloxy)pyridine[3,4-b]pyrazine (DPP) exhibited stronger electron-withdrawing ability than that of 2,3-bis(decyloxy)quinoxaline (DPx), because DPP possesses
[...] Read more.
Pyrazine derivatives quinoxaline and pyridopyrazine were selected as the acceptors, and benzocarbazole was used as the donor to synthesize four different D–A–D compounds. The results showed that 2,3-bis(decyloxy)pyridine[3,4-b]pyrazine (DPP) exhibited stronger electron-withdrawing ability than that of 2,3-bis(decyloxy)quinoxaline (DPx), because DPP possesses one more nitrogen (N) atom, resulting in a red-shift of the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) absorption bands and fluorescent emission spectra for compounds with DPP as the acceptor compared with those that use DPx as the acceptor. The band-gap energy (Eg) of the four D–A–D compounds were 2.82 eV, 2.70 eV, 2.48 eV, and 2.62 eV, respectively, for BPC-2DPx, BPC-3DPx, BPC-2DPP, and BPC-3DPP. The solvatochromic effect was insignificant when the four compounds were in the ground state, which became significant in an excited state. With increasing solvent polarity, a 30–43 nm red shift was observed in the emissive spectra of the compounds. The thermal decomposition temperatures of the four compounds between 436 and 453 °C had very high thermal stability. Resistor-type memory devices based on BPC-2DPx and BPC-2DPP were fabricated in a simple sandwich configuration, Al/BPC-2DPx/ITO or Al/BPC-2DPP/ITO. The two devices showed a binary non-volatile flash memory, with lower threshold voltages and better repeatability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Semiconductors for Photonics and Electronics)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Development of Self-Sensing Textile Strengthening System Based on High-Strength Carbon Fiber
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2062; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102062
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 19 October 2018 / Accepted: 20 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
Viewed by 334 | PDF Full-text (1700 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The monitoring of structures is one of the most difficult challenges of engineering in the 21st century. As a result of changes in conditions of use, as well as design errors, many building structures require strengthening. This article presents research on the development
[...] Read more.
The monitoring of structures is one of the most difficult challenges of engineering in the 21st century. As a result of changes in conditions of use, as well as design errors, many building structures require strengthening. This article presents research on the development of an externally strengthening carbon-fiber textile with a self-sensing option, which is an idea is based on the pattern of resistive strain gauges, where thread is presented in the form of zig-zagging parallel lines. The first laboratory tests showed the system’s high efficiency in the measurement of strains, but also revealed its sensitivity to environmental conditions. This article also presents studies on the influence of temperature and humidity on the measurement, and to separate the two effects, resistance changes were tested on unloaded concrete and wooden samples. The models were then placed in a climatic chamber, and the daily cycle of temperature and humidity changes was simulated. The research results confirmed preliminary observations of resistivity growths along with temperature. This effect is more visible on concrete samples, presumably due to its greater amount of natural humidity. The strain measurement with carbon fibers is very sensitive to temperature changes, and applications of this method in practice require compensation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Optimization of Process Parameters, Microstructure, and Properties of Laser Cladding Fe-Based Alloy on 42CrMo Steel Roller
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2061; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102061
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 13 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
Viewed by 460 | PDF Full-text (11003 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mould foot roller is a key component of a continuous casting machine. In order to investigate the possibility of using laser cladding to repair mould foot roller, Fe-based powders and 42CrMo steel are used in this work. The laser cladding process parameters
[...] Read more.
The mould foot roller is a key component of a continuous casting machine. In order to investigate the possibility of using laser cladding to repair mould foot roller, Fe-based powders and 42CrMo steel are used in this work. The laser cladding process parameters were optimized by orthogonal experiments. The chemical compositions, microstructure, properties of the cladding layer under the optimum process parameters, and substrate were systematically investigated by using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness test, wear test, and salt spray corrosion test. The results indicate that the primary factor affecting the width and depth of the cladding layer is laser power. The scanning speed also has a significant effect on the height of the cladding layer. The optimum process parameters for repairing the mould foot roller are 2 kW laser power, 4 mm/s scanning speed, and 15 g/min feeding rate of powder. Along the depth direction of the cladding layer, the microstructure of the coating gradually transforms from plane crystal, cell grains, or dendrites to equiaxed grains. The matrix is mainly martensite with retained austenite; the eutectic phase is composed of netlike M2B, particulate M23(C,B)6, and M7(C,B)3 phase. The hardness of the cladding layer is significantly improved, about three times that of the substrate. The weight loss of the cladding layer is just half that of the substrate. Its wear resistance and corrosion resistance have been significantly improved. The work period of the laser cladding-repaired foot roller is much longer than for the surfacing welding-repaired one. In summary, laser cladding technology can increase the life of mould foot rollers. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Improvement of Laser Transmission Welding of Glass with Titanium Alloy by Laser Surface Treatment
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2060; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102060
Received: 13 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
Viewed by 304 | PDF Full-text (6082 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Laser surface treatment of the titanium alloy was locally oxidized on the metal surface to improve the joint strength of laser transmission welding of high borosilicate glass with titanium alloy. The results find that the welding strength was increased 5 times. The welding
[...] Read more.
Laser surface treatment of the titanium alloy was locally oxidized on the metal surface to improve the joint strength of laser transmission welding of high borosilicate glass with titanium alloy. The results find that the welding strength was increased 5 times. The welding mechanism was investigated by the morphology of the welded parts, the tensile-fracture failure mode, the diffusion of the interface elements, and the surface free energy. The results show that there are many adherents between the titanium alloy and high borosilicate glass after tensile fracture, the welding strength was higher when the laser voltage was 460 V, and the tensile–fracture failure mode is mainly ductile fracture. Element-line scanning analysis revealed that elemental diffusion occurred in the two materials, which is an important reason for the high welding strength. Surface free-energy analysis shows that laser surface treatment improves the surface free energy of titanium alloy, promotes the wettability and compatibility, and increases the welding strength of titanium alloy with glass. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Understanding Graphene Response to Neutral and Charged Lead Species: Theory and Experiment
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2059; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102059
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
Viewed by 315 | PDF Full-text (3841 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deep understanding of binding of toxic Lead (Pb) species on the surface of two-dimensional materials is a required prerequisite for the development of next-generation sensors that can provide fast and real-time detection of critically low concentrations. Here we report atomistic insights into the
[...] Read more.
Deep understanding of binding of toxic Lead (Pb) species on the surface of two-dimensional materials is a required prerequisite for the development of next-generation sensors that can provide fast and real-time detection of critically low concentrations. Here we report atomistic insights into the Lead behavior on epitaxial graphene (Gr) on silicon carbide substrates by thorough complementary study of voltammetry, electrical characterization, Raman spectroscopy, and Density Functional Theory (DFT). It is verified that the epitaxial graphene exhibits quasi-reversible anode reactions in aqueous solutions, providing a well-defined redox peak for Pb species and good linearity over a concentration range from 1 nM to 1 µM. The conductometric approach offers another way to investigate Lead adsorption, which is based on the formations of stable charge-transfer complexes affecting the p-type conductivity of epitaxial graphene. Our results suggest the adsorption ability of the epitaxial graphene towards divalent Lead ions is concentration-dependent and tends to saturate at higher concentrations. To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for Pb adsorption, we performed DFT calculations and estimated the solvent-mediated interaction between Lead species in different oxidative forms and graphene. Our results provide central information regarding the energetics and structure of Pb-graphene interacting complexes that underlay the adsorption mechanisms of neutral and divalent Lead species. Such a holistic understanding favors design and synthesis of new sensitive materials for water quality monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanomaterials: Graphene, Nanoribbons and Quantum dots)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Temperature-Dependent and Threshold Behavior of Sm3+ Ions on Fluorescence Properties of Lithium Niobate Single Crystals
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2058; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102058
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 246 | PDF Full-text (2241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Temperature-dependent and threshold behavior of Sm3+ ions on fluorescence properties of lithium niobate (LiNbO3, LN) single crystals were systematically investigated. The test materials, congruent LiNbO3 single crystals (Sm:LN), with various concentrations of doped Sm3+ ions from 0.2 to
[...] Read more.
Temperature-dependent and threshold behavior of Sm3+ ions on fluorescence properties of lithium niobate (LiNbO3, LN) single crystals were systematically investigated. The test materials, congruent LiNbO3 single crystals (Sm:LN), with various concentrations of doped Sm3+ ions from 0.2 to 2.0 mol.%, were grown using the Czochralski technique. Absorption spectra were obtained at room temperature, and photoluminescence spectra were measured at various temperatures in the range from 73 K to 423 K. Judd–Ofelt theory was applied to calculate the intensity parameters Ωt (t = 2, 4, 6) for 1.0 mol.% Sm3+-doped LiNbO3, as well as the radiative transition rate, Ar, branching ratio, β, and radiative lifetime, τr, of the fluorescent 4G5/2 level. Under 409 nm laser excitation, the photoluminescence spectra of the visible fluorescence of Sm3+ mainly contains 568, 610, and 651 nm emission spectra, corresponding to the energy level transitions of 4G5/26H5/2, 4G5/26H7/2, and 4G5/26H9/2, respectively. The concentration of Sm3+ ions has great impact on the fluorescence intensity. The luminescence intensity of Sm (1.0 mol.%):LN is about ten times as against Sm (0.2 mol.%):LN at 610 nm. The intensity of the fluorescence spectra were found to be highly depend on temperature, as well as the concentration of Sm3+ ions in LiNbO3 single crystals, as predicted; however, the lifetime changed little with the temperature, indicating that the temperature has little effect on it, in Sm:LN single crystals. Sm:LN single crystals, with orange-red emission spectra, can be used as the active material in new light sources, fluorescent display devices, UV-sensors, and visible lasers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Semiconductors for Photonics and Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Structural, Elastic, Electronic and Optical Properties of SrTMO3 (TM = Rh, Zr) Compounds: Insights from FP-LAPW Study
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2057; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102057
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 14 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
Viewed by 371 | PDF Full-text (7902 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The structural, mechanical, electronic and optical properties of SrTMO3 (TM = Rh, Zr) compounds are investigated by using first principle calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). The exchange-correlation potential was treated with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the structural properties.
[...] Read more.
The structural, mechanical, electronic and optical properties of SrTMO3 (TM = Rh, Zr) compounds are investigated by using first principle calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). The exchange-correlation potential was treated with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the structural properties. Moreover, the modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) approximation was also employed for the electronic properties. The calculated lattice constants are in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical results. The elastic constants and their derived moduli reveal that SrRhO3 is ductile and SrZrO3 is brittle in nature. The band structure and the density of states calculations with mBJ-GGA predict a metallic nature for SrRhO3 and an insulating behavior for SrZrO3. The optical properties reveal that both SrRhO3 and SrZrO3 are suitable as wave reflectance compounds in the whole spectrum for SrRhO3 and in the far ultraviolet region (FUV) for SrZrO3. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Investigation of Particles and Gas Bubbles in Zr–0.8Sn–1Nb–0.3Fe Zr Alloys Irradiated by Krypton Ions
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2056; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102056
Received: 25 August 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
Viewed by 229 | PDF Full-text (3666 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two types of Zr–0.8Sn–1Nb–0.3Fe Zr alloys were irradiated by krypton ions in the temperature range from 320 to 400 °C. The microstructure of the as-received alloys showed that the sizes of Zr crystals and (Zr, Nb)2Fe particles with face-centered cubic (FCC)
[...] Read more.
Two types of Zr–0.8Sn–1Nb–0.3Fe Zr alloys were irradiated by krypton ions in the temperature range from 320 to 400 °C. The microstructure of the as-received alloys showed that the sizes of Zr crystals and (Zr, Nb)2Fe particles with face-centered cubic (FCC) structure increased from 3.9 μm to 6.0 μm and from 74.6 nm to 89.6 nm, respectively, after cold rolling and subsequent annealing. Kr+ irradiation-induced bubble formation in the Zr matrix was observed. The size of the gas bubbles increased with increasing ion fluence and irradiation temperature. An equation that related the bubble size, ion fluence, and temperature were established. Irradiation-induced amorphization of particles was observed and found to be related to the fabrication process and irradiation parameters. The particles in alloy #1 showed a higher irradiation tolerance than those in alloy #2. The threshold damage dose for the amorphization of particles in alloy #2 was 3.5 dpa at 320 °C and 4.9 dpa at 360 °C. The mechanisms for bubble growth and particle amorphization are also discussed. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Prediction of Defect Formation during Resin Impregnation Process through a Multi-Layered Fiber Preform in Resin Transfer Molding by a Proposed Analytical Model
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2055; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102055
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
Viewed by 271 | PDF Full-text (5434 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is very important to predict any defects occurring by undesired fiber deformations to improve production yields of resin transfer molding, which has been widely used for mass production of carbon fiber reinforced composite parts. In this study, a simple and efficient analytic
[...] Read more.
It is very important to predict any defects occurring by undesired fiber deformations to improve production yields of resin transfer molding, which has been widely used for mass production of carbon fiber reinforced composite parts. In this study, a simple and efficient analytic scheme was proposed to predict deformations of a multi-layered fiber preform by comparing the forces applied to the preform in a mold of resin transfer molding. Friction coefficient of dry and wet states, permeability, and compressive behavior of unidirectional (UD) and plain woven (PW) carbon fabrics were measured, which were used to predict deformations of the multi-layered fiber preforms with changing their constitution ratios. The model predicted the occurrence, type, and position of fiber deformation, which agreed with the experimental results of the multi-layered preforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Wear Resistance Mechanism of Alumina Ceramics Containing Gd2O3
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2054; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102054
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 21 October 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 315 | PDF Full-text (3190 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Excellent wear resistance of alumina ceramics is a desirable quality for many products. The purpose of this work was to improve the wear resistance of 99% alumina ceramics in an Al2O3–Gd2O3–SiO2–CaO–MgO (AGSCM) system.
[...] Read more.
Excellent wear resistance of alumina ceramics is a desirable quality for many products. The purpose of this work was to improve the wear resistance of 99% alumina ceramics in an Al2O3–Gd2O3–SiO2–CaO–MgO (AGSCM) system. The content of Gd2O3 varied from 0.01% to 1%. A test of wear rate was performed in a ball milling apparatus in a water environment according to the Chinese industry standard. The compositions and microstructure of this material, as well as the effect of bulk density on wear rate, were studied. The effect of Gd2O3 on phases, grain growth mode, and grain boundary cohesion was investigated. It was found that Gd2O3 could refine grain size, form compressive stress of the grain boundary, and promote the crystallization of CaAl12O19. The wear rate of this material was as low as 0.00052‰ (the Chinese industry standard wear rate is ≤0.15‰). The mechanisms for wear resistance of AGSCM ceramics were also determined. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Corrosion of the Welded Aluminium Alloy in 0.5 M NaCl Solution. Part 1: Specificity of Development
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2053; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102053
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 13 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 21 October 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 318 | PDF Full-text (6192 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work consists of two parts. In the first part, the kinetics and mechanism of corrosion on the surface of the welded joint area of the aircraft 1579 aluminium alloy have been studied using SVET (scanning vibrating electrode technique) and SIET (scanning ion-selective
[...] Read more.
This work consists of two parts. In the first part, the kinetics and mechanism of corrosion on the surface of the welded joint area of the aircraft 1579 aluminium alloy have been studied using SVET (scanning vibrating electrode technique) and SIET (scanning ion-selective electrode technique) in 0.5 M NaCl. The results have revealed the corrosion process development within the weld interface due to the presence of microdefects in the morphological structure. Features of the 1579 Al alloy corrosion have also been investigated through immersion experiments, quantitative analysis of dissolved alloying elements by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy, and corrosion products characterization using XRD (X-ray diffraction) analysis. The presence of Mg as an alloying element in the 1579 Al alloy sufficiently increases the bulk pH values as a result of the intensive dissolution of Mg. These factors accelerate the corrosion activity of the studied material in the 0.5 M NaCl solution. Corrosion evolution analysis of the 1579 Al alloy sample showed the importance of the coating formation to protect this alloy against corrosion and to increase the stability of this system in the corrosive media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Chemistry)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Analysis and Respond Surface Methodology Modeling on Property and Performance of Two-Dimensional Gradient Material Laser Cladding on Die-cutting Tool
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2052; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102052
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 21 October 2018
Viewed by 337 | PDF Full-text (4727 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Die-cutting tools have been widely applied in industrial production. However, different forms of failure on a blade, such as wear and fracture, can greatly reduce its service life. In this research, the die-cutting tool was selected as the object, a mixture of high
[...] Read more.
Die-cutting tools have been widely applied in industrial production. However, different forms of failure on a blade, such as wear and fracture, can greatly reduce its service life. In this research, the die-cutting tool was selected as the object, a mixture of high speed steel powder and 304 stainless steel powder was coated as a gradient cladding layer onto the surface of AISI/SAE 1045 steel by laser cladding. The central composition design of the response surface methodology was adopted to establish a mathematical model between the pore area of the multi-layer, multi-track cladding, and its processing parameters: Laser Power (LP), Scanning Speed (SS), Gas Flow (GF), and Overlapping Rate (OR). This model was validated by variance analysis and inspection indicators. The actual experiment value by processing parameters optimization for achieving the smallest pore area showed a 4.41% error compared with the predicted value. The internal structure of the cladding layer is uniform. The defects, such as pores and cracks, meet the requirements. The wear resistance on the cutting edge is about 4.5 times compared with the substrate. The results provide a theoretical guidance for the controlling and prediction of the laser cladding forming quality on a two-dimensional gradient material and the optimization of the processing parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Laser Materials Processing)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Ionically Crosslinked Chitosan Membranes Used as Drug Carriers for Cancer Therapy Application
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2051; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102051
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
Viewed by 410 | PDF Full-text (13225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this paper was to prepare, by the freeze-drying method, ionically crosslinked chitosan membranes with different contents of pentasodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and loaded with 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ14) drug, in order to evaluate how the physical crosslinking affects NQ14 release from chitosan membranes
[...] Read more.
The aim of this paper was to prepare, by the freeze-drying method, ionically crosslinked chitosan membranes with different contents of pentasodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and loaded with 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ14) drug, in order to evaluate how the physical crosslinking affects NQ14 release from chitosan membranes for cancer therapy application. The membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling degree, and through in vitro drug release and cytotoxicity studies. According to the results, the molecular structure, porosity and hydrophilicity of the chitosan membranes were affected by TPP concentration and, consequently, the NQ14 drug release behavior from the membranes was also affected. The release of NQ14 from crosslinked chitosan membranes decreased when the cross-linker TPP quantity increased. Thus, depending on the TPP amount, the crosslinked chitosan membranes would be a potential delivery system to control the release of NQ14 for cancer therapy application. Lastly, the inhibitory potential of chitosan membranes ionically crosslinked with TPP and loaded with NQ14 against the B16F10 melanoma cell line was confirmed through in vitro cytotoxicity studies assessed via MTT assay. The anti-proliferative effect of prepared membranes was directly related to the amount of cross-linker and among all membranes prepared, such that one crosslinked with 0.3% of TPP may become a potential delivery system for releasing NQ14 drug for cancer therapy. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Reprogramming Static Deformation Patterns in Mechanical Metamaterials
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2050; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102050
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
Viewed by 390 | PDF Full-text (18422 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper discusses an x-braced metamaterial lattice with the unusual property of exhibiting bandgaps in their deformation decay spectrum, and, hence, the capacity for reprogramming deformation patterns. The design of polarizing non-local lattice arising from the scenario of repeated zero eigenvalues of a
[...] Read more.
This paper discusses an x-braced metamaterial lattice with the unusual property of exhibiting bandgaps in their deformation decay spectrum, and, hence, the capacity for reprogramming deformation patterns. The design of polarizing non-local lattice arising from the scenario of repeated zero eigenvalues of a system transfer matrix is also introduced. We develop a single mode fundamental solution for lattices with multiple degrees of freedom per node in the form of static Raleigh waves. These waves can be blocked at the material boundary when the solution is constructed with the polarization vectors of the bandgap. This single mode solution is used as a basis to build analytical displacement solutions for any applied essential and natural boundary condition. Subsequently, we address the bandgap design, leading to a comprehensive approach for predicting deformation pattern behavior within the interior of an x-braced plane lattice. Overall, we show that the stiffness parameter and unit-cell aspect ratio of the x-braced lattice can be tuned to completely block or filter static boundary deformations, and to reverse the dependence of deformation or strain energy decay parameter on the Raleigh wavenumber, a behavior known as the reverse Saint Venant’s edge effect (RSV). These findings could guide future research in engineering smart materials and structures with interesting functionalities, such as load pattern recognition, strain energy redistribution, and stress alleviation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metamaterials and Devices)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Synergetic Effects of Ferrite Content and Tempering Temperature on Mechanical Properties of a 960 MPa Grade HSLA Steel
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2049; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102049
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
Viewed by 279 | PDF Full-text (6446 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The synergetic effects of ferrite content and tempering temperature on the mechanical properties of a Q960E steel have been investigated in detail to obtain the optimal combination of strength, ductility, and toughness for ultrahigh strength steels. After quenching from different temperatures between 790
[...] Read more.
The synergetic effects of ferrite content and tempering temperature on the mechanical properties of a Q960E steel have been investigated in detail to obtain the optimal combination of strength, ductility, and toughness for ultrahigh strength steels. After quenching from different temperatures between 790 to 900 °C, the ferrite content in the microstructure containing martensite varies from 56 vol% to 0, and then the specimens were tempered at 180 °C and 450 °C, respectively. High ferrite content reduces both yield and tensile strengths based on the law of mixtures. The tensile strength decreases with the increase of tempering temperature, while the change of yield strength is affected by the ferrite content. When tempering at low temperature, specimens with various ferrite content show different strain hardening behaviors, and the ferrite improves the elongation but deteriorates the toughness with different fracture mechanisms due to the strength difference between ferrite and martensite. Tempering at high temperature increases the ferrite–martensite co-deformation, resulting in the same strain hardening behavior for all specimens and the ferrite is benefit for both elongation and impact properties with similar fracture mechanisms. Moreover, the single martensite with homogeneous microstructure is essential for better toughness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Steels)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Experimental Research on the Mechanical Properties of Tailing Microcrystalline Foam Glass
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2048; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102048
Received: 19 August 2018 / Revised: 14 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
Viewed by 304 | PDF Full-text (7997 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tailing microcrystalline foam glass (TMFG) is a building material that not only has the characteristics of light weight, fire resistance, and thermal insulation, but also has decorative applications. TMFG has a broad application prospect, but there has been little research on the macroscale
[...] Read more.
Tailing microcrystalline foam glass (TMFG) is a building material that not only has the characteristics of light weight, fire resistance, and thermal insulation, but also has decorative applications. TMFG has a broad application prospect, but there has been little research on the macroscale mechanical properties of this material. In order to analyze TMFG basic mechanical properties, a series of experimental studies were carried out by performing the four-point flexural, shear, uniaxial compression, and splitting tensile strength tests. The research showed that the foaming agent (SiC) had a great influence on the mechanical properties of the material. With the reduction of the amount of SiC, the strength of the material and brittle failure increased. The microcrystalline decoration surface improved the flexural strength and compression strength of the tailing microcrystalline foam glass. The modulus of elasticity and the Poisson’s ratio are discussed, and a formula for the modulus of elasticity is proposed. Based on the analysis of the stress and strain curves, a constitutive model is proposed for the application of tailing microcrystalline foam glass and future research on this material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Porous Materials)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Feasibility of a Three-Dimensional Porous Uncalcined and Unsintered Hydroxyapatite/poly-d/l-lactide Composite as a Regenerative Biomaterial in Maxillofacial Surgery
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2047; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102047
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
Viewed by 325 | PDF Full-text (3541 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study evaluated the feasibility of a novel three-dimensional (3D) porous composite of uncalcined and unsintered hydroxyapatite (u-HA) and poly-d/l-lactide (PDLLA) (3D-HA/PDLLA) for the bony regenerative biomaterial in maxillofacial surgery, focusing on cellular activities and osteoconductivity properties in vitro
[...] Read more.
This study evaluated the feasibility of a novel three-dimensional (3D) porous composite of uncalcined and unsintered hydroxyapatite (u-HA) and poly-d/l-lactide (PDLLA) (3D-HA/PDLLA) for the bony regenerative biomaterial in maxillofacial surgery, focusing on cellular activities and osteoconductivity properties in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro study, we assessed the proliferation and ingrowth of preosteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1 cells) in 3D-HA/PDLLA biomaterials using 3D cell culture, and the results indicated enhanced bioactive proliferation. After osteogenic differentiation of those cells on 3D-HA/PDLLA, the osteogenesis marker genes runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2), and Sp7 (Osterix) were upregulated. For the in vivo study, we evaluated the utility of 3D-HA/PDLLA biomaterials compared to the conventional bone substitute of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) in rats with critical mandibular bony defects. The implantation of 3D-HA/PDLLA biomaterials resulted in enhanced bone regeneration, by inducing high osteoconductivity as well as higher β-TCP levels. Our study thus showed that the novel composite, 3D-HA/PDLLA, is an excellent bioactive/bioresorbable biomaterial for use as a cellular scaffold, both in vitro and in vivo, and has utility in bone regenerative therapy, such as for patients with irregular maxillofacial bone defects. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of ZrB2–HfC Ceramics Influenced by HfC Addition
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2046; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102046
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 28 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
Viewed by 264 | PDF Full-text (1966 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
ZrB2–HfC ceramics have been fabricated using the liquid phase sintering technique at a sintering temperature as low as 1750 °C through the addition of Ni. The effects of HfC addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ZrB2–based ceramics
[...] Read more.
ZrB2–HfC ceramics have been fabricated using the liquid phase sintering technique at a sintering temperature as low as 1750 °C through the addition of Ni. The effects of HfC addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ZrB2–based ceramics have been investigated. These ceramics were composed of ZrB2, HfC, Ni, and a small amount of possible (Zr, Hf)B2 solid solution. Small HfC grains were distributed among ZrB2 grain boundaries. These small grains could improve the density of ZrB2–based ceramics and play a pinning role. With HfC content increasing from 10 wt % to 30 wt %, more HfC grains were distributed among ZrB2 grain boundaries, leading to weaker interface bonding among HfC grains; the relative density and Vickers hardness increased, and flexural strength and fracture toughness decreased. The weak interface bonding for 20 and 30 wt % HfC contents was the main cause of the decrease in both flexural strength and fracture toughness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Ultra-Wideband and Wide-Angle Microwave Metamaterial Absorber
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2045; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102045
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
Viewed by 486 | PDF Full-text (2203 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to extend the performance of radar absorbing materials, it is necessary to design new structures with wideband properties and large angles of incidence which are also as thin as possible. The objective of this work, realized within the framework of the
[...] Read more.
In order to extend the performance of radar absorbing materials, it is necessary to design new structures with wideband properties and large angles of incidence which are also as thin as possible. The objective of this work, realized within the framework of the SAFAS project (self-complementary surface with low signature) is, then, the development of an ultra-wideband microwave absorber of low thickness. The design of such material requires a multilayered structure composed with dielectric layers, metasurfaces, and wide-angle impedance matching layers. This solution has been realized with on-the-shelf materials, and measured to validate the concept. At normal incidence, the bandwidth ratio, defined for a magnitude of the reflection coefficient below −10 dB, is 4.7:1 for an absorber with a total thickness of 11.5 mm, which corresponds to λ/7 at the lowest operating frequency. For an incidence of 60°, this bandwidth ratio is reduced to 3.8:1, but the device remains ultra-wideband. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Structures)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Flow Stress Prediction and Hot Deformation Mechanisms in Ti-44Al-5Nb-(Mo, V, B) Alloy
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2044; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102044
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
Viewed by 325 | PDF Full-text (5745 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To elucidate the hot deformation characteristics of TiAl alloys, flow stress prediction, microstructural evolution and deformation mechanisms were investigated in Ti-44Al-5Nb-1Mo-2V-0.2B alloy by isothermal compression tests. A constitutive relationship using the Arrhenius model involving strain compensation and back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN)
[...] Read more.
To elucidate the hot deformation characteristics of TiAl alloys, flow stress prediction, microstructural evolution and deformation mechanisms were investigated in Ti-44Al-5Nb-1Mo-2V-0.2B alloy by isothermal compression tests. A constitutive relationship using the Arrhenius model involving strain compensation and back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model were developed. A comparison of two models suggested that the BP-ANN model had excellent capabilities and was more accurate in predicting flow stress. Based on the microstructural analysis, bending and elongation of colonies, γ and B2 grains were the main microstructural constituents at low temperature and high strain rate. Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) of γ and dynamic recovery (DRY) of β/B2 were the main deformation mechanisms. With the increase of temperature and decrease of strain rate, phase transformation played an important role. The flake-like γ precipitates in B2 grains, and a coarsening of γ lamellae via α lath dissolution during compression were observed. Additionally, the flow softening process commenced with dislocation pile-up and formation of sub-grain boundaries, followed by grain refinement, twins and nano-lamellar nucleation. Continuous DRX and phase transformation promoted the formability of Ti-44Al-5Nb-1Mo-2V-0.2B alloy. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Novel, Multifunctional, Floatable, Lightweight Cement Composite: Development and Properties
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2043; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102043
Received: 5 October 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
Viewed by 354 | PDF Full-text (6969 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the development of a novel, multifunctional, floatable, lightweight cement composite (FLCC) using three different types of glass microspheres for structural engineering applications. Eight different mixtures of FLCC were produced and their matrix-related parameters were examined experimentally by adopting different types
[...] Read more.
This paper presents the development of a novel, multifunctional, floatable, lightweight cement composite (FLCC) using three different types of glass microspheres for structural engineering applications. Eight different mixtures of FLCC were produced and their matrix-related parameters were examined experimentally by adopting different types of microsphere fillers, fiber content (polyethylene fibers (PE)), and water-to-binder ratios. Along with the mechanical properties such as compressive, flexural, tensile strengths, and modulus of elasticity, the water tightness of the material was evaluated by sorptivity measurements and the energy efficiency by thermal conductivity. The optimal FLCC has an oven-dry density of 750 kg/m3, compressive strength (fcm) up to 41 MPa after 28-day moist curing, low thermal conductivity of 0.152 W/mK, and very low sorptivity. It is found that an optimized amount of PE fiber is beneficial for improving the tensile resistance and ductility of FLCC while a relatively large amount of microspheres can increase the entrapped air voids in the FLCC matrix and reduce its density and thermal conductivity. Microstructural analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals that the microspheres are distributed uniformly in the cement matrix and are subjected to triaxial compression confinement, which leads to high strength of FLCC. Segregation due to density difference of FLCC ingredients is not observed with up to 60% (by weight) of glass microspheres added. Compared to the other lightweight aggregate concretes, the proposed FLCC could be used to build floating concrete structures, insulating elements, or even load-bearing structural elements such as floor and wall panels in which self-weight is a main concern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Tunable Coupled-Resonator-Induced Transparency in a Photonic Crystal System Based on a Multilayer-Insulator Graphene Stack
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2042; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102042
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
Viewed by 307 | PDF Full-text (4162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We achieve the effective modulation of coupled-resonator-induced transparency (CRIT) in a photonic crystal system which consists of photonic crystal waveguide (PCW), defect cavities, and a multilayer graphene-insulator stack (MGIS). Simulation results show that the wavelength of transparency window can be effectively tuned through
[...] Read more.
We achieve the effective modulation of coupled-resonator-induced transparency (CRIT) in a photonic crystal system which consists of photonic crystal waveguide (PCW), defect cavities, and a multilayer graphene-insulator stack (MGIS). Simulation results show that the wavelength of transparency window can be effectively tuned through varying the chemical potential of graphene in MGIS. The peak value of the CRIT effect is closely related to the structural parameters of our proposed system. Tunable Multipeak CRIT is also realized in the four-resonator-coupled photonic crystal system by modulating the chemical potentials of MGISs in different cavity units. This system paves a novel way toward multichannel-selective filters, optical sensors, and nonlinear devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transparent Conductive Films and Their Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Dual-Mode Chemo-Sonodynamic Therapy by Low-Energy Ultrasound
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2041; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102041
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
Viewed by 343 | PDF Full-text (2707 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Low-energy ultrasound (LEUS), exhibiting obvious advantages as a safe therapeutic strategy, would be promising for cancer therapy. We had synthesized a LEUS-responsive targeted drug delivery system based on functional mesoporous silica nanoparticle for cancer therapy. Paclitaxel (PTX) was loaded in mesoporous silica nanoparticles
[...] Read more.
Low-energy ultrasound (LEUS), exhibiting obvious advantages as a safe therapeutic strategy, would be promising for cancer therapy. We had synthesized a LEUS-responsive targeted drug delivery system based on functional mesoporous silica nanoparticle for cancer therapy. Paclitaxel (PTX) was loaded in mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a hydrophobic internal channel, and folic acid (FA) functionalized β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) was capped on the surface of the nanoparticles (DESN), which acted as a cancer-targeting moiety and solubilizer. The existence of a hydrophobic internal channel in the DESN was beneficial to the storage of hydrophobic PTX, along with the enhancement of the cavitation effect produced by mild low-energy ultrasound (LEUS, ≤1.0 W/cm2, 1 MHz). The DESN showed significantly enhanced cavitation effect, selective targeting, and achieved a rapid drug release under mild LEUS. To investigate the in vivo antitumor efficacy of the DESN upon LEUS irradiation, we established a 4T1 mammary tumor model. The DESN were confirmed to be of great biodegradability/biocompatibility. The tumor growth was significantly inhibited when the mice were treated with DESN (10 mg/kg) + LEUS with the relative tumor volume reduced to 4.72 ± 0.70 compared with the control group (V/V0 = 17.12 ± 2.75). The DESN with LEUS represented excellent inhibiting effect on tumor cell in vivo. This work demonstrated that DESN mediating dual mode chemo-sonodynamic therapy could be triggered by extracorporeal remote control, may suggest a promising clinical application in cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Biomaterials)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Reconfigurable Multifunctional Metasurface Hybridized with Vanadium Dioxide at Terahertz Frequencies
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2040; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102040
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
Viewed by 312 | PDF Full-text (2710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Driven by the continuous demand for system integration and device miniaturization, integrating multiple diversified functions into a single metasurface hybridized with the tunable metaparticle is highly demanding at terahertz (THz) range. However, up to now, because of the limitation of the tunable metaparticle
[...] Read more.
Driven by the continuous demand for system integration and device miniaturization, integrating multiple diversified functions into a single metasurface hybridized with the tunable metaparticle is highly demanding at terahertz (THz) range. However, up to now, because of the limitation of the tunable metaparticle at terahertz range, most of the metasurfaces feature a single function only or process similar functionalities at a single frequency. A reconfigurable multifunctional metasurface which can realize the switch of transmission and reflection and manipulate the linearized polarization state of electromagnetic waves simultaneously over a controllable terahertz frequency range based on the vanadium dioxide was designed for the first time in the paper. The numerical result demonstrates the validity of the appropriately designed metasurface. Simulation results show that the reconfigurable and multifunctional performance of this metasurface can be acquired over 1.59 THz to 1.74 THz without re-optimizing or re-fabricating structures, which effectively extends the operating frequencies. The proposed metasurface holds potential for electromagnetic wave manipulation and this study can motivate the realization of the wideband multifunctional metasurface and the software-driven reconfigurable metasurface at terahertz frequencies. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Characterization and Interpretation of the Aluminum Zone Refining through Infrared Thermographic Analysis
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2039; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102039
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
Viewed by 217 | PDF Full-text (8255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High purity metals are nowadays increasingly in demand to serve in electronic, photovoltaic, and target materials industries. The zone refining process is the most common way to achieve high purity in the final step of metal purification. Zone length and crystal growth rate
[...] Read more.
High purity metals are nowadays increasingly in demand to serve in electronic, photovoltaic, and target materials industries. The zone refining process is the most common way to achieve high purity in the final step of metal purification. Zone length and crystal growth rate are the main parameters that control the zone refining process. To determine these values, information about temperature profiles in the molten zone is necessary due to its direct correlation with these values. As the determination of this profile is not practically achievable in the present, the novel approach of applying an infrared (IR) camera during the zone refining of 2N8 aluminum is the focus of the investigation in this work. The whole temperature profile of the region near the molten zone was recorded by IR camera during the entire running process. The zone length and the crystal growth rate at each thermographic image shooting moment were successfully extracted by thermographic analysis. Results showed that both factors varied significantly, which is in contrast to the assumption in literature about their stability while running under constant input power and heater movement velocity, though noticeable purification took place in all of these experiments. However, the impurity concentration during refinement fluctuated remarkably. This was well-demonstrated by the tendency of variation in crystal growth rate attained in this work. These results provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of zone refining with an inductive heater and contributes to the optimization of the process. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Dust Loading Performance of a Novel Submicro-Fiber Composite Filter Medium for Engine
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2038; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102038
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
Viewed by 252 | PDF Full-text (6666 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Airborne dust can cause engine wear and contribute to engine gas emission. This study developed a novel submicro-fiber filter medium to provide protection to engines against dust. The wet-laid submicro-fiber medium was prepared by a dual-layer paper machine, and its dust loading performance
[...] Read more.
Airborne dust can cause engine wear and contribute to engine gas emission. This study developed a novel submicro-fiber filter medium to provide protection to engines against dust. The wet-laid submicro-fiber medium was prepared by a dual-layer paper machine, and its dust loading performance was compared with other filter media during laboratory and field tests. During the laboratory tests, the dust holding capacity of the wet-laid submicro-fiber medium was 48% and 10% higher than that of the standard heavy-duty medium and electrospun submicro-fiber medium, respectively. During the field tests, the pressure drop of the wet-laid submicro-fiber filter was 45% lower than that of the standard heavy-duty filter after 10,000 km of operation. It was found that there were two crucial ways to design a better filter medium for protection against dust. Firstly, the surface loading rather than the depth loading was preferred for dust filtration. The submicro-fiber layer kept large amounts of dust particles from penetrating into the depth of filter medium. Secondly, particles were captured preferably by fibers rather than pores. The unique fibrous structure of the wet-laid submicro-fiber medium made more particle deposition take place on fibers via interception and inertial impaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Materials for Clean Energy and Environment)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle New Binary Blends of Ethylene-co-n-butyl Acrylate (EBA) Copolymer and Low Molecular Weight Rosin Ester Resin with Potential as Pressure Sensitive Adhesives
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2037; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102037
Received: 22 September 2018 / Revised: 6 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
Viewed by 281 | PDF Full-text (6542 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For improving the adhesion property of ethylene-co-n-butyl acrylate copolymer (EBA) at ambient temperature, binary blends of EBA with 27 wt% n-butyl acrylate and different amounts (20–62 wt%) of low molecular weight hydrogenated glycerol rosin ester (ECH) resin have been prepared. The addition of
[...] Read more.
For improving the adhesion property of ethylene-co-n-butyl acrylate copolymer (EBA) at ambient temperature, binary blends of EBA with 27 wt% n-butyl acrylate and different amounts (20–62 wt%) of low molecular weight hydrogenated glycerol rosin ester (ECH) resin have been prepared. The addition of glycerol rosin ester resin decreased the crystallinity and size of the ethylene domains of the EBA copolymer. The addition of up to 50 wt% (100 phr) ECH resin improved the compatibility with the EBA copolymer, whereas when more than 50 wt% (100 phr) ECH resin was added, the compatibility of the blends did not change but the viscoelastic properties were noticeably decreased. Furthermore, the compatibility was noticeably improved by adding only 20 wt% ECH resin although the best compromise between compatibility and viscoelasticity corresponded to the binary blend made with 43 wt% ECH resin. The EBA copolymer + ECH resin blends showed high tack (initial adhesion) at 25 °C and some of them even at 5 °C, and they have adequate 180° peel strength both to polar (polyethylene terephthalate-PET) and nonpolar (polypropylene-PP) substrate. Furthermore, all EBA copolymer + ECH resin blends showed high shear strength at 25 °C. Finally, the blend with 43 wt% ECH resin showed excellent pressure sensitive adhesive property exhibiting excellent creep, high tack, high 180° peel strength, and high single lap-shear strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Blends and Compatibilization 2018)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Dual Toroidal Dipole Resonance Metamaterials under a Terahertz Domain
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2036; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102036
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
Viewed by 262 | PDF Full-text (3753 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We proposed and fabricated a flexible, planar, U-shape-modified structure metamaterial (MM) that was composed of two metallic pattern layers separated by a polyimide layer, where each metallic pattern layer consists of two U-shaped split ring resonators (USRRs). The coupling effect between the two
[...] Read more.
We proposed and fabricated a flexible, planar, U-shape-modified structure metamaterial (MM) that was composed of two metallic pattern layers separated by a polyimide layer, where each metallic pattern layer consists of two U-shaped split ring resonators (USRRs). The coupling effect between the two USRRs in the same metallic layer was vital to the formation of dual toroidal dipole (TD) resonances. The measured and simulated results showed that both low quality factor (Q) (~1.82) and high Q (~10.31) TD resonances were acquired synchronously at two different frequencies in the MMs by adjusting the distance between the two coplanar USRRs. With the interaction of the USRRs, the energy levels of the USRRs were split into inductance-capacitance (LC)-induced TD resonance at low frequency and dipole-induced TD resonance at high frequency. Thus, the electric multipole interaction played an important role in determining the energy level of the TD resonance. The better strength of the high frequency TD resonance can be confined to an electromagnetic field inside a smaller circular region, and thus, a higher Q was obtained. In order to investigate the TD mechanism more in depth, the power of the electric dipole, magnetic dipole, electric circular dipole, and TD were quantitatively calculated. Dual TD MMs on a freestanding substrate will have potential applications in functional terahertz devices for practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-scale Modeling of Materials and Structures)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top