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Energies, Volume 12, Issue 12 (June-2 2019) – 226 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The microgrid may experience anything from a few to tens of blackout cycles when the main inverter [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Study on the Mechanism of Ionic Stabilizers on Shale Gas Reservoir Mechanics in Northwestern Hunan
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2453; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122453 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 836
Abstract
The shale of the lower Cambrian Niutitang formation in northwestern Hunan is an ideal reservoir for shale gas. There is a close connection between borehole stability and drilling fluid in shale gas drilling. Ionic stabilizer is a new type of stratum consolidation agent [...] Read more.
The shale of the lower Cambrian Niutitang formation in northwestern Hunan is an ideal reservoir for shale gas. There is a close connection between borehole stability and drilling fluid in shale gas drilling. Ionic stabilizer is a new type of stratum consolidation agent that inhibits the hydration expansion of clay minerals and improves mechanical strength of the borehole. The traditional idea of pore wall protection is to use drilling fluid additives to prevent shale from interacting with water. However, ionic stabilizer can change the hydrophilic of clay minerals in shale, making the particles become hydrophobic and dense, therefore, the formation stability can be enhanced simultaneously. The material used in this paper is different from the normal ionic stabilizer, some chemical bonds that have been changed in the new material called enhanced normality ionic (ENI) stabilizer. This paper utilized the shale samples those obtained from Niutitang formation to study the connection between ENI and the mechanical properties of shale. Mechanical tests and microscopic pore tests were performed on different samples which were soaked in water and the ENI with different concentrations. It has been found through tests that ENI can inhibit the development of shale pores, and as the concentration increases, the inhibition increases. In addition, as the ENI concentration increases, the uniaxial compressive strength and Young’s modulus of the shale increase, and the ratio of stability coefficients decreases. It can be concluded that the ENI can improve the mechanical strength of carbon shale, and prevent the development of rock damage. Moreover, it can improve the ability of rock to resist damage, and enhance borehole stability initiatively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
On the Determination of the Aerodynamic Damping of Wind Turbines Using the Forced Oscillations Method in Wind Tunnel Experiments
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2452; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122452 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1003
Abstract
The development of wind turbine technology has led to higher and larger wind turbines with a higher sensitivity to dynamic effects. One of these effects is the aerodynamic damping, which introduces favorable damping forces in oscillating wind turbines. These forces play an important [...] Read more.
The development of wind turbine technology has led to higher and larger wind turbines with a higher sensitivity to dynamic effects. One of these effects is the aerodynamic damping, which introduces favorable damping forces in oscillating wind turbines. These forces play an important role in the turbine lifetime, but have not yet been studied systematically in detail. Consequently, this paper studies the plausibility of determining the aerodynamic damping of wind turbines systematically through wind tunnel experiments using the forced oscillation method. To this end, a 1:150 scale model of a prototype wind turbine has been fabricated considering Reynolds number effects on the blades through XFOIL calculations and wind tunnel measurements of airfoil 2D-section models. The resulting tower and wind turbine models have been tested for different operation states. The tower results are approximate and show low aerodynamic damping forces that can be neglected on the safe side. The measured aerodynamic damping forces of the operating turbine are compared to existing analytic approaches and to OpenFAST simulations. The measured values, although generally larger, show good agreement with the calculated ones. It is concluded that wind tunnel forced oscillations experiments could lead to a better characterization of the aerodynamic damping of wind turbines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Building Electricity Use Pattern Using K-Means Clustering Algorithm by Determination of Better Initial Centroids and Number of Clusters
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2451; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122451 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 764
Abstract
Energy demands in the building sector account for more than 30% of the total energy use and more than 55% of the global electricity demand. Efforts to develop sustainable buildings are progressing but are still not keeping pace with the growing building sector [...] Read more.
Energy demands in the building sector account for more than 30% of the total energy use and more than 55% of the global electricity demand. Efforts to develop sustainable buildings are progressing but are still not keeping pace with the growing building sector and the rising demand for energy. Analyzing the energy use pattern of buildings and planning for energy conservation in existing buildings are essential. In this research, we propose a method to analyze the energy use pattern in a building using the K-means clustering method. Initial centroids in K-means clustering are chosen randomly so that the clustering result changes every time. This instability is removed in the proposed method by the selection of initial centroids using a percentile method based on empirical cumulative distribution. The results from the proposed method have better accuracy, and the internal cohesion and separation between clusters are better than the random initialization method. Analyzing yearly electricity use using the proposed clustering method, the daily pattern of electricity use can be categorized according to the operation of buildings. For this purpose, in this research, electricity use pattern was analyzed for three to six clusters. In comparison with the university schedule, six clusters were found to be appropriate and the accuracy was 89.3%. Once daily electricity use are categorized, base electricity consumption, electricity consumption by human activities, and electricity consumption by air-conditioning can be determined. As energy consumption by usage is clarified, measures for energy consumption in university buildings can be proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy and Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Tip-Bed Velocity and Scour Depth of Horizontal-Axis Tidal Turbine with Consideration of Tip Clearance
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2450; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122450 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 778
Abstract
The scouring by a tidal turbine is investigated by using a joint theoretical and experimental approach in this work. The existence of a turbine obstructs a tidal flow to divert the flow passing through the narrow channel in between the blades and seabed. [...] Read more.
The scouring by a tidal turbine is investigated by using a joint theoretical and experimental approach in this work. The existence of a turbine obstructs a tidal flow to divert the flow passing through the narrow channel in between the blades and seabed. Flow suppression is the main cause behind inducing tidal turbine scouring, and its accelerated velocity is being termed as tip-bed velocity (Vtb). A theoretical equation is currently proposed to predict the tip-bed velocity based on the axial momentum theory and the conservation of mass. The proposed tip-bed velocity equation is a function of four variables of rotor radius (r), tip-bed clearance (C), efflux velocity (V0) and free flow velocity (V), and a constant of mass flow coefficient (Cm) of 0.25. An experimental apparatus was built to conduct the scour experiments. The results provide a better understanding of the scour mechanism of the horizontal axis tidal turbine-induced scour. The experimental results show that the scour depth is inversely proportional to tip-bed clearance. Turbine coefficient (Kt) is proposed based on the relationship between the tip-bed velocity and the experimental tidal turbine scour depth. Inclusion of turbine coefficient (Kt) into the existing pier scour equations can predict the maximum scour depth of a tidal turbine with an error range of 5–24%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Dynamics in Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy System)
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Open AccessArticle
Pseudo-Steady-State Parameters for a Well Penetrated by a Fracture with an Azimuth Angle in an Anisotropic Reservoir
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2449; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122449 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 645
Abstract
Many oil wells in closed reservoirs continue to produce in the pseudo-steady-state flow regime for a long time. The principal objective of this work is to investigate the characteristics of two key pseudo-steady-state parameters—pseudo-steady-state constant (bDpss) and pseudo-skin factor (S)—for [...] Read more.
Many oil wells in closed reservoirs continue to produce in the pseudo-steady-state flow regime for a long time. The principal objective of this work is to investigate the characteristics of two key pseudo-steady-state parameters—pseudo-steady-state constant (bDpss) and pseudo-skin factor (S)—for a well penetrated by a fracture with an azimuth angle (θ) in an anisotropic reservoir. Firstly, a general analytical pressure solution for a finite-conductivity fracture with or without an azimuth angle in an anisotropic rectangular reservoir was developed by using the point-source function and spatial integral method, and two typical cases were employed to verify this solution. Secondly, with the asymptotic analysis method, the expressions of pseudo-steady-state constant and pseudo-skin factor were obtained on the basis of their definitions, and the effects of permeability anisotropy, fracture azimuth angle, fracture conductivity and reservoir shape on them were discussed in detail. Results show that all the bDpss-θ and S-θ curves are symmetric around the vertical line, θ = 90° and form a hump or groove shape. The optimized fracture direction in an anisotropic reservoir is perpendicular to the principal permeability axis. Furthermore, a new formula to calculate pseudo-skin factor was successfully proposed based on these two parameters’ relationship. Finally, as an application of pseudo-steady-state constant, a set of Blasingame format rate decline curves for the proposed model were established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geo-Energy)
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Open AccessArticle
An Iterative Methodology for Model Complexity Reduction in Residential Building Simulation
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2448; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122448 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 851
Abstract
The present paper introduces an iterative methodology to progressively reduce building simulation model complexity with the aim of identifying potential trade-offs between computational requirements (i.e., model complexity) and energy estimation accuracy. Different levels of model complexity are analysed, from commercial building energy simulation [...] Read more.
The present paper introduces an iterative methodology to progressively reduce building simulation model complexity with the aim of identifying potential trade-offs between computational requirements (i.e., model complexity) and energy estimation accuracy. Different levels of model complexity are analysed, from commercial building energy simulation tools to low order calibrated thermal networks models. Experimental data from a residential building in Germany were collected and used to validate two detailed white-box models and a simplified white-box model. The validation process was performed in terms of internal temperature profiles and building thermal energy demand predictions. Synthetic profiles were generated from the validated models and used for calibrating high order models. A reduction (trimming) procedure was applied to reduce the model complexity using an energy performance criterion prior to model trimming. The proposed methodology has the advantage of keeping the physical structure of the original RC model, thus enabling the use of the trimmed lumped parameter building model for other applications. The analysis showed that it is possible to reduce the model complexity by half, while keeping the accuracy above 90% for the targeted building. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy and Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Combustion Studies of a Non-Road Diesel Engine with Several Alternative Liquid Fuels
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2447; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122447 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 802
Abstract
Sustainable liquid fuels will be needed for decades to fulfil the world’s growing energy demands. Combustion systems must be able to operate with a variety of renewable and sustainable fuels. This study focused on how the use of various alternative fuels affects combustion, [...] Read more.
Sustainable liquid fuels will be needed for decades to fulfil the world’s growing energy demands. Combustion systems must be able to operate with a variety of renewable and sustainable fuels. This study focused on how the use of various alternative fuels affects combustion, especially in-cylinder combustion. The study investigated light fuel oil (LFO) and six alternative liquid fuels in a high-speed, compression-ignition (CI) engine to understand their combustion properties. The fuels were LFO (baseline), marine gas oil (MGO), kerosene, rapeseed methyl ester (RME), renewable diesel (HVO), renewable wood-based naphtha and its blend with LFO. The heat release rate (HRR), mass fraction burned (MFB) and combustion duration (CD) were determined at an intermediate speed at three loads. The combustion parameters seemed to be very similar with all studied fuels. The HRR curve was slightly delayed with RME at the highest load. The combustion duration of neat naphtha decreased compared to LFO as the engine load was reduced. The MFB values of 50% and 90% occurred earlier with neat renewable naphtha than with other fuels. It was concluded that with the exception of renewable naphtha, all investigated alternative fuels can be used in the non-road engine without modifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable energy solutions for the Baltic–Nordic region)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on the Suitability of Passive Energy in Public Institutions in China
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2446; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122446 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 669
Abstract
To solve the problem of the low utilization ratio of clean renewable energy in public institutions, the basic information of energy utilization in public institutions was investigated. The suitability of passive energy use in public institutions was studied. According to the basic information [...] Read more.
To solve the problem of the low utilization ratio of clean renewable energy in public institutions, the basic information of energy utilization in public institutions was investigated. The suitability of passive energy use in public institutions was studied. According to the basic information and evaluation index of passive energy utilization in public institutions, the suitability of different types of passive energy (solar and geothermal energy) was studied by combining the resource conditions in different climate zones and the characteristics of energy utilization in typical public institutions, and the suitability distribution map was formed. In terms of research methods, the CRITIC (Criteria Importance Though Intercrieria Correlation) method based on the characteristics of objective data, and the natural breakpoint method based on the structure of objective data, were selected. Based on the climatic zoning of the buildings, this study conducted a suitability zoning. Each climatic region of buildings was divided into three sub-regions, which were the passive energy suitability regions of public institutions in the climatic region of the buildings. Finally, all of the regions with the same suitability were partitioned in order to obtain the final results. The distribution map of suitability for the different types of public institution buildings in the different regions is creatively established, which provides the basis for the selection of passive energy technology application schemes for public institution buildings in different regions, and provides macro guidance for energy planners and scheme designers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Systems: Efficiency and Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle
Deep Learning with Stacked Denoising Auto-Encoder for Short-Term Electric Load Forecasting
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2445; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122445 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1095
Abstract
Accurate short-term electric load forecasting is significant for the smart grid. It can reduce electric power consumption and ensure the balance between power supply and demand. In this paper, the Stacked Denoising Auto-Encoder (SDAE) is adopted for short-term load forecasting using four factors: [...] Read more.
Accurate short-term electric load forecasting is significant for the smart grid. It can reduce electric power consumption and ensure the balance between power supply and demand. In this paper, the Stacked Denoising Auto-Encoder (SDAE) is adopted for short-term load forecasting using four factors: historical loads, somatosensory temperature, relative humidity, and daily average loads. The daily average loads act as the baseline in final forecasting tasks. Firstly, the Denoising Auto-Encoder (DAE) is pre-trained. In the symmetric DAE, there are three layers: the input layer, the hidden layer, and the output layer where the hidden layer is the symmetric axis. The input layer and the hidden layer construct the encoding part while the hidden layer and the output layer construct the decoding part. After that, all DAEs are stacked together for fine-tuning. In addition, in the encoding part of each DAE, the weight values and hidden layer values are combined with the original input layer values to establish an SDAE network for load forecasting. Compared with the traditional Back Propagation (BP) neural network and Auto-Encoder, the prediction error decreases from 3.66% and 6.16% to 2.88%. Therefore, the SDAE-based model performs well compared with traditional methods as a new method for short-term electric load forecasting in Chinese cities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
PSO-Algorithm-Based Optimal Design of LCLC Resonant Converters for Space Travelling-Wave Tube Amplifiers Applications
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2444; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122444 - 25 Jun 2019
Viewed by 681
Abstract
Due to the advantages of zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) and zero-current-switching (ZCS), LCLC resonant converters are universally applied in two-stage electronic power conditioners (EPCs) of space travelling-wave tube amplifiers (TWTAs). In two-stage EPCs, as the output voltage is regulated by the first stage, the main [...] Read more.
Due to the advantages of zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) and zero-current-switching (ZCS), LCLC resonant converters are universally applied in two-stage electronic power conditioners (EPCs) of space travelling-wave tube amplifiers (TWTAs). In two-stage EPCs, as the output voltage is regulated by the first stage, the main functions of LCLC resonant converters are to boost the input voltage, provide galvanic isolation, and maintain high efficiency. However, the total power loss of an LCLC resonant converter is very challenging because of the multiple resonant components and their mutual couplings. In order to solve this problem, in this paper, a PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization)-algorithm-based, efficiency-oriented optimal design method of an LCLC resonant converter is proposed. Based on an analysis of working principles, the total power loss (with consideration of all the power losses, including the driving loss and the conduction loss of the main switches), transformer loss, and power loss of the rectifiers is calculated. After that, the total power loss is appointed as the objective function of the PSO algorithm, where the optimal circuit parameters are derived to minimize the total power loss. After the optimal circuit parameters are obtained, an LCLC resonant converter with the desired parameters is built. Finally, the proposed PSO-algorithm-based, efficiency-oriented optimal design method is validated by an example. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessReview
Electric Vehicle into the Grid: Charging Methodologies Aimed at Providing Ancillary Services Considering Battery Degradation
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2443; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122443 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
The necessity of transport electrification is already undeniable due to, among other facts, global Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and fossil-fuel dependency. In this context, electric vehicles (EVs) play a fundamental role. Such vehicles are usually seen by the network as simple loads whose [...] Read more.
The necessity of transport electrification is already undeniable due to, among other facts, global Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and fossil-fuel dependency. In this context, electric vehicles (EVs) play a fundamental role. Such vehicles are usually seen by the network as simple loads whose needs have to be supplied. However, they can contribute to the correct operation of the network or a microgrid and the provision of ancillary services and delay the need to reinforce the power lines. These concepts are referred to as Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G), Vehicle-to-Building (V2B) and Vehicle-to-Home (V2H). In paper, a deep classification and analysis of published charging strategies is provided. In addition, optimal charging strategies must minimise the degradation of the batteries to increase their lifetime, since it is considered that the life of a battery ends when its capacity is reduced by 20% with respect to its nominal capacity. Therefore, an optimal integration of EVs must consider both grid and batteries impact. Finally, some guidelines are proposed for further research considering the current limitations of electric vehicle technology. Thus, these proposed guidelines are focused on V2G optimal management, enabling new business models while keeping economic viability for all parts involved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electric Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Effect of Hydrogen and Methane on Combustion of Multicomponent Syngas Mixtures using a Constructed Reduced Chemical Kinetics Mechanism
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2442; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122442 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of H2 and CH4 concentrations on the ignition delay time and laminar flame speed during the combustion of CH4/H2 and multicomponent syngas mixtures using a novel constructed reduced syngas chemical kinetics mechanism. The [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of H2 and CH4 concentrations on the ignition delay time and laminar flame speed during the combustion of CH4/H2 and multicomponent syngas mixtures using a novel constructed reduced syngas chemical kinetics mechanism. The results were compared with experiments and GRI Mech 3.0 mechanism. It was found that mixture reactivity decreases and increases when higher concentrations of CH4 and H2 were used, respectively. With higher H2 concentration in the mixture, the formation of OH is faster, leading to higher laminar flame speed and shorter ignition delay time. CH4 and H2 concentrations were calculated at different pressures and equivalence ratios, showing that at high pressures CH4 is consumed slower, and, at different equivalence ratios CH4 reacts at different temperatures. In the presence of H2, CH4 was consumed faster. In the conducted two-stage sensitivity analysis, the first analysis showed that H2/CH4/CO mixture combustion is driven by H2-based reactions related to the consumption/formation of OH and CH4 recombination reactions are responsible for CH4 oxidation. The second analysis showed that similar CH4-based and H2 -based reactions were sensitive in both, methane- and hydrogen-rich H2/CH4 mixtures. The difference was observed for reactions CH2O + OH = HCO + H2O and CH4 + HO2 = CH3 + H2O2, which were found to be important for CH4-rich mixtures, while reactions OH + HO2 = H2O + O2 and HO2 + H = OH + OH were found to be important for H2-rich mixtures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Renewable Energy Sources Penetration in Greece: Characteristics and Seasonal Variation of the Electricity Demand Share Covering
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2441; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122441 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 847
Abstract
The significant penetration of renewables, in the Hellenic electricity system, during the last 12 years, was based on feed-in tariff-supporting schemes, according to the compliance to European Directives. The characteristics of this penetration are presented and analyzed in this paper based on real [...] Read more.
The significant penetration of renewables, in the Hellenic electricity system, during the last 12 years, was based on feed-in tariff-supporting schemes, according to the compliance to European Directives. The characteristics of this penetration are presented and analyzed in this paper based on real data. Photovoltaics, wind parks, hydroelectric plants, biomass-driven plants, and cogeneration systems are examined. The cost of the feed-in tariff incentives is qualified and analyzed. Simple but effective models are proposed to describe renewable seasonal variation: (a) A simple cosine model adequately describes the seasonal performance of various renewable technologies in terms of capacity factor; (b) a smart seasonal model based on the separation between winter and summer consumption activities (both following normal distributions) adequately describes the electricity consumption profile. The predicted values of renewable shares using the proposed models were also validated with historical data. Thus, the applied models can be used to forecast renewable shares under different penetration scenarios. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Lithium Sulfur Battery Ageing on Second-Life Possibilities and Environmental Life Cycle Assessment Studies
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2440; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122440 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1197
Abstract
The development of Li-ion batteries has enabled the re-entry of electric vehicles into the market. As car manufacturers strive to reach higher practical specific energies (550 Wh/kg) than what is achievable for Li-ion batteries, new alternatives for battery chemistry are being considered. Li-Sulfur [...] Read more.
The development of Li-ion batteries has enabled the re-entry of electric vehicles into the market. As car manufacturers strive to reach higher practical specific energies (550 Wh/kg) than what is achievable for Li-ion batteries, new alternatives for battery chemistry are being considered. Li-Sulfur batteries are of interest due to their ability to achieve the desired practical specific energy. The research presented in this paper focuses on the development of the Li-Sulfur technology for use in electric vehicles. The paper presents the methodology and results for endurance tests conducted on in-house manufactured Li-S cells under various accelerated ageing conditions. The Li-S cells were found to reach 80% state of health after 300–500 cycles. The results of these tests were used as the basis for discussing the second life options for Li-S batteries, as well as environmental Life Cycle Assessment results of a 50 kWh Li-S battery. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bottom-Up Electrification Introducing New Smart Grids Architecture—Concept Based on Feasibility Studies Conducted in Rwanda
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2439; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122439 - 25 Jun 2019
Viewed by 795
Abstract
Over the past eight years, off-grid systems, in the form of stand-alone solar home systems (SHSs), have proved the most popular and immediate solution for increasing energy access in rural areas across the Global South. Although deployed in significant numbers, issues remain with [...] Read more.
Over the past eight years, off-grid systems, in the form of stand-alone solar home systems (SHSs), have proved the most popular and immediate solution for increasing energy access in rural areas across the Global South. Although deployed in significant numbers, issues remain with the cost, reliability, utilization, sustainability and scalability of these off-grid systems to provide higher-tiered energy access. Interconnection of existing stand-alone solar home systems (SHSs) can form a microgrid of interconnected prosumers (i.e., households owning SHS capable of producing and consuming power) and consumers (i.e., households without an SHS, and only capable of consuming power). This paper focuses on the role of a smart energy management (SEM) platform in the interconnection of off-grid systems and making bottom-up electrification scalable, and how it can improve the overall sustainability, efficiency and flexibility of off-grid technology. An interconnected SHS microgrid has the potential to unlock latent generation and storage capacity, and so effectively promote connected customers to higher tiers of energy access. This approach can therefore extend the range of products currently used by people located in the remote areas of developing countries to include higher-power devices such as refrigerators, TVs and potentially, electric cookers. This paper shows the results of field studies in the Northern Province of Rwanda within off-grid villages where people mainly rely on SHSs as a source of electricity. These field studies have informed further simulation-based studies that define the principal requirements for the operation of a smart energy management platform for the interconnection of SHSs to form a community microgrid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Energy Management for Smart Grids 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Performance of Simplified Computational Fluid Dynamics Models via Symmetric Successive Overrelaxation
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2438; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122438 - 25 Jun 2019
Viewed by 747
Abstract
The ability to model fluid flow and heat transfer in process equipment (e.g., shell-and-tube heat exchangers) is often critical. What is more, many different geometric variants may need to be evaluated during the design process. Although this can be done using detailed computational [...] Read more.
The ability to model fluid flow and heat transfer in process equipment (e.g., shell-and-tube heat exchangers) is often critical. What is more, many different geometric variants may need to be evaluated during the design process. Although this can be done using detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models, the time needed to evaluate a single variant can easily reach tens of hours on powerful computing hardware. Simplified CFD models providing solutions in much shorter time frames may, therefore, be employed instead. Still, even these models can prove to be too slow or not robust enough when used in optimization algorithms. Effort is thus devoted to further improving their performance by applying the symmetric successive overrelaxation (SSOR) preconditioning technique in which, in contrast to, e.g., incomplete lower–upper factorization (ILU), the respective preconditioning matrix can always be constructed. Because the efficacy of SSOR is influenced by the selection of forward and backward relaxation factors, whose direct calculation is prohibitively expensive, their combinations are experimentally investigated using several representative meshes. Performance is then compared in terms of the single-core computational time needed to reach a converged steady-state solution, and recommendations are made regarding relaxation factor combinations generally suitable for the discussed purpose. It is shown that SSOR can be used as a suitable fallback preconditioner for the fast-performing, but numerically sensitive, incomplete lower–upper factorization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heat Exchangers for Waste Heat Recovery)
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Open AccessReview
The Potential and Status of Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2437; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122437 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1559
Abstract
The Malaysian Government has set an ambitious target to achieve a higher penetration of Renewable Energy (RE) in the Malaysian energy mix. To date, Malaysia has approximately 2% of its energy coming from RE generation sources compared to the total generation mix and [...] Read more.
The Malaysian Government has set an ambitious target to achieve a higher penetration of Renewable Energy (RE) in the Malaysian energy mix. To date, Malaysia has approximately 2% of its energy coming from RE generation sources compared to the total generation mix and targets achieving 20% penetration by 2025. The current energy mix for Malaysia power generation is mainly provided by natural gas and coal. The discussion will cover the traditional sources of generation including natural gas, coal and big hydro stations. In addition, the paper will cover in depth the potential of RE in the country, challenges, and opportunities in this sector. This study can give an initial evaluation of the Malaysian energy industry, especially for RE and can initiate further research and development in this area in order to support the Government target to achieve RE target of 20% by 2025. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Reviews)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of Energy Demand and CO2 Emissions on Different Typologies of Residential Buildings in Europe
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2436; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122436 - 25 Jun 2019
Viewed by 694
Abstract
The building sector accounts for one third of the global energy consumption and it is expected to grow in the next decades. This evidence leads researchers, engineers and architects to develop innovative technologies based on renewable energies and to enhance the thermal performance [...] Read more.
The building sector accounts for one third of the global energy consumption and it is expected to grow in the next decades. This evidence leads researchers, engineers and architects to develop innovative technologies based on renewable energies and to enhance the thermal performance of building envelopes. In this context, the potential applicability and further energy performance analysis of these technologies when implemented into different building typologies and climate conditions are not easily comparable. Although massive information is available in data sources, the lack of standardized methods for data gathering and the non-public availability makes the comparative analyses more difficult. These facts limit the benchmarking of different building energy demand parameters such as space heating, cooling, air conditioning, domestic hot water, lighting and electric appliances. Therefore, the first objective of this study consists in providing a review about the common typologies of residential buildings in Europe from the main data sources. This study contains specific details on their architecture, building envelope, floor space and insulation properties. The second objective consists in performing a cross-country comparison in terms of energy demand for the applications with higher energy requirements in the residential building sector (heating and domestic hot water), as well as their related CO2 emissions. The approach of this comparative analysis is based on the residential building typology developed in TABULA/EPISCOPE projects. This comparative study provides a reference scenario in terms of energy demand and CO2 emissions for residential buildings and allows to evaluate the potential implementation of new supply energy technologies in hot, temperate and cold climate regions. From this study it was also concluded that there is a necessity of a free access database which could gather and classify reliable energy data in buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy and Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulation of Temperature Decrease in Greenhouses with Summer Water-Sprinkling Roof
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2435; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122435 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 695
Abstract
Decreasing the temperature of a greenhouse in summer is very important for the growth of plants. To investigate the effects of a roof sprinkler on the heat environment of a greenhouse, a three-dimensional symmetrical model was built, in which a k-ε [...] Read more.
Decreasing the temperature of a greenhouse in summer is very important for the growth of plants. To investigate the effects of a roof sprinkler on the heat environment of a greenhouse, a three-dimensional symmetrical model was built, in which a k-ε (k-epsilon) turbulent model, a DO (Discrete Ordinates) irrational model, a Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equations (SIMPLE) algorithm, and a multiphase model were used to simulate the effects of the roof sprinkler, at different flow rates. Based on the simulation results, it was found that the temperature could be further reduced under a proper sprinkle rate, and the temperature distribution in the film on the roof was more uniform. A test was conducted to verify the accuracy of the model, which proved the validity of the numerical results. The simulation results of this study will be helpful for controlling and optimizing the heat environment of a greenhouse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficiency in Plants and Buildings 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
A Three-Phase Transformerless T-Type- NPC-MLI for Grid Connected PV Systems with Common-Mode Leakage Current Mitigation
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2434; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122434 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 731
Abstract
DC to AC inverters are the well-known and improved in various kinds photovoltaic (PV) and gird tied systems. However, these inverters are require interfacing transformers to be synchronized with the grid-connected system. Therefore, the system is bulky and not economy. The transformerless inverter [...] Read more.
DC to AC inverters are the well-known and improved in various kinds photovoltaic (PV) and gird tied systems. However, these inverters are require interfacing transformers to be synchronized with the grid-connected system. Therefore, the system is bulky and not economy. The transformerless inverter (TLI) topologies and its grid interface techniques are increasingly engrossed for the benefit of high efficiency, reliability, and low cost. The main concern in the TL inverters is common mode voltage (CMV), which causes the switching-frequency leakage current, grid interface concerns and exaggerates the EMI problems. The single-phase inverter two-level topologies are well developed with additional switches and components for eliminating the CMV. Multilevel inverters (MLIs) based grid connected transformerless inverter topology is being researched to avail additional benefits from MLI, even through that are trust topologies presented in the literature. With the above aim, this paper has proposed three -phase three-level T type NP-MLI (TNP-MLI) topology with transformerless PV grid connected proficiency. The CM leakage current should handle over mitigating CMV through removing unwanted switching events in the inverter pulse width modulation (PWM). This paper is proposes PV connected T type NP-MLI interface with three-phase grid connected system with the help of improved space vector modulation (SVM) technique to mitigate the CM leakage current to overcome the above said requests on the PV tied TL grid connected system. This proposed the SVM technique to mitigate the CM leakage current by selecting only mediums, and zero vectors with suitable current control method in order to maintain the inverter current and grid interface requirements. The proposed PV tied TNP-MLI offering higher efficiency, lower breakdown voltage on the devices, smaller THD of output voltage, good reliability, and long life span. The paper also investigated the CM leakage currents envisage and behavior for the three-phase MLI through the inverter switching function, which is not discussed before. The proposed SVM on TL-TNP-MLI offers the reliable PV grid interface with very low switching-frequency leakage current (200mA) for all the PV and inverter operation conditions. The feasibility and effectiveness of the TLI and its control strategy is confirmed through the MATLAB/Simulink simulation model directly as compared with 2kW roof top PV plant connected TL-TNP-MLI experimentation, showing good accordance with theoretical investigation. The simulation and experimental results are demonstrated and presented in the good stability of steady state and dynamics performances. The proposed inverter reduces the cost of grid interface transformer, harmonics filter, and CMV suppressions choke. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Calibrated Simulation Method for Airborne Particles to Optimize Energy Consumption in Operating Rooms
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2433; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122433 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 553
Abstract
Operating rooms are stringent controlled environments. All influential factors, in particular, airborne particles, must be within the limits established by regulations. Therefore, energy efficiency stays in the background, prioritizing safety and comfort in surgical areas. However, the potential of improvement in energy savings [...] Read more.
Operating rooms are stringent controlled environments. All influential factors, in particular, airborne particles, must be within the limits established by regulations. Therefore, energy efficiency stays in the background, prioritizing safety and comfort in surgical areas. However, the potential of improvement in energy savings without compromising this safety is broad. This work presents a new procedure, based on calibrated simulations, that allows the identification of potential energy savings in an operating room, complying with current airborne particle standards. Dynamic energy and airborne particle models are developed and then simulated in TRNSYS and calibrated with GenOpt. The methodology is validated through experimental contrast with a real operating room of a hospital in Spain. A calibrated model with around 2% of error is achieved. The procedure determines the variation in particle concentration according to the flow rate of ventilation supplied and the occupancy of the operating room. In conclusion, energy savings up to 51% are possible, reducing ventilation by 50% while complying with airborne particles standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy and Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Carbon Capture for CO2 Emission Reduction in the Cement Industry in Germany
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2432; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122432 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1216
Abstract
The share of global CO2 emissions deriving from the cement industry is about 5%. More than 50% of these are process-related and cannot be avoided. This paper addresses the application of CO2 capture technology to the cement industry. Analyses focusing on [...] Read more.
The share of global CO2 emissions deriving from the cement industry is about 5%. More than 50% of these are process-related and cannot be avoided. This paper addresses the application of CO2 capture technology to the cement industry. Analyses focusing on post-combustion technology for cement plants are carried out on the basis of detailed model calculations. Different heat supply variants for the regeneration of loaded wash solution were investigated. CO2 avoidance costs are in a range of 77 to 115 EUR/tCO2. The achievable CO2 avoidance rate for the investigated cases was determined to be 70% to 90%. CO2 reduction potentials were identified using CCS technology, focusing on the German cement industry as a case study. The results show that adopting carbon capture technology could lead to a significant reduction in CO2 emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy and Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
Challenges of the Optimization of a High-Speed Induction Machine for Naval Applications
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2431; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122431 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 595
Abstract
In several industrial sectors, induction machines are being replaced with permanent magnet based alternatives, owing to the potential for higher power density and efficiency. However, high-speed applications feature a wide flux-weakening region, where advanced induction machines could bring benefits in terms of system-level [...] Read more.
In several industrial sectors, induction machines are being replaced with permanent magnet based alternatives, owing to the potential for higher power density and efficiency. However, high-speed applications feature a wide flux-weakening region, where advanced induction machines could bring benefits in terms of system-level optimization. This paper gives an overview the technological challenges for high-speed drives with induction machines, materials, simulations and future challenges for the power electronics in these applications. The target application is a high-speed induction machine for a naval turbocharging system. The comparison with permanent magnet synchronous machines will demonstrate how the extended flux weakening operation effectively allows for a weight reduction of the overall system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electric Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermoelectric Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide/Bi2Te3 Nanocomposites
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2430; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122430 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 738
Abstract
Reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/Bi2Te3 nanocomposite powders with different contents of rGO have been synthesized by a one-step in-situ reductive method. Then, rGO/Bi2Te3 nanocomposite bulk materials were fabricated by a hot-pressing process. The effect of rGO contents on [...] Read more.
Reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/Bi2Te3 nanocomposite powders with different contents of rGO have been synthesized by a one-step in-situ reductive method. Then, rGO/Bi2Te3 nanocomposite bulk materials were fabricated by a hot-pressing process. The effect of rGO contents on the composition, microstructure, TE properties, and carrier transportation of the nanocomposite bulk materials has been investigated. All the composite bulk materials show negative Seebeck coefficient, indicating n-type conduction. The electrical conductivity for all the rGO/Bi2Te3 nanocomposite bulk materials decreased with increasing measurement temperature from 25 °C to 300 °C, while the absolute value of Seebeck coefficient first increased and then decreased. As a result, the power factor of the bulk materials first increased and then decreased, and a power factor of 1340 μWm−1K−2 was achieved for the nanocomposite bulk materials with 0.25 wt% rGO at 150 °C. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ancillary Services Provided by Hybrid Residential Renewable Energy Systems through Thermal and Electrochemical Storage Systems
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2429; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122429 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 900
Abstract
Energy Management System (EMS) optimal strategies have shown great potential to match the fluctuating energy production from renewables with an electric demand profile, which opens the way to a deeper penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) into the electric system. At a single [...] Read more.
Energy Management System (EMS) optimal strategies have shown great potential to match the fluctuating energy production from renewables with an electric demand profile, which opens the way to a deeper penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) into the electric system. At a single building level, however, handling of different energy sources to fulfill both thermal and electric requirements is still a challenging task. The present work describes the potential of an EMS based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategies to both maximize the RES exploitation and serve as an ancillary service for the grid when a Heat Pump (HP) coupled with a Thermal Energy Storage (TES) is used in a residential Hybrid Renewable Energy System (HRES). Cost savings up to 30% as well as a reduction of the purchased energy unbalance with the grid (about 15%–20% depending on the season) have been achieved. Moreover, the thermal energy storage leads to a more efficient and reliable use of the Heat Pump by generally decreasing the load factor smoothing the power output. The proposed control strategy allows to have a more stable room temperature, with evident benefits also in terms of thermal comfort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heat and Mass Transfer in Energy Systems) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Modified Electromechanical Modeling and Parameters Analysis of Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2428; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122428 - 24 Jun 2019
Viewed by 617
Abstract
To predict the thrust of magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters (MPDTs), a modified electromechanical model was proposed and a comparison with experimental results is presented in this paper. The motion of propellant in the thruster was divided into two portions: the axial motion which was accelerated [...] Read more.
To predict the thrust of magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters (MPDTs), a modified electromechanical model was proposed and a comparison with experimental results is presented in this paper. The motion of propellant in the thruster was divided into two portions: the axial motion which was accelerated by the interaction of current and induced self-field, and the swirling motion which was accelerated by the interaction of current and applied magnetic field. The electromechanical model was in good agreement with the experimental data, and the fitting degrees of the model were greater than 0.93. Furthermore, the influence of parameters on the performance of MPDT were investigated by utilizing the electromechanical model. The results indicate that the thrust performance of the thruster improved with the increase of discharge current, anode radius, applied magnetic field strength, and the decrease of mass flow rate. However, the large anode radius and low mass flow rate readily led to the failure of thruster function. Therefore, the model can not only predict the thrust performance of MPDTs, but also guide the design and operation optimization of the thruster. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electric Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle
Design of State Feedback Current Controller for Fast Synchronization of DFIG in Wind Power Generation Systems
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2427; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122427 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 711
Abstract
Doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) are widely used in wind energy conversion systems. The dynamic features of DFIGs make it important to focus on designing high-performance control schemes. However, the dynamic characteristics of such generators depend on nonlinear parameters, such as stator flux, stator [...] Read more.
Doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) are widely used in wind energy conversion systems. The dynamic features of DFIGs make it important to focus on designing high-performance control schemes. However, the dynamic characteristics of such generators depend on nonlinear parameters, such as stator flux, stator current, and rotor current, which increase the overall system complexity. In addition, the DFIG Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECSs) size is growing beyond 7 MW, which increases stress on both the mechanical drive train and the power circuits during connection to the grid. Such stress and dynamic features cannot be neglected. Therefore, robust controllers must be implemented which have the ability to support the dynamic frequencies of wind energy to ensure system stability in grid connection mode and during subsequent use. Conventional vector control configurations that use proportional-integral controllers have various drawbacks, such as parameter tuning difficulties, mediocre dynamic performance, and reduced robustness. In this study, we focused on improving DFIG synchronization to the grid by applying state feedback current controllers with a feedforward component to smooth the connection to the grid, as well as to improve the steady-state and transient characteristics of the controller. State feedback controllers are proposed to replace the proportional-integral controllers on both the rotor and grid sides. The proposed controller is designed using a multivariable system and feedforward control for input reference and incorporating disturbances into the control equations for fast synchronization and transient responses. To demonstrate the advantages of this controller, experimental studies are presented for both the transient and steady states. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessArticle
Decoupled Current Controller Based on Reduced Order Generalized Integrator for Three-Phase Grid-Connected VSCs in Distributed System
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2426; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122426 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 596
Abstract
Grid-connected voltage source converters (GC-VSCs) are used for interfacing the distributed power generation system (DPGS) to the utility grid. Performance of the current loop is a critical issue for these GC-VSCs. Recently, reduced order generalized integrator (ROGI)-based current controller is proposed, such that [...] Read more.
Grid-connected voltage source converters (GC-VSCs) are used for interfacing the distributed power generation system (DPGS) to the utility grid. Performance of the current loop is a critical issue for these GC-VSCs. Recently, reduced order generalized integrator (ROGI)-based current controller is proposed, such that AC reference signal of positive or negative sequences can be separately tracked without steady-state error, which has the advantage of less computational burden. However, the cross-coupling within the ROGI-based current controller would deteriorate the transient response of the current loop. In this paper, a ROGI-based decoupled current controller is proposed to eliminate the coupling between α -axis and β -axis. Thus, the faster dynamic response performance can be achieved while maintaining the merits of ROGI-based current controller. An optimal gain parameter design method for the proposed current controller is presented to improve the stability and dynamic response speed of current loop. Simulation and experiments were performed in MATLAB/Simulink and TMS320C28346 DSP-based laboratory prototype respectively, which validated the proposed theoretical approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Control of Power Converters 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
A Unified and Efficient Approach to Power Flow Analysis
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2425; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122425 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 647
Abstract
Highly nonlinear and nonconvex power flow analysis plays a key role in the monitoring, control, and operation of power systems. There is no analytic solution to power flow problems, and therefore, finding a numerical solution is oftentimes an aim of modern computation in [...] Read more.
Highly nonlinear and nonconvex power flow analysis plays a key role in the monitoring, control, and operation of power systems. There is no analytic solution to power flow problems, and therefore, finding a numerical solution is oftentimes an aim of modern computation in power system analysis. An iterative Newton-Raphson method is widely in use. While most times this method finds a solution in a reasonable time, it often involves numerical robustness issues, such as a limited convergence region and an ill-conditioned system. Sometimes, the truncation error may not be small enough to ignore, which can make the iterative process significantly expansive. We propose a new unified framework, based on the Kronecker product, that does not involve any truncation, and which is bilinear to make it possible to incorporate statistical analysis. The proposed method is tested for power flow, state estimation, probabilistic power flow, and optimal power flow studies on various IEEE model systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessArticle
A Case Study on the Electricity Generation Using a Micro Gas Turbine Fuelled by Biogas from a Sewage Treatment Plant
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2424; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122424 - 24 Jun 2019
Viewed by 673
Abstract
Combined heat and power production from biogas is now playing an important role in energy and resource utilization as well as pollution control in waste water treatment. This research used biogas from the Bali Sewage Treatment Plant in New Taipei City, Taiwan, as [...] Read more.
Combined heat and power production from biogas is now playing an important role in energy and resource utilization as well as pollution control in waste water treatment. This research used biogas from the Bali Sewage Treatment Plant in New Taipei City, Taiwan, as a major source of fuel for the electricity generation. A micro gas turbine electricity generator, Capstone CR-30, which possesses a maximum rated power load (PWL) of 30 kW, was equipped to convert biogas into electricity. The biogas is mainly composed of CH4 (56.1 ± 8.0 vol.%), CO2 (25.5 ± 9.8 vol.%), H2 (0.5 vol.%), and H2S (0.99 ± 0.07 ppmv). During the test operation period of the generator, it was found that the thermal efficiency increases from 19.8% to 23.4% kWhe/kWhth, while the electricity generation efficiency (ηEB) also rises from 0.93 to 1.09 kWhe/m3 biogas as the PWL increases from 10 kW to 30 kW. The results indicated that the generator has a better performance with higher PWL. At PWL = 30 kW, the average adjusted concentrations of CO and NOx (adjusted to 15 vol.% O2) emitted from the generator are 86 ppmv and 17 ppmv, respectively. Both are much lower than the emission standards of stationary sources in Taiwan of 2000 ppmv and 150 ppmv, respectively. Thus, PWL of 30 kW was selected in cooperation with biogas inflow = 0.412 m3/min and air/fuel ratio (i.e., air/biogas ratio) = 76.0 vol./vol. for the long-term regular operation. At the above setting conditions for long-term operation, the generator continuously consumed the biogas and provided stable electricity generation at a rate of 19.64 kWhe/h for a 2-year running period. Moreover, the greenhouse gas can be cut off with a rate of 10.78 kg CO2e/h when using biogas as fuel for electricity generation. Overall, this research proves that the application of a micro gas turbine electricity generator not only has promising performance for using biogas but also gives a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emission, which fits the concepts of the circular economy and environmental protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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