E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Transparent Conductive Films and Their Applications"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Thin Films".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Mateusz Śmietana

Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warszawa, Poland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: optical fibers; thin films; optical sensors; biosensors
Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Robert Bogdanowicz

Department of Metrology and Optoelectronics, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: CVD diamond; doped nanocarbons; electrochemical and optical sensors; conductive oxides; optical properties

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Interest of scientific community in materials offering both electrical conductivity and optical transparency has intensified in recent years. There is a great need for thin films showing low conductivity and simultaneously high transparency, especially when application as a top electrode in displays is foreseen. Widely applied tin oxide definitely requires a more stable, robust and cheaper successor. We all hope that application of zinc oxide also when doped e.g., with aluminum, gallium, or indium may be the solution, but the material still requires extensive research to satisfy the requirements. These materials often need to be very thin. The decrease in thickness stimulates development of novel deposition and processing techniques, but also may result in obtaining materials with novel and fascinating properties, as we observed when nanocrystalline or 2D materials, including graphene, were reported. Besides decrease in thickness, the films are often processed to have a certain pattern, as in case of metamaterials. By such processing even metal film can be treated as transparent, but still maintain the electrical conductivity.

Application of these materials is not limited to displays. They are often needed for energy conversion devices or various sensors, especially those offering dual optical and electrical interrogation. Applications and used substrates determines deposition techniques, that need to be tuned to offer thin films with satisfying properties.

It is our pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue focused on transparent conductive films. Full papers, communications, and reviews on fabrication, properties, and applications of these films are all welcome.

Assoc. Prof. Mateusz Śmietana
Assoc. Prof. Robert Bogdanowicz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • transparent conductive oxides
  • indium tin oxide
  • zinc oxide
  • carbon films
  • graphene
  • diamond
  • thin film deposition
  • thin metals
  • doped silicon
  • thin film processing
  • thin film properties
  • optical devices
  • electronic devices

Published Papers (8 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-8
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
Electrical Properties of Low-Temperature Processed Sn-Doped In2O3 Thin Films: The Role of Microstructure and Oxygen Content and the Potential of Defect Modulation Doping
Materials 2019, 12(14), 2232; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12142232
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2708 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Low-temperature-processed ITO thin films offer the potential of overcoming the doping limit by suppressing the equilibrium of compensating oxygen interstitial defects. To elucidate this potential, electrical properties of Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) thin films are studied in dependence on film thickness. [...] Read more.
Low-temperature-processed ITO thin films offer the potential of overcoming the doping limit by suppressing the equilibrium of compensating oxygen interstitial defects. To elucidate this potential, electrical properties of Sn-doped In 2 O 3 (ITO) thin films are studied in dependence on film thickness. In-operando conductivity and Hall effect measurements during annealing of room-temperature-deposited films, together with different film thickness in different environments, allow to discriminate between the effects of crystallization, grain growth, donor activation and oxygen diffusion on carrier concentrations and mobilities. At 200 C , a control of carrier concentration by oxygen incorporation or extraction is only dominant for very thin films. The electrical properties of thicker films deposited at room temperature are mostly affected by the grain size. The remaining diffusivity of compensating oxygen defects at 200 C is sufficient to screen the high Fermi level induced by deposition of Al 2 O 3 using atomic layer deposition (ALD), which disables the use of defect modulation doping at this temperature. The results indicate that achieving higher carrier concentrations in ITO thin films requires a control of the oxygen pressure during deposition in combination with seed layers to enhance crystallinity or the use of near room temperature ALD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transparent Conductive Films and Their Applications)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Sol–Gel Route to Obtain a Highly Transparent and Conductive Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Film
Materials 2019, 12(11), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12111744
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
PDF Full-text (4515 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The electrical and optical properties of sol–gel derived aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films containing 2 at.% Al were investigated considering the modifying effects of (1) increasing the sol H2O content and (2) a thermal treatment procedure with a high-temperature approach followed [...] Read more.
The electrical and optical properties of sol–gel derived aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films containing 2 at.% Al were investigated considering the modifying effects of (1) increasing the sol H2O content and (2) a thermal treatment procedure with a high-temperature approach followed by an additional heat-treatment step under a reducing atmosphere. According to the results obtained via the TG-DTA analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction technique, and four-point probe resistivity measurements, it is argued that in the modified sample, the sol hydrolysis, decomposition of the deposited gel, and crystallization of grains result in grains of larger crystallite size in the range of 20 to 30 nm and a stronger c-axis preferred orientation with slightly less microstrain. The obtained morphology and grain-boundary characteristics result in improved conductivity considering the resistivity value below 6 mΩ·cm. A detailed investigation of the samples’ optical properties, in terms of analyzing their absorption and dispersion behaviors through UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, support our reasoning for the increase of the mobility, and to a lesser extent the concentration of charge carriers, while causing only a slight degradation of optical transmittance down to nearly 80%. Hence, an enhanced performance as a transparent conducting film is claimed for the modified sample by comparing the figure-of-merit values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transparent Conductive Films and Their Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Nanopillar Crystalline ITO Thin Films with High Transmittance and IR Reflectance by RF Magnetron Sputtering
Materials 2019, 12(6), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060958
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 17 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
PDF Full-text (4810 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanopillar crystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering under the power levels of 100 W, 150 W, 200 W and 250 W. The preparation process of thin films is divided into [...] Read more.
Nanopillar crystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering under the power levels of 100 W, 150 W, 200 W and 250 W. The preparation process of thin films is divided into two steps, firstly, sputtering a very thin and granular crystalline film at the bottom, and then sputtering a nanopillar crystalline film above the bottom film. The structure, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the nanopillar crystalline ITO thin films were investigated. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, the nanopillar crystalline thin films shows (400) preferred orientation. Due to the effect of the bottom granular grains, the crystallinity of the nanopillar crystals on the upper layer was greatly improved. The nanopillar crystalline ITO thin films exhibited excellent electrical properties, enhanced visible light transmittance and a highly infrared reflectivity in the mid-infrared region. It is noted that the thin film deposited at 200 W showed the best combination of optical and electrical performance, with resistivity of 1.44 × 10−4 Ω cm, average transmittance of 88.49% (with a film thickness of 1031 nm) and IR reflectivity reaching 89.18%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transparent Conductive Films and Their Applications)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Tailoring Electro/Optical Properties of Transparent Boron-Doped Carbon Nanowalls Grown on Quartz
Materials 2019, 12(3), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030547
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 10 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3478 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon nanowalls (CNWs) have attracted much attention for numerous applications in electrical devices because of their peculiar structural characteristics. However, it is possible to set synthesis parameters to vary the electrical and optical properties of such CNWs. In this paper, we demonstrate the [...] Read more.
Carbon nanowalls (CNWs) have attracted much attention for numerous applications in electrical devices because of their peculiar structural characteristics. However, it is possible to set synthesis parameters to vary the electrical and optical properties of such CNWs. In this paper, we demonstrate the direct growth of highly transparent boron-doped nanowalls (B-CNWs) on optical grade fused quartz. The effect of growth temperature and boron doping on the behavior of boron-doped carbon nanowalls grown on quartz was studied in particular. Temperature and boron inclusion doping level allow for direct tuning of CNW morphology. It is possible to operate with both parameters to obtain a transparent and conductive film; however, boron doping is a preferred factor to maintain the transparency in the visible region, while a higher growth temperature is more effective to improve conductance. Light transmittance and electrical conductivity are mainly influenced by growth temperature and then by boron doping. Tailoring B-CNWs has important implications for potential applications of such electrically conductive transparent electrodes designed for energy conversion and storage devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transparent Conductive Films and Their Applications)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Nanostructure and Optical Property Investigations of SrTiO3 Films Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering
Materials 2019, 12(1), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010138
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 3 January 2019
PDF Full-text (2238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Strontium titanate thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The structural and optical properties of these films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry, respectively. After annealing at 600–800 °C, [...] Read more.
Strontium titanate thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The structural and optical properties of these films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry, respectively. After annealing at 600–800 °C, the as-deposited films changed from amorphous to polycrystalline. It was found that an amorphous interfacial layer appeared between the SrTiO3 layer and Si substrate in each as-deposited film, which grew thicker after annealing. The optical parameters of the SrTiO3 film samples were acquired from ellipsometry spectra by fitting with a Lorentz oscillator model. Moreover, we found that the band gap energy of the samples diminished after thermal treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transparent Conductive Films and Their Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Study of E-Beam Deposited Gate Dielectrics on Channel Width-Dependent Performance and Reliability of a-IGZO Thin-Film Transistors
Materials 2018, 11(12), 2502; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122502
Received: 26 October 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 9 December 2018
PDF Full-text (3240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A comparative study on the effects of e-beam deposited gate dielectrics for amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) has been carried out using SiO2, Si3N4, and Ta2O5 dielectric materials. [...] Read more.
A comparative study on the effects of e-beam deposited gate dielectrics for amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) has been carried out using SiO2, Si3N4, and Ta2O5 dielectric materials. The channel width dependent device electrical performances were investigated using three different sizes of 500 μm, 1000 μm, and 1500 μm. The reliability characteristics were revealed by the threshold voltage variation and drain current variation under positive bias stress. The e-beam deposited high-k dielectric Ta2O5 exhibited the highest stability at the stress voltage of 3 V for 1000 s due to its high capacitance density at 34.1 nF/cm2. The threshold voltage variation along the channel width decreased from SiO2, then Si3N4, to Ta2O5, because of the increased insulating property and density of capacitance. The SiO2-based a-IGZO TFT achieved a high field effect mobility of 27.9 cm2/V·s and on–off current ratio > 107 at the lower channel width of 500 μm. The gate leakage current also decreased with increasing the channel width/length ratio. In addition, the SiO2 gate dielectric-based a-IGZO TFT could be a faster device, whereas the Ta2O5 gate dielectric would be a good candidate for a higher reliability component with adequate surface treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transparent Conductive Films and Their Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Indium-Zinc-Tin-Oxide Film Prepared by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering for Electrochromic Applications
Materials 2018, 11(11), 2221; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11112221
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8417 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reports on the fabrication of indium-zinc-tin-oxide (IZTO) transparent conductive film deposited by direct current (DC) reactive magnetron sputtering. The electrical, structural, and optical properties of IZTO film were investigated by Hall measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and optical transmission spectroscopy with various [...] Read more.
This paper reports on the fabrication of indium-zinc-tin-oxide (IZTO) transparent conductive film deposited by direct current (DC) reactive magnetron sputtering. The electrical, structural, and optical properties of IZTO film were investigated by Hall measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and optical transmission spectroscopy with various sputtering powers. The IZTO film prepared used power at 100 W showed the lowest resistivity of 5.2 × 10−4 Ω cm. To accomplish rapid switching and high optical modulation, we have fabricated an electrochromic device (ECD) consisting of an working electrode (WO3 electrode film deposited on IZTO/ITO/glass) and a counter-electrode (Pt mesh) in 0.2 M LiClO4/PC liquid solution. The device demonstrated an optical contrast of 44% and switching times of 4.6 s and 8.1 s for the coloring and bleaching state, respectively, at the wavelength of 550 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transparent Conductive Films and Their Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Tunable Coupled-Resonator-Induced Transparency in a Photonic Crystal System Based on a Multilayer-Insulator Graphene Stack
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2042; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102042
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
PDF Full-text (4162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We achieve the effective modulation of coupled-resonator-induced transparency (CRIT) in a photonic crystal system which consists of photonic crystal waveguide (PCW), defect cavities, and a multilayer graphene-insulator stack (MGIS). Simulation results show that the wavelength of transparency window can be effectively tuned through [...] Read more.
We achieve the effective modulation of coupled-resonator-induced transparency (CRIT) in a photonic crystal system which consists of photonic crystal waveguide (PCW), defect cavities, and a multilayer graphene-insulator stack (MGIS). Simulation results show that the wavelength of transparency window can be effectively tuned through varying the chemical potential of graphene in MGIS. The peak value of the CRIT effect is closely related to the structural parameters of our proposed system. Tunable Multipeak CRIT is also realized in the four-resonator-coupled photonic crystal system by modulating the chemical potentials of MGISs in different cavity units. This system paves a novel way toward multichannel-selective filters, optical sensors, and nonlinear devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transparent Conductive Films and Their Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Materials EISSN 1996-1944 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top