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Energies, Volume 10, Issue 10 (October 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Medium-sized commercial buildings account for approximately 50% of Australia’s commercial office [...] Read more.
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Hu, Z.; et al. Transport and Deposition of Carbon Nanoparticles in Saturated Porous Media. Energies 2017, 10, 1151
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1681; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101681
Received: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
The author wishes to correct Figure 1b in this paper [1][...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology for Oil and Gas Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Simulation of Hydraulic Fracture Propagation Guided by Single Radial Boreholes
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1680; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101680
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (7121 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Conventional hydraulic fracturing is not effective in target oil development zones with available wellbores located in the azimuth of the non-maximum horizontal in-situ stress. To some extent, we think that the radial hydraulic jet drilling has the function of guiding hydraulic fracture propagation
[...] Read more.
Conventional hydraulic fracturing is not effective in target oil development zones with available wellbores located in the azimuth of the non-maximum horizontal in-situ stress. To some extent, we think that the radial hydraulic jet drilling has the function of guiding hydraulic fracture propagation direction and promoting deep penetration, but this notion currently lacks an effective theoretical support for fracture propagation. In order to verify the technology, a 3D extended finite element numerical model of hydraulic fracturing promoted by the single radial borehole was established, and the influences of nine factors on propagation of hydraulic fracture guided by the single radial borehole were comprehensively analyzed. Moreover, the term ‘Guidance factor (Gf)’ was introduced for the first time to effectively quantify the radial borehole guidance. The guidance of nine factors was evaluated through gray correlation analysis. The experimental results were consistent with the numerical simulation results to a certain extent. The study provides theoretical evidence for the artificial control technology of directional propagation of hydraulic fracture promoted by the single radial borehole, and it predicts the guidance effect of a single radial borehole on hydraulic fracture to a certain extent, which is helpful for planning well-completion and fracturing operation parameters in radial borehole-promoted hydraulic fracturing technology. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Flat Optical Fiber Daylighting System with Lateral Displacement Sun-Tracking Mechanism for Indoor Lighting
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1679; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101679
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 14 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
An essential impact which can improve the indoor environment and save on power consumption for artificial lighting is utilization of daylight. Optical fiber daylighting technology offers a way to use direct daylight for remote spaces in a building. However, the existing paradigm based
[...] Read more.
An essential impact which can improve the indoor environment and save on power consumption for artificial lighting is utilization of daylight. Optical fiber daylighting technology offers a way to use direct daylight for remote spaces in a building. However, the existing paradigm based on the precise orientation of sunlight concentrator toward the Sun is very costly and difficult to install on the roof of buildings. Here, we explore an alternative approach using mirror-coated lens array and planar waveguide to develop a flat optical fiber daylighting system (optical fiber daylighting panel) with lateral displacement Sun-tracking mechanism. Sunlight collected and reflected by each mirror-coated lens in a rectangular lens array is coupled into a planar waveguide using cone prisms placed at each lens focus. This geometry yields a thin, flat profile for Sunlight concentrator. Our proposed concentrating panel can be achieved with 35 mm thickness while the concentrator’s width and length are 500 mm × 500 mm. The commercial optical simulation tool (LightToolsTM) was used to develop the simulation models and analyze the system performance. Simulation results based on the designed system demonstrated an optical efficiency of 51.4% at a concentration ratio of 125. The system can support utilizing a lateral displacement Sun-tracking system, which allows for replacing bulky and robust conventional rotational Sun-tracking systems. This study shows a feasibility of a compact and inexpensive optical fiber daylighting system to be installed on the roof of buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Application in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization and Prediction of the Gas Hydrate Reservoir at the Second Offshore Gas Production Test Site in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1678; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101678
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Following the world’s first offshore production test that was conducted from a gas hydrate reservoir by a depressurization technique in 2013, the second offshore production test has been planned in the eastern Nankai Trough. In 2016, the drilling survey was performed ahead of
[...] Read more.
Following the world’s first offshore production test that was conducted from a gas hydrate reservoir by a depressurization technique in 2013, the second offshore production test has been planned in the eastern Nankai Trough. In 2016, the drilling survey was performed ahead of the production test, and logging data that covers the reservoir interval were newly obtained from three wells around the test site: one well for geological survey, and two wells for monitoring surveys, during the production test. The formation evaluation using the well log data suggested that our target reservoir has a more significant heterogeneity in the gas hydrate saturation distribution than we expected, although lateral continuity of sand layers is relatively good. To evaluate the spatial distribution of gas hydrate, the integration analysis using well and seismic data was performed. The seismic amplitude analysis supports the lateral reservoir heterogeneity that has a significant positive correlation with the resistivity log data at the well locations. The spatial distribution of the apparent low-resistivity interval within the reservoir observed from log data was investigated by the P-velocity volume derived from seismic inversion. The integrated results were utilized for the pre-drill prediction of the reservoir quality at the producing wells. These approaches will reduce the risk of future commercial production from the gas hydrate reservoir. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methane Hydrate Research and Development)
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Open AccessArticle Design of Parallel Air-Cooled Battery Thermal Management System through Numerical Study
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1677; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101677
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
In electric vehicles, the battery pack is one of the most important components that strongly influence the system performance. The battery thermal management system (BTMS) is critical to remove the heat generated by the battery pack, which guarantees the appropriate working temperature for
[...] Read more.
In electric vehicles, the battery pack is one of the most important components that strongly influence the system performance. The battery thermal management system (BTMS) is critical to remove the heat generated by the battery pack, which guarantees the appropriate working temperature for the battery pack. Air cooling is one of the most commonly-used solutions among various battery thermal management technologies. In this paper, the cooling performance of the parallel air-cooled BTMS is improved through choosing appropriate system parameters. The flow field and the temperature field of the system are calculated using the computational fluid dynamics method. Typical numerical cases are introduced to study the influences of the operation parameters and the structure parameters on the performance of the BTMS. The operation parameters include the discharge rate of the battery pack, the inlet air temperature and the inlet airflow rate. The structure parameters include the cell spacing and the angles of the divergence plenum and the convergence plenum. The results show that the temperature rise and the temperature difference of the batter pack are not affected by the inlet air flow temperature and are increased as the discharge rate increases. Increasing the inlet airflow rate can reduce the maximum temperature, but meanwhile significantly increase the power consumption for driving the airflow. Adopting smaller cell spacing can reduce the temperature and the temperature difference of the battery pack, but it consumes much more power. Designing the angles of the divergence plenum and the convergence plenum is an effective way to improve the performance of the BTMS without occupying more system volume. An optimization strategy is used to obtain the optimal values of the plenum angles. For the numerical cases with fixed power consumption, the maximum temperature and the maximum temperature difference at the end of the five-current discharge process for the optimized BTMS are respectively reduced by 2.1 K and 4.3 K, compared to the original system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Energy Storage and Thermal Management (TESM2017))
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Open AccessArticle Solar-Enhanced Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers for Geothermal Power Plants
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1676; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101676
Received: 6 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
This paper focuses on the optimization of a Solar-Enhanced Natural-Draft Dry-Cooling Tower (SENDDCT), originally designed by the Queensland Geothermal Energy Centre of Excellence (QGECE), as the air-cooled condenser of a geothermal power plant. The conventional method of heat transfer augmentation through fin-assisted area
[...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the optimization of a Solar-Enhanced Natural-Draft Dry-Cooling Tower (SENDDCT), originally designed by the Queensland Geothermal Energy Centre of Excellence (QGECE), as the air-cooled condenser of a geothermal power plant. The conventional method of heat transfer augmentation through fin-assisted area extension is compared with a metal foam-wrapped tube bundle. Both lead to heat-transfer enhancement, albeit at the expense of a higher pressure drop when compared to the bare tube bundle as our reference case. An optimal design is obtained through the use of a simplified analytical model and existing correlations by maximizing the heat transfer rate with a minimum pressure drop goal as the constraint. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of sunroof diameter, as well as tube bundle layouts and tube spacing, on the overall performance of the system. Aiming to minimize the flow and thermal resistances for a SENDDCT, an optimum design is presented for an existing tower to be equipped with solar panels to afterheat the air leaving the heat exchanger bundles, which are arranged vertically around the tower skirt. Finally, correlations are proposed to predict the total pressure drop and heat transfer of the extended surfaces considered here. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Topology of Hybrid HVDC Circuit Breaker for VSC-HVDC Application
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1675; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101675
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
The use of high voltage direct current (HVDC) circuit breakers (CBs) with the capabilities of bidirectional fault interruption, reclosing, and rebreaking can improve the reliable and safe operation of HVDC grids. Although several topologies of CBs have been proposed to perform these capabilities,
[...] Read more.
The use of high voltage direct current (HVDC) circuit breakers (CBs) with the capabilities of bidirectional fault interruption, reclosing, and rebreaking can improve the reliable and safe operation of HVDC grids. Although several topologies of CBs have been proposed to perform these capabilities, the limitation of these topologies is either high on-state losses or long time interruption in the case bidirectional fault current interruption. Long time interruption results in the large magnitude of the fault current in the voltage source converter based HVDC (VSC-HVDC) system due to the high rate of rise of fault current. This paper proposes a new topology of hybrid CB (HCB) with lower conduction loss and lower interruption time to solve the problems. The proposed topology is based on the inverse current injection method, which uses the capacitor to enforce the fault current to zero. In the case of the bidirectional fault current interruption, the capacitor does not change its polarity after identifying the direction of fault current, which can reduce the interruption time accordingly. A switching control algorithm for the proposed topology is presented in detail. Different operation modes of proposed HCB, such as normal current mode, breaking fault current mode, discharging, and reversing capacitor voltage modes after clearing the fault, are considered in the proposed algorithm. The proposed topology with the switching control algorithm is tested in a simulation-based system. Different simulation scenarios such as temporary and permanent faults are carried out to verify the performance of the proposed topology. The simulation is performed in the Matlab/Simulink environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Comparative Study of CFD Models of a Real Wind Turbine in Solar Chimney Power Plants
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1674; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101674
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
A solar chimney power plant consists of four main parts, a solar collector, a chimney, an energy storage layer, and a wind turbine. So far, several investigations on the performance of the solar chimney power plant have been conducted. Among them, different approaches
[...] Read more.
A solar chimney power plant consists of four main parts, a solar collector, a chimney, an energy storage layer, and a wind turbine. So far, several investigations on the performance of the solar chimney power plant have been conducted. Among them, different approaches have been applied to model the turbine inside the system. In particular, a real wind turbine coupled to the system was simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in three investigations. Gholamalizadeh et al. simulated a wind turbine with the same blade profile as the Manzanares SCPP’s turbine (FX W-151-A blade profile), while a CLARK Y blade profile was modelled by Guo et al. and Ming et al. In this study, simulations of the Manzanares prototype were carried out using the CFD model developed by Gholamalizadeh et al. Then, results obtained by modelling different turbine blade profiles at different turbine rotational speeds were compared. The results showed that a turbine with the CLARK Y blade profile significantly overestimates the value of the pressure drop across the Manzanares prototype turbine as compared to the FX W-151-A blade profile. In addition, modelling of both blade profiles led to very similar trends in changes in turbine efficiency and power output with respect to rotational speed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Performance Assessment of Black Box Capacity Forecasting for Multi-Market Trade Application
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1673; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101673
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
With the growth of renewable generated electricity in the energy mix, large energy storage and flexible demand, particularly aggregated demand response is becoming a front runner as a new participant in the wholesale energy markets. One of the biggest barriers for the integration
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With the growth of renewable generated electricity in the energy mix, large energy storage and flexible demand, particularly aggregated demand response is becoming a front runner as a new participant in the wholesale energy markets. One of the biggest barriers for the integration of aggregator services into market participation is knowledge of the current and future flexible capacity. To calculate the available flexibility, the current aggregator pilot and simulation implementations use lower level measurements and device specifications. This type of implementation is not scalable due to computational constraints, as well as it could conflict with end user privacy rights. Black box machine learning approaches have been proven to accurately estimate the available capacity of a cluster of heating devices using only aggregated data. This study will investigate the accuracy of this approach when applied to a heterogeneous virtual power plant (VPP). Firstly, a sensitivity analysis of the machine learning model is performed when varying the underlying device makeup of the VPP. Further, the forecasted flexible capacity of a heterogeneous residential VPP was applied to a trade strategy, which maintains a day ahead schedule, as well as offers flexibility to the imbalance market. This performance is then compared when using the same strategy with no capacity forecasting, as well as perfect knowledge. It was shown that at most, the highest average error, regardless of the VPP makeup, was still less than 9%. Further, when applying the forecasted capacity to a trading strategy, 89% of the optimal performance can be met. This resulted in a reduction of monthly costs by approximately 20%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from International Workshop of Energy-Open)
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Open AccessReview Building Applications, Opportunities and Challenges of Active Shading Systems: A State-of-the-Art Review
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1672; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101672
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 2 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 August 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Active shading systems in buildings have emerged as a high performing shading solution that selectively and optimally controls daylight and heat gains. Active shading systems are increasingly used in buildings, due to their ability to mainly improve the building environment, reduce energy consumption
[...] Read more.
Active shading systems in buildings have emerged as a high performing shading solution that selectively and optimally controls daylight and heat gains. Active shading systems are increasingly used in buildings, due to their ability to mainly improve the building environment, reduce energy consumption and in some cases generate energy. They may be categorized into three classes: smart glazing, kinetic shading and integrated renewable energy shading. This paper reviews the current status of the different types in terms of design principle and working mechanism of the systems, performance, control strategies and building applications. Challenges, limitations and future opportunities of the systems are then discussed. The review highlights that despite its high initial cost, the electrochromic (EC) glazing is the most applied smart glazing due to the extensive use of glass in buildings under all climatic conditions. In terms of external shadings, the rotating shading type is the predominantly used one in buildings due to its low initial cost. Algae façades and folding shading systems are still emerging types, with high initial and maintenance costs and requiring specialist installers. The algae façade systems and PV integrated shading systems are a promising solution due to their dual benefits of providing shading and generating electricity. Active shading systems were found to save 12 to 50% of the building cooling electricity consumption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Optimized Prediction Intervals Approach for Short Term PV Power Forecasting
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1669; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101669
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
High quality photovoltaic (PV) power prediction intervals (PIs) are essential to power system operation and planning. To improve the reliability and sharpness of PIs, in this paper, a new method is proposed, which involves the model uncertainties and noise uncertainties, and PIs are
[...] Read more.
High quality photovoltaic (PV) power prediction intervals (PIs) are essential to power system operation and planning. To improve the reliability and sharpness of PIs, in this paper, a new method is proposed, which involves the model uncertainties and noise uncertainties, and PIs are constructed with a two-step formulation. In the first step, the variance of model uncertainties is obtained by using extreme learning machine to make deterministic forecasts of PV power. In the second stage, innovative PI-based cost function is developed to optimize the parameters of ELM and noise uncertainties are quantization in terms of variance. The performance of the proposed approach is examined by using the PV power and meteorological data measured from 1kW rooftop DC micro-grid system. The validity of the proposed method is verified by comparing the experimental analysis with other benchmarking methods, and the results exhibit a superior performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Storage and Application)
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Open AccessArticle Laser Radiation Induces Growth and Lipid Accumulation in the Seawater Microalga Chlorella pacifica
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1671; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101671
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
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Abstract
The impacts of laser radiation (Nd: YAG laser, 1064 nm at 800 mW, He–Ne laser 808 nm at 6 W, semiconductor laser 632.8 nm at 40 mW) on growth and lipid accumulation of Chlorella pacifica were investigated in this study. The results showed
[...] Read more.
The impacts of laser radiation (Nd: YAG laser, 1064 nm at 800 mW, He–Ne laser 808 nm at 6 W, semiconductor laser 632.8 nm at 40 mW) on growth and lipid accumulation of Chlorella pacifica were investigated in this study. The results showed growth rates increased 1.23, 1.41, and 1.40-fold over controls by 4 min Nd: YAG, 4 min He–Ne, and 8 min semiconductor laser treatments, respectively, whereas the corresponding nitrate reductase observed increased 1.25, 1.63, and 2.08-fold over controls. Moreover, total chlorophyll concentration was increased to 1.09, 1.29, and 1.33-fold over controls, respectively. After 20 days cultivation, the highest lipid content was 35.99%, 18.46%, and 31.00% after 2 min Nd: YAG, 4 min He–Ne, and 4 min semiconductor laser treatments, corresponding to 2.86, 1.50, and 2.46-fold increase over controls, respectively. Furthermore, the lipid productivity of the above 3 treatments were 15.25 ± 2.56, 16.25 ± 2.45, and 14.75 ± 2.11 mg L−1 d−1. However, the highest lipid productivity was 22.00 ± 3.28, 16.25 ± 2.45, and 19.25 ± 1.78 mg L−1 d−1, in response to treatment for 2 min Nd: YAG, 1 min He–Ne, and 4 min semiconductor laser treatments, with 2.67, 1.97, and 2.33-fold increase over controls, respectively. These results indicated that lipid accumulation efficiency of C. pacifica could be significantly improved by laser irradiation using Nd: YAG, He–Ne, and semiconductor laser treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sources)
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Open AccessArticle An Improved Coordinated Control Strategy for PV System Integration with VSC-MVDC Technology
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1670; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101670
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6263 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rapid development of renewable energy calls for feasible and reliable technologies to transmit and integrate power into grids. Voltage Source Converter (VSC)- Direct Current (DC) technology is considered as a promising solution for its independent control of active and reactive power. Modeling
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The rapid development of renewable energy calls for feasible and reliable technologies to transmit and integrate power into grids. Voltage Source Converter (VSC)- Direct Current (DC) technology is considered as a promising solution for its independent control of active and reactive power. Modeling and coordinated control of a large-scale concentrating photovoltaic integration system with VSC-MVDC (Voltage Source Converter-Medium Voltage Direct Current) technology have been investigated in this paper. The average controlled-source model of PhotoVoltaic (PV) integration system is firstly established. Then, a novel control strategy without fast communication is proposed to improve the reliability of the coordinated control system. An extra voltage loop is added to the basic control block, which is able to assure stable operation of the PV system in various conditions. Finally, the proposed control strategy is verified with simulation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessArticle Learning-Based Adaptive Imputation Methodwith kNN Algorithm for Missing Power Data
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1668; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101668
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (888 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a learning-based adaptive imputation method (LAI) for imputing missing power data in an energy system. This method estimates the missing power data by using the pattern that appears in the collected data. Here, in order to capture the patterns from
[...] Read more.
This paper proposes a learning-based adaptive imputation method (LAI) for imputing missing power data in an energy system. This method estimates the missing power data by using the pattern that appears in the collected data. Here, in order to capture the patterns from past power data, we newly model a feature vector by using past data and its variations. The proposed LAI then learns the optimal length of the feature vector and the optimal historical length, which are significant hyper parameters of the proposed method, by utilizing intentional missing data. Based on a weighted distance between feature vectors representing a missing situation and past situation, missing power data are estimated by referring to the k most similar past situations in the optimal historical length. We further extend the proposed LAI to alleviate the effect of unexpected variation in power data and refer to this new approach as the extended LAI method (eLAI). The eLAI selects a method between linear interpolation (LI) and the proposed LAI to improve accuracy under unexpected variations. Finally, from a simulation under various energy consumption profiles, we verify that the proposed eLAI achieves about a 74% reduction of the average imputation error in an energy system, compared to the existing imputation methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Deep Geothermal Electric Submersible Pumping Systems
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1659; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101659
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
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Abstract
Deep geothermal energy systems employ electric submersible pumps (ESPs) in order to lift geothermal fluid from the production well to the surface. However, rough downhole conditions and high flow rates impose heavy strain on the components, leading to frequent failures of the pump
[...] Read more.
Deep geothermal energy systems employ electric submersible pumps (ESPs) in order to lift geothermal fluid from the production well to the surface. However, rough downhole conditions and high flow rates impose heavy strain on the components, leading to frequent failures of the pump system. As downhole sensor data is limited and often unrealible, a detailed and dynamical model system will serve as basis for deeper understanding and analysis of the overall system behavior. Furthermore, it allows to design model-based condition monitoring and fault detection systems, and to improve controls leading to a more robust and efficient operation. In this paper, a detailed state-space model of the complete ESP system is derived, covering the electrical, mechanical and hydraulic subsystems. Based on the derived model, the start-up phase of an exemplary yet realistic ESP system in the Megawatt range—located at a setting depth of 950 m and producing geothermal fluid of 140 C temperature at a rate of 0.145 m 3 s 1 —is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results show that the system reaches a stable operating point with realistic values. Furthermore, the effect of self-excitation between the filter capacitor and the motor inductor can clearly be observed. A full set of parameters is provided, allowing for direct model implementation and reproduction of the presented results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Enthalpy Geothermal Energy)
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Open AccessArticle A Mobile Battery Swapping Service for Electric Vehicles Based on a Battery Swapping Van
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1667; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101667
Received: 20 August 2017 / Revised: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2724 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a novel approach for providing a mobile battery swapping service for electric vehicles (EVs) that is provided by a mobile battery swapping van. This battery swapping van can carry many fully charged batteries and drive up to an EV to
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel approach for providing a mobile battery swapping service for electric vehicles (EVs) that is provided by a mobile battery swapping van. This battery swapping van can carry many fully charged batteries and drive up to an EV to swap a battery within a few minutes. First, a reasonable EV battery swapping architecture based on a battery swapping van is established in this paper. The function and role of each participant and the relationships between each participant are determined, especially their changes compared with the battery charging service. Second, the battery swapping service is described, including the service request priority and service request queuing model. To provide the battery swapping service efficiently and effectively, the battery swapping service request scheduling is analyzed well, and a minimum waiting time based on priority and satisfaction scheduling strategy (MWT-PS) is proposed. Finally, the battery swapping service is simulated, and the performance of MWT-PS is evaluated in simulation scenarios. The simulation results show that this novel approach can be used as a reference for a future system that provides reasonable and satisfying battery swapping service for EVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Energy Storage Applications in Smart Grid)
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceArticle Energy Production by Means of Pumps As Turbines in Water Distribution Networks
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1666; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101666
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (9604 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper deals with the estimation of the energy production by means of pumps used as turbines to exploit residual hydraulic energy, as in the case of available head and flow rate in water distribution networks. To this aim, four pumps with different
[...] Read more.
This paper deals with the estimation of the energy production by means of pumps used as turbines to exploit residual hydraulic energy, as in the case of available head and flow rate in water distribution networks. To this aim, four pumps with different characteristics are investigated to estimate the producible yearly electric energy. The performance curves of Pumps As Turbines (PATs), which relate head, power, and efficiency to the volume flow rate over the entire PAT operation range, were derived by using published experimental data. The four considered water distribution networks, for which experimental data taken during one year were available, are characterized by significantly different hydraulic features (average flow rate in the range 10–116 L/s; average pressure reduction in the range 12–53 m). Therefore, energy production accounts for actual flow rate and head variability over the year. The conversion efficiency is also estimated, for both the whole water distribution network and the PAT alone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Maximum Power Transfer Tracking Method for WPT Systems with Coupling Coefficient Identification Considering Two-Value Problem
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1665; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101665
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 4 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
Maximum power transfer tracking (MPTT) is meant to track the maximum power point during the system operation of wireless power transfer (WPT) systems. Traditionally, MPTT is achieved by impedance matching at the secondary side when the load resistance is varied. However, due to
[...] Read more.
Maximum power transfer tracking (MPTT) is meant to track the maximum power point during the system operation of wireless power transfer (WPT) systems. Traditionally, MPTT is achieved by impedance matching at the secondary side when the load resistance is varied. However, due to a loosely coupling characteristic, the variation of coupling coefficient will certainly affect the performance of impedance matching, therefore MPTT will fail accordingly. This paper presents an identification method of coupling coefficient for MPTT in WPT systems. Especially, the two-value issue during the identification is considered. The identification approach is easy to implement because it does not require additional circuit. Furthermore, MPTT is easy to realize because only two easily measured DC parameters are needed. The detailed identification procedure corresponding to the two-value issue and the maximum power transfer tracking process are presented, and both the simulation analysis and experimental results verified the identification method and MPTT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Power Transfer and Energy Harvesting Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Objective Optimal Design of Stand-Alone Hybrid Energy System Using Entropy Weight Method Based on HOMER
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1664; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101664
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
Implementation of hybrid energy system (HES) is generally considered as a promising way to satisfy the electrification requirements for remote areas. In the present study, a novel decision making methodology is proposed to identify the best compromise configuration of HES from a set
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Implementation of hybrid energy system (HES) is generally considered as a promising way to satisfy the electrification requirements for remote areas. In the present study, a novel decision making methodology is proposed to identify the best compromise configuration of HES from a set of feasible combinations obtained from HOMER. For this purpose, a multi-objective function, which comprises four crucial and representative indices, is formulated by applying the weighted sum method. The entropy weight method is employed as a quantitative methodology for weighting factors calculation to enhance the objectivity of decision-making. Moreover, the optimal design of a stand-alone PV/wind/battery/diesel HES in Yongxing Island, China, is conducted as a case study to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Both the simulation and optimization results indicate that, the optimization method is able to identify the best trade-off configuration among system reliability, economy, practicability and environmental sustainability. Several useful conclusions are given by analyzing the operation of the best configuration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessArticle A Multi-Energy System Expansion Planning Method Using a Linearized Load-Energy Curve: A Case Study in South Korea
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1663; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101663
Received: 9 September 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
Multi-energy systems can integrate heat and electrical energy efficiently, using resources such as cogeneration. In order to meet energy demand cost-effectively in a multi-energy system, adopting appropriate energy resources at the right time is of great importance. In this paper, we propose an
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Multi-energy systems can integrate heat and electrical energy efficiently, using resources such as cogeneration. In order to meet energy demand cost-effectively in a multi-energy system, adopting appropriate energy resources at the right time is of great importance. In this paper, we propose an expansion planning method for a multi-energy system that supplies heat and electrical energy. The proposed approach formulates expansion planning as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem. The objective is to minimize the sum of the annualized cost of the multi-energy system. The candidate resources that constitute the cost of the multi-energy system are fuel-based power generators, heat-only boilers, a combined heat and power (CHP) unit, energy storage resources, and a renewable electrical power source. We use a load-energy curve, instead of a load-duration curve, for constructing the optimization model, which is subsequently linearized using a Douglas-Peucker algorithm. The residual load-energy curve, for utilizing the renewable electrical power source, is also linearized. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method through a comparison with a conventional linearization method. In addition, we evaluate the cost and planning schedules of different case studies, according to the configuration of resources in the multi-energy system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Heat Transfer of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurry and Its Thermal Energy Storage Performance of Combined Heat and Power Generating Units
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1662; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101662
Received: 10 September 2017 / Revised: 14 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
The application of thermal energy storage (TES) is an effective way of improving the power load regulation capability of combined heat and power (CHP) generating units. In this paper, a theoretical investigation on the thermal energy storage system of a CHP unit that
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The application of thermal energy storage (TES) is an effective way of improving the power load regulation capability of combined heat and power (CHP) generating units. In this paper, a theoretical investigation on the thermal energy storage system of a CHP unit that employs the microencapsulated phase change material slurry (MPCMS) as the working fluid is carried out. The results indicate that the microcapsule particle internal melting rate is progressively small; 90% latent heat can be absorbed in 63% total melting time. The melting time of particles in micron is very short, and the diameter is an important factor for microcapsule melting. For the MPCMS flow in a circular tube, the temperature distribution between laminar flows and turbulent flows is different. In a turbulent flow, there is an approximate isothermal section along the tube, which cannot be found in a laminar flow. Additionally, a thermal storage system with MPCMS as heat transfer fluid for a CHP unit is proposed. A case study for a 300 MW CHP unit found that the use of an MPSMS thermal energy storage system increases the power peak shaving capacity by 81.4%. This indicates that the thermal storage system increases the peak shaving capacity of cogeneration units. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Risk Assessment of Failure of Outdoor High Voltage Polluted Insulators under Combined Stresses Near Shoreline
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1661; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101661
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 14 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to investigate the various effects of climate conditions on outdoor insulators in coastal areas as a result of saline contamination under acidic and normal cold fog, determining significant electrical and physico-chemical changes on the insulator surface and
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The aim of this paper is to investigate the various effects of climate conditions on outdoor insulators in coastal areas as a result of saline contamination under acidic and normal cold fog, determining significant electrical and physico-chemical changes on the insulator surface and considering the effect of discharge current, electric field distribution and surface roughness. To replicate similar conditions near the shoreline, experimental investigations have been carried out on insulation materials with the combined application of saline contamination and acidic or normal cold fog. The test samples included silicone rubber (SiR), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE), which were used as reference. The materials are of the same composition as those used in real-life outdoor high voltage insulators. All samples were aged separately in an environmental chamber for 150 h for various saline contaminations combined with acidic and normal cold fog, and were generated by means of the adopted experimental setup. This analysis represented conditions similar to those existing near the shoreline exposed to saline and acid spray during winter and early spring. Electric field and discharge current along polymeric samples were examined under acidic and normal cold fog. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) were used to probe the physico-chemical changes on the samples surface and investigate the hydrophobicity recovery property after aging tests. Finally, a comparative study was carried out on polymeric samples before and after being exposed to the acidic and normal cold fog based on the results obtained from the experiment. Research data may provide references for the better prediction of surface degradation as well as for the better material coating and design of external insulation. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle Predictions of Surface Solar Radiation on Tilted Solar Panels using Machine Learning Models: A Case Study of Tainan City, Taiwan
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1660; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101660
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, forecasting models were constructed to estimate surface solar radiation on an hourly basis and the solar irradiance received by solar panels at different tilt angles, to enhance the capability of photovoltaic systems by estimating the amount of electricity they generate,
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In this paper, forecasting models were constructed to estimate surface solar radiation on an hourly basis and the solar irradiance received by solar panels at different tilt angles, to enhance the capability of photovoltaic systems by estimating the amount of electricity they generate, thereby improving the reliability of the power they supply. The study site was Tainan in southern Taiwan, which receives abundant sunlight because of its location at a latitude of approximately 23°. Four forecasting models of surface solar irradiance were constructed, using the multilayer perceptron (MLP), random forests (RF), k-nearest neighbors (kNN), and linear regression (LR), algorithms, respectively. The forecast horizon ranged from 1 to 12 h. The findings are as follows: first, solar irradiance was effectively estimated when a combination of ground weather data and solar position data was applied. Second, the mean absolute error was higher in MLP than in RF and kNN, and LR had the worst predictive performance. Third, the observed total solar irradiance was 1.562 million w/m2 per year when the solar-panel tilt angle was 0° (i.e., the non-tilted position) and peaked at 1.655 million w/m2 per year when the angle was 20–22°. The level of the irradiance was almost the same when the solar-panel tilt angle was 0° as when the angle was 41°. In summary, the optimal solar-panel tilt angle in Tainan was 20–22°. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Science and Big Data in Energy Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle Newton Power Flow Methods for Unbalanced Three-Phase Distribution Networks
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1658; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101658
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 26 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
Two mismatch functions (power or current) and three coordinates (polar, Cartesian and complex form) result in six versions of the Newton–Raphson method for the solution of power flow problems. In this paper, five new versions of the Newton power flow method developed for
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Two mismatch functions (power or current) and three coordinates (polar, Cartesian and complex form) result in six versions of the Newton–Raphson method for the solution of power flow problems. In this paper, five new versions of the Newton power flow method developed for single-phase problems in our previous paper are extended to three-phase power flow problems. Mathematical models of the load, load connection, transformer, and distributed generation (DG) are presented. A three-phase power flow formulation is described for both power and current mismatch functions. Extended versions of the Newton power flow method are compared with the backward-forward sweep-based algorithm. Furthermore, the convergence behavior for different loading conditions, R / X ratios, and load models, is investigated by numerical experiments on balanced and unbalanced distribution networks. On the basis of these experiments, we conclude that two versions using the current mismatch function in polar and Cartesian coordinates perform the best for both balanced and unbalanced distribution networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from International Workshop of Energy-Open)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Survey on PEV Charging Infrastructure: Impact Assessment and Planning
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1650; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101650
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) represent a huge step forward in a green transportation system, contribute in reduction of greenhouse gas emission, and reduce the dependence on fossil fuel. Integration of PEVs into the electric power system will result in a considerable addition to
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Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) represent a huge step forward in a green transportation system, contribute in reduction of greenhouse gas emission, and reduce the dependence on fossil fuel. Integration of PEVs into the electric power system will result in a considerable addition to electricity demand. Due to PEV mobility, this demand has a random distribution in space and time among distribution system nodes. Therefore, short term forecast of PEV charging demand is more challenging than that for conventional loads. Assessment of PEV impacts on the power system is essential to mitigate the impairments from PEV loads. Optimal planning of PEV charging infrastructure will promote the penetration rate of PEVs and minimize the negative impacts of PEVs on the electric power distribution system and transportation road network. Design of charging facilities with integrated distributed energy resources (DER) is considered a solution to alleviate strain on the grid, reduce the integration cost with the distribution network and the charging cost. In this paper, we present a comprehensive literature survey on modelling of PEV charging demand, impact assessment approaches and tools, and charging infrastructure planning. Moreover, an overview on charging facility design with integrated DER is given. Some future research directions are identified. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Regenerative Intelligent Brake Control for Electric Motorcycles
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1648; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101648
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
Vehicle models whose propulsion system is based on electric motors are increasing in number within the automobile industry. They will soon become a reliable alternative to vehicles with conventional propulsion systems. The main advantages of this type of vehicles are the non-emission of
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Vehicle models whose propulsion system is based on electric motors are increasing in number within the automobile industry. They will soon become a reliable alternative to vehicles with conventional propulsion systems. The main advantages of this type of vehicles are the non-emission of polluting gases and noise and the effectiveness of electric motors compared to combustion engines. Some of the disadvantages that electric vehicle manufacturers still have to solve are their low autonomy due to inefficient energy storage systems, vehicle cost, which is still too high, and reducing the recharging time. Current regenerative systems in motorcycles are designed with a low fixed maximum regeneration rate in order not to cause the rear wheel to slip when braking with the regenerative brake no matter what the road condition is. These types of systems do not make use of all the available regeneration power, since more importance is placed on safety when braking. An optimized regenerative braking strategy for two-wheeled vehicles is described is this work. This system is designed to recover the maximum energy in braking processes while maintaining the vehicle’s stability. In order to develop the previously described regenerative control, tyre forces, vehicle speed and road adhesion are obtained by means of an estimation algorithm. A based-on-fuzzy-logic algorithm is programmed to carry out an optimized control with this information. This system recuperates maximum braking power without compromising the rear wheel slip and safety. Simulations show that the system optimizes energy regeneration on every surface compared to a constant regeneration strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods to Improve Energy Use in Road Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle Aggregation Potentials for Buildings—Business Models of Demand Response and Virtual Power Plants
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1646; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101646
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
Buildings as prosumers have an important role in the energy aggregation market due to their potential flexible energy consumption and distributed energy resources. However, energy flexibility provided by buildings can be very complex and depend on many factors. The immaturity of the current
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Buildings as prosumers have an important role in the energy aggregation market due to their potential flexible energy consumption and distributed energy resources. However, energy flexibility provided by buildings can be very complex and depend on many factors. The immaturity of the current aggregation market with unclear incentives is still a challenge for buildings to participate in the aggregation market. However, few studies have investigated business models for building participation in the aggregation market. Therefore, this paper develops four business models for buildings to participate in the energy aggregation market: (1) buildings participate in the implicit Demand Response (DR) program via retailers; (2) buildings with small energy consumption participate in the explicit DR via aggregators; (3) buildings directly access the explicit DR program; (4) buildings access energy market via Virtual Power Plant (VPP) aggregators by providing Distributed Energy Resources (DER)s. This paper also determines that it is essential to understand building owners’ needs, comforts, and behaviours to develop feasible market access strategies for different types of buildings. Meanwhile, the incentive programs, national regulations and energy market structures strongly influence buildings’ participation in the aggregation market. Under the current Nordic market regulation, business model one is the most feasible one, and business model two faces more challenges due to regulation barriers and limited monetary incentives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Distributed Energy Resources Management)
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Open AccessArticle Grid-Connected Control Strategy of Five-level Inverter Based on Passive E-L Model
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1657; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101657
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
At present, the research on five-level inverters mainly involves the modulation algorithm and topology, and few articles study the five-level inverter from the control strategy. In this paper, the nonlinear passivity-based control (PBC) method is proposed for single-phase uninterruptible power supply inverters. The
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At present, the research on five-level inverters mainly involves the modulation algorithm and topology, and few articles study the five-level inverter from the control strategy. In this paper, the nonlinear passivity-based control (PBC) method is proposed for single-phase uninterruptible power supply inverters. The proposed PBC method is based on an energy shaping and damping injection idea, which is performed to regulate the energy flow of an inverter to a desired level and to assure global asymptotic stability, respectively. Furthermore, this paper presents a control algorithm based on the theory of passivity that gives an inverter in a photovoltaic system additional functions: power factor correction, harmonic currents compensation, and the ability to stabilize the system under varying injection damping. Finally, the effectiveness of the PBC method in terms of both stability and harmonic distortion is verified by the simulation and experiments under resistive and inductive loads. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Constant Power Loads (CPL) with Microgrids: Problem Definition, Stability Analysis and Compensation Techniques
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1656; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101656
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 30 September 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
This paper provides a comprehensive review of the major concepts associated with the μgrid, such as constant power load (CPL), incremental negative resistance or impedance (INR/I) and its dynamic behaviours on the μgrid, and power system distribution (PSD). In general, a μgrid is
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This paper provides a comprehensive review of the major concepts associated with the μgrid, such as constant power load (CPL), incremental negative resistance or impedance (INR/I) and its dynamic behaviours on the μgrid, and power system distribution (PSD). In general, a μgrid is defined as a cluster of different types of electrical loads and renewable energy sources (distributed generations) under a unified controller within a certain local area. It is considered a perfect solution to integrate renewable energy sources with loads as well as with a traditional grid. In addition, it can operate with a conventional grid, for example, by energy sourcing or a controllable load, or it can operate alone as an islanding mode to feed required electric energy to a grid. Hence, one of the important issues regarding the μgrid is the constant power load that results from the tightly designed control when it is applied to power electronic converters. The effect of CPL is incremental negative resistance that impacts the power quality of a power system and makes it at negative damping. Also, in this paper, a comprehensive study on major control and compensation techniques for μgrid has been included to face the instability effects of constant power loads. Finally, the merits and limitations of the compensation techniques are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Methods for Smart Grids Planning and Management)
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Open AccessArticle Noncontact Measurement and Detection of Instantaneous Seismic Attributes Based on Complementary Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1655; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101655
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 3 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) is a popular method to analyze nonlinear and non-stationary data. It has been widely used in geophysical prospecting. This paper analyzes the mode mixing problems of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and introduces the noncontact measurement and detection of instantaneous seismic
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Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) is a popular method to analyze nonlinear and non-stationary data. It has been widely used in geophysical prospecting. This paper analyzes the mode mixing problems of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and introduces the noncontact measurement and detection of instantaneous seismic attributes using complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD). Numerical simulation testing indicates that the CEEMD can effectively solve the mode mixing problems of EMD and can provide stronger anti-noise ability. The decomposed results of the synthetic seismic record show that CEEMD has a better ability to decompose seismic signals. Then, CEEMD is applied to extract instantaneous seismic attributes of 3D seismic data in a real-world coal mine in Inner Mongolia, China. The detection results demonstrate that instantaneous seismic attributes extracted by CEEMD are helpful to effectively identify the undulations of the top interfaces of limestone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sources)
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