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Energies, Volume 10, Issue 9 (September 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) To date the main issues related to energy consumption in buildings has led to energy efficiency [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle A Torque Error Compensation Algorithm for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines with Respect to Magnet Temperature Variations
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1365; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091365
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1633 | PDF Full-text (21305 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a torque error compensation algorithm for a surface mounted permanent magnet synchronous machine (SPMSM) through real time permanent magnet (PM) flux linkage estimation at various temperature conditions from medium to rated speed. As known, the PM flux linkage in SPMSMs
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a torque error compensation algorithm for a surface mounted permanent magnet synchronous machine (SPMSM) through real time permanent magnet (PM) flux linkage estimation at various temperature conditions from medium to rated speed. As known, the PM flux linkage in SPMSMs varies with the thermal conditions. Since a maximum torque per ampere look up table, a control method used for copper loss minimization, is developed based on estimated PM flux linkage, variation of PM flux linkage results in undesired torque development of SPMSM drives. In this paper, PM flux linkage is estimated through a stator flux linkage observer and the torque error is compensated in real time using the estimated PM flux linkage. In this paper, the proposed torque error compensation algorithm is verified in simulation and experiment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of the Anticipated Environmental Footprint of Future Nuclear Energy Systems. Evidence of the Beneficial Effect of Extensive Recycling
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1445; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091445
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
In this early 21st century, our societies have to face a tremendous and increasing energy need while mitigating the global climate change and preserving the environment. Addressing this challenge requires an energy transition from the current fossil energy-based system to a carbon-free energy
[...] Read more.
In this early 21st century, our societies have to face a tremendous and increasing energy need while mitigating the global climate change and preserving the environment. Addressing this challenge requires an energy transition from the current fossil energy-based system to a carbon-free energy production system, based on a relevant energy mix combining renewables and nuclear energy. However, such an energy transition will only occur if it is accepted by the population. Powerful and reliable tools, such as life cycle assessments (LCA), aiming at assessing the respective merits of the different energy mix for most of the environmental impact indicators are therefore mandatory for supporting a risk-informed decision-process at the societal level. Before studying the deployment of a given energy mix, a prerequisite is to perform LCAs on each of the components of the mix. This paper addresses two potential nuclear energy components: a nuclear fuel cycle based on the Generation III European Pressurized Reactors (EPR) and a nuclear fuel cycle based on the Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR). The basis of this study relies on the previous work done on the current French nuclear fuel cycle using the bespoke NELCAS tool specifically developed for studying nuclear fuel cycle environmental impacts. Our study highlights that the EPR already brings a limited improvement to the current fuel cycle thanks to a higher efficiency of the energy transformation and a higher burn-up of the nuclear fuel (−20% on most of the chosen indicators) whereas the introduction of the GEN IV fast reactors will bring a significant breakthrough by suppressing the current front-end of the fuel cycle thanks to the use of depleted uranium instead of natural enriched uranium (this leads to a decrease of the impact from 17% on water consumption and withdrawal and up to 96% on SOx emissions). The specific case of the radioactive waste is also studied, showing that only the partitioning and transmutation of the americium in the blanket fuel of the SFR can reduce the footprint of the geological disposal (saving up to a factor of 7 on the total repository volume). Having now at disposition five models (open fuel cycle, current French twice through fuel cycle, EPR twice through fuel cycle, multi-recycling SFR fuel cycle and at a longer term, multi-recycling SFR fuel cycle including americium transmutation), it is possible to model the environmental impact of any fuel cycle combining these technologies. In the next step, these models will be combined with those of other carbon-free energies (wind, solar, biomass…) in order to estimate the environmental impact of future energy mixes and also to analyze the impact on the way these scenarios are deployed (transition pathways). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Analytical Solution for a Capacitive Wireless Power Transfer System with One Transmitter and Two Receivers
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1444; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091444
Received: 24 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1173 | PDF Full-text (957 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wireless power transfer from one transmitter to multiple receivers through inductive coupling is slowly entering the market. However, for certain applications, capacitive wireless power transfer (CWPT) using electric coupling might be preferable. In this work, we determine closed-form expressions for a CWPT system
[...] Read more.
Wireless power transfer from one transmitter to multiple receivers through inductive coupling is slowly entering the market. However, for certain applications, capacitive wireless power transfer (CWPT) using electric coupling might be preferable. In this work, we determine closed-form expressions for a CWPT system with one transmitter and two receivers. We determine the optimal solution for two design requirements: (i) maximum power transfer, and (ii) maximum system efficiency. We derive the optimal loads and provide the analytical expressions for the efficiency and power. We show that the optimal load conductances for the maximum power configuration are always larger than for the maximum efficiency configuration. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that if the receivers are coupled, this can be compensated for by introducing susceptances that have the same value for both configurations. Finally, we numerically verify our results. We illustrate the similarities to the inductive wireless power transfer (IWPT) solution and find that the same, but dual, expressions apply. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Power Transfer and Energy Harvesting Technologies)
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceArticle Control Strategies for Improving Energy Efficiency and Reliability in Autonomous Microgrids with Communication Constraints
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1443; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091443
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1376 | PDF Full-text (465 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microgrids are a feasible path to deploy smart grids, an intelligent and highly automated power system. Their operation demands a dedicated communication infrastructure to manage, control and monitor the intermittent sources of energy and loads. Therefore, smart devices will be connected to support
[...] Read more.
Microgrids are a feasible path to deploy smart grids, an intelligent and highly automated power system. Their operation demands a dedicated communication infrastructure to manage, control and monitor the intermittent sources of energy and loads. Therefore, smart devices will be connected to support the growth of grid smartness increasing the dependency on communication networks, which consumes a high amount of power. In an energy-limited scenario, one of the main issues is to enhance the power supply time. Therefore, this paper proposes a hybrid methodology for microgrid energy management, integrated with a communication infrastructure to improve and to optimize islanded microgrid operation at maximum energy efficiency. The hybrid methodology applies some control management rules, such as intentional load shedding, priority load management, and communication energy saving. These energy saving rules establish a trade-off between increasing microgrid energy availability and communication system reliability. To achieve a compromised solution, a continuous time Markov chain model describes the impact of energy saving policies into system reliability. The proposed methodology is simulated and tested with the help of the modified IEEE 34 node test-system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control and Communication in Distributed Generation Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Techno-Economic Assessment of Wind Energy Potential at Three Locations in South Korea Using Long-Term Measured Wind Data
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1442; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091442
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1665 | PDF Full-text (8029 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study deals with wind energy analysis and the selection of an optimum type of wind turbine in terms of the feasibility of installing wind power system at three locations in South Korea: Deokjeok-do, Baengnyeong-do and Seo-San. The wind data measurements were
[...] Read more.
The present study deals with wind energy analysis and the selection of an optimum type of wind turbine in terms of the feasibility of installing wind power system at three locations in South Korea: Deokjeok-do, Baengnyeong-do and Seo-San. The wind data measurements were conducted during 2005–2015 at Deokjeok-do, 2001–2016 at Baengnyeong-do and 1997–2016 at Seo-San. In the first part of this paper wind conditions, like mean wind speed, wind rose diagrams and Weibull shape and scale parameters are presented, so that the wind potential of all the locations could be assessed. It was found that the prevailing wind directions at all locations was either southeast or southwest in which the latter one being more dominant. After analyzing the wind conditions, 50-year and 1-year extreme wind speeds (EWS) were estimated using the graphical method of Gumbel distribution. Finally, according to the wind conditions at each site and international electro-technical commission (IEC) guidelines, a set of five different wind turbines best suited for each location were shortlisted. Each wind turbine was evaluated on the basis of technical parameters like monthly energy production, annual energy production (AEP) and capacity factors (CF). Similarly, economical parameters including net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), payback period (PBP) and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) were considered. The analysis shows that a Doosan model WinDS134/3000 wind turbine is the most suitable for Deokjeok-do and Baengnyeong-do, whereas a Hanjin model HJWT 87/2000 is the most suitable wind turbine for Seo-San. Economic sensitivity analysis is also included and discussed in detail to analyze the impact on economics of wind power by varying turbine’s hub height. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Wind Turbines)
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Open AccessArticle Generic Type 3 Wind Turbine Model Based on IEC 61400-27-1: Parameter Analysis and Transient Response under Voltage Dips
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1441; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091441
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1722 | PDF Full-text (5225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper analyzes the response under voltage dips of a Type 3 wind turbine topology based on IEC 61400-27-1. The evolution of both active power and rotational speed is discussed in detail when some of the most relevant control parameters, included in the
[...] Read more.
This paper analyzes the response under voltage dips of a Type 3 wind turbine topology based on IEC 61400-27-1. The evolution of both active power and rotational speed is discussed in detail when some of the most relevant control parameters, included in the mechanical, active power and pitch control models, are modified. Extensive results are also included to explore the influence of these parameters on the model dynamic response. This work thus provides an extensive analysis of the generic Type 3 wind turbine model and provides an estimation of parameters not previously discussed in the specific literature. Indeed, the International Standard IEC 61400-27-1, recently published in February 2015, defines these generic dynamic simulation models for wind turbines, but does not provide values for the parameters to simulate the response of these models. Thus, there is a pressing need to establish correlations between IEC generic models and specific wind turbine manufacturer models to estimate suitable parameters for simulation purposes. Extensive results and simulations are also included in the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Generators Modelling and Control)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Application of Dynamic Non-Linear Programming Technique to Non-Convex Short-Term Hydrothermal Scheduling Problem
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1440; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091440
Received: 22 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1260 | PDF Full-text (852 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Short-term hydro-thermal scheduling aims to obtain optimal generation scheduling of hydro and thermal units for a one-day or a one-week scheduling time horizon. The main goal of the problem is to minimize total operational cost considering a series of equality and inequality constraints.
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Short-term hydro-thermal scheduling aims to obtain optimal generation scheduling of hydro and thermal units for a one-day or a one-week scheduling time horizon. The main goal of the problem is to minimize total operational cost considering a series of equality and inequality constraints. The problem is considered as a non-linear and complex problem involving the valve-point loading effect of conventional thermal units, the water transport delay between connected reservoirs, and transmission loss with a set of equality and inequality constraints such as power balance, water dynamic balance, water discharge, initial and end reservoir storage volume, reservoir volume limits and the operation limits of hydro and thermal plants. A solution methodology to the short-term hydro-thermal scheduling problem with continuous and non-smooth/non-convex cost function is introduced in this research applying dynamic non-linear programming. In this study, the proposed approach is applied to two test systems with different characteristics. The simulation results obtained in this paper are compared with those reported in recent research studies, which show the effectiveness of the presented technique in terms of total operational cost. In addition, the obtained results ensure the capability of the proposed optimization procedure for solving short-term hydro-thermal scheduling problem with transmission losses and valve-point effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydropower 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Geostatistical Three-Dimensional Modeling of a Tight Gas Reservoir: A Case Study of Block S6 of the Sulige Gas Field, Ordos Basin, China
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091439
Received: 6 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1113 | PDF Full-text (13391 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, three-dimensional (3-D) geostatistical models were constructed to quantify distributions of sandstone and mudstone. We propose a new method that employs weight coefficients to balance the sandstone and mudstone data from irregular well patterns during stochastic modeling. This new method begins
[...] Read more.
In this study, three-dimensional (3-D) geostatistical models were constructed to quantify distributions of sandstone and mudstone. We propose a new method that employs weight coefficients to balance the sandstone and mudstone data from irregular well patterns during stochastic modeling. This new method begins with classifying well groups according to well distribution patterns; areas with similar well distribution patterns are classified within the same zone. Then, the distributions of sandstone and mudstone for each zone are simulated separately using the sequential indicator simulation (SIS) method, and the relevant variogram parameters for each zone are computed. In this paper, we used block S6 of the Sulige Gas Field in Ordos Basin in China as a case study. We evaluated the quality of each set of parameters through the vacuation checking method; certain wells were removed to generate equiprobable realizations using different seed numbers. Subsequently, the variogram parameters for the entire S6 area were obtained by assigning different weight coefficients to the parameters of each zone. Finally, a quality assessment of the sandstone and mudstone models of the S6 area was conducted using the horizontal wells, which were not involved in the stochastic modeling process. The results show that these variogram parameters, which were calculated using weight coefficients, are reliable. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Electricity Interconnection in Chile: Prices versus Costs
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1438; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091438
Received: 20 August 2017 / Revised: 9 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
Having a well-adapted transmission network is key for reaching a sustainable energy system, where generators and consumers participate in an efficient market. The purpose of the present research is to estimate the impact on the final prices of the interconnection of the two
[...] Read more.
Having a well-adapted transmission network is key for reaching a sustainable energy system, where generators and consumers participate in an efficient market. The purpose of the present research is to estimate the impact on the final prices of the interconnection of the two largest electrical systems in Chile. To this end, an econometric model is used in which prices, among other variables, are explained by the level of marginal costs in the system (opportunity cost), the degree of concentration in the market (market power), and the variability of marginal costs projected by the agents (risk). The data corresponds to bilateral contracts between generators and major clients, from 2006 to 2014. The basic results indicate that the interconnection would benefit final customers by reducing equilibrium contract prices, as a result of the decreased variability of expected marginal costs and a lower concentration of existing generating companies. This study’s main contribution is to focus on the benefits of electricity interconnection under conditions of competition and risk, instead of using the simple estimation of direct costs, as has traditionally been done. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A High-Efficient Low-Cost Converter for Capacitive Wireless Power Transfer Systems
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1437; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091437
Received: 19 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1407 | PDF Full-text (1829 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) spurs need for new ways of delivering power. Wireless power transfer (WPT) has come into the spotlight from both academia and industry as a promising way to power the IoT devices. As one of the well-known
[...] Read more.
Growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) spurs need for new ways of delivering power. Wireless power transfer (WPT) has come into the spotlight from both academia and industry as a promising way to power the IoT devices. As one of the well-known WPT techniques, the capacitive power transfer (CPT) has the merit of low electromagnetic radiation and amenability of combined power and data transfer over a capacitive interface. However, applying the CPT to the IoT devices is still challenging in reality. One of the major issues is due to the small capacitance of the capacitive interface, which results in low efficiency of the power transfer. To tackle this problem, we present a new step-up single-switch quasi-resonant (SSQR) converter for the CPT system. To enhance the CPT efficiency, the proposed converter is designed to operate at low frequency and drive small current into the capacitive interfaces. In addition, by eliminating resistor-capacitor-diode (RCD) snubber in the converter, we reduce the implementation cost of the CPT system. Based on intensive experimental work with a CPT system prototype that supports maximum 50 W (100 V/0.5 A) power transfer, we demonstrate the functional correctness of the converter that achieves up to 93% efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Experimental Model Development of Oxygen-Enriched Combustion Kinetics on Porous Coal Char and Non-Porous Graphite
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091436
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1295 | PDF Full-text (2438 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of oxygen-enriched air on low-rank coal char combustion was experimentally investigated. In this work, a coal-heating reactor equipped with a platinum wire mesh in the reaction chamber was used to analyze the combustion temperature, reaction time, and reaction kinetics. Increasing the
[...] Read more.
The effect of oxygen-enriched air on low-rank coal char combustion was experimentally investigated. In this work, a coal-heating reactor equipped with a platinum wire mesh in the reaction chamber was used to analyze the combustion temperature, reaction time, and reaction kinetics. Increasing the oxygen content of the primary combustion air increased the combustion temperature and decreased the reaction time. As the oxygen content increased from 21% to 30%, the average temperature increased by 47.72 K at a setup temperature of 1673 K, and the reaction time decreased by 30.22% at the same temperature. The graphite sample exhibited similar trends in temperature and reaction time, although the degree of change was smaller because the pores produced during char devolatilization expanded the active surface available for oxidation of the char sample. A mathematical model was used to define the intrinsic kinetics of the reaction. As the oxygen content increased from 21% to 30%, the reaction rate of the low-rank coal char increased. These results were also compared with those of the graphite sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications Ⅱ)
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Open AccessArticle Subsynchronous Torsional Interaction of Wind Farms with FSIG Wind Turbines Connected to LCC-HVDC Lines
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1435; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091435
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 970 | PDF Full-text (3536 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines with line-commutated converter (LCC) are being increasingly employed to transmit bulk wind power over long distance. However, this may cause the sub-synchronous torsional interaction (SSTI) between the wind farms and the LCC-HVDC system. The SSTI characteristics of wind
[...] Read more.
High-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines with line-commutated converter (LCC) are being increasingly employed to transmit bulk wind power over long distance. However, this may cause the sub-synchronous torsional interaction (SSTI) between the wind farms and the LCC-HVDC system. The SSTI characteristics of wind farms with fixed-speed induction generator (FSIG) wind turbines connected to LCC-HVDC are investigated in this paper. To simplify the calculations, a modular modeling method is proposed for building the small-signal mathematical model of the investigated system. Small-signal analysis, participation factor analysis, and impact of dominant factors analysis are then applied to investigate the SSTI characteristics under different operating conditions. Three oscillation modes associated with the SSTI are identified in the entire system through small-signal and participation factor analysis, comprising two torsional modes and an electromechanical mode. Impact of dominant factors analysis shows that the system becomes less stable as the wind farm capacity grows and the distance between FSIG wind farm and the rectifier station increases. Moreover, the above analysis suggests that wind farms with FSIG connected to LCC-HVDC lines may not cause unstable SSTI. The electromagnetic transient simulations based on PSCAD/EMTDC (Power Systems Computer-Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC) verify these results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessArticle The Economic Feasibility of Residential Energy Storage Combined with PV Panels: The Role of Subsidies in Italy
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1434; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091434
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 26 August 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1141 | PDF Full-text (1343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A solar photovoltaic system produces electricity by converting energy from the sun. By the end of 2016, the global installed solar photovoltaic capacity reached 305 GW. Its growth is impressive in the last years; in fact, it was only equal to 41 GW
[...] Read more.
A solar photovoltaic system produces electricity by converting energy from the sun. By the end of 2016, the global installed solar photovoltaic capacity reached 305 GW. Its growth is impressive in the last years; in fact, it was only equal to 41 GW in 2010. However, Europe has installed only 6.9 GW in 2016 (−1.7 GW in comparison to previous year) and this annual power installed is equal to 9% of global one in according to data released by Solar Power Europe. The profitability of PV systems in mature markets depends on the harmonization between demanded energy and produced one residential energy storage when combined with photovoltaic panels is able to increase the share of self-consumption. This work proposes a mathematical model, in which a Discounted Cash Flow analysis is conducted to evaluate the financial feasibility of photovoltaic-integrated lead acid battery systems in Italy. The indicator used is Net Present Value. Furthermore, a break-even point analysis, in terms of an increase of self-consumption, is conducted. The residential sector is investigated and energy storage system investment is incentivized by fiscal deduction and regional subsidies. The analysis provides several case studies, determined by combinations of the following variables: photovoltaic plant size, battery capacity, the increase of the share of self-consumption, and the useful lifetime of energy storage system. The same case studies are proposed also in four alternative scenarios, where is the modified the structure of subsidies. Results confirm that the profitability can be reached in presence of subsidies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Storage and Application)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle Development of a Decision-Making Algorithm for the Optimum Size and Placement of Distributed Generation Units in Distribution Networks
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1433; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091433
Received: 23 July 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1447 | PDF Full-text (1818 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper presents a decision-making algorithm that has been developed for the optimum size and placement of distributed generation (DG) units in distribution networks. The algorithm that is very flexible to changes and modifications can define the optimal location for a DG unit
[...] Read more.
The paper presents a decision-making algorithm that has been developed for the optimum size and placement of distributed generation (DG) units in distribution networks. The algorithm that is very flexible to changes and modifications can define the optimal location for a DG unit (of any type) and can estimate the optimum DG size to be installed, based on the improvement of voltage profiles and the reduction of the network’s total real and reactive power losses. The proposed algorithm has been tested on the IEEE 33-bus radial distribution system. The obtained results are compared with those of earlier studies, proving that the decision-making algorithm is working well with an acceptable accuracy. The algorithm can assist engineers, electric utilities, and distribution network operators with more efficient integration of new DG units in the current distribution networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling and Simulation of Complex Fluid Networks in the Flue Gas System of a Boiler
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1432; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091432
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
Under the conditions of high demand for energy saving and environmental protection, the thermal power unit is required to phase out the traditional extensive operation mode—a method of oxygen-enriched combustion in a furnace, considering safety first. Achieving efficient and economic operation with an
[...] Read more.
Under the conditions of high demand for energy saving and environmental protection, the thermal power unit is required to phase out the traditional extensive operation mode—a method of oxygen-enriched combustion in a furnace, considering safety first. Achieving efficient and economic operation with an optimal proportion of air distribution in these thermal power units is crucial. The high-precision simulation equipment could provide an experimental basis for optimal operation of field units. This paper starts by improving the accuracy of simulation equipment. In this work, the method of dividing nodes and branches in the boiler was based on signal flow graph theory. According to the flow characteristics of the working substance, the method for calculating the node and branch pressure drop was analyzed and set up. Subsequently, a fluid network model of the multi-dimensional flue gas system was constructed. With the help of our self-developed simulation model and data-driven platform, a modular simulation algorithm was designed. The simulation analysis of the boiler showed the accuracy of the model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessArticle A Blended SPS-ESPS Control DAB-IBDC Converter for a Standalone Solar Power System
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1431; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091431
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1763 | PDF Full-text (7859 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In sustainable energy applications, standalone solar power systems are mostly preferred for self-powered energy zones. In all standalone renewable power systems, batteries are still preferred as the common energy storage device. On the other hand, batteries are not applicable for high peak power
[...] Read more.
In sustainable energy applications, standalone solar power systems are mostly preferred for self-powered energy zones. In all standalone renewable power systems, batteries are still preferred as the common energy storage device. On the other hand, batteries are not applicable for high peak power demand applications because of their low power density. A supercapacitor is a preferable high-power density energy storage device for high peak power applications. A 2 kW, 50 kHz digital control dual active bridge isolated bi-directional dc-dc converter (DAB-IBDC) was developed for interfacing the supercapacitor bank in standalone solar power system. This paper proposes a blended SPS-ESPS digital control algorithm for a DAB-IBDC converter instead of using a traditional single-phase shift (SPS) control algorithm, which is commonly used for large input to output voltage varying applications. This proposed blended SPS-ESPS control algorithm achieved high power conversion efficiency during a large input to output voltage variation, over a traditional phase shift control algorithm by reducing the back-power flow and current stress in a circuit. This system also achieved maximum power point for solar modules and enhanced rapid charging-discharging for a supercapacitor bank. Both SPS and the blended SPS-ESPS control algorithms were verified experimentally using 2 kW DAB-IBDC topology implemented with standalone power system that combination of 2000 W input solar module and 158 Wh supercapacitor bank. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Storage and Application)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling a Hybrid Microgrid Using Probabilistic Reconfiguration under System Uncertainties
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1430; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091430
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 2 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1778 | PDF Full-text (1514 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel method for a day-ahead optimal operation of a hybrid microgrid system including fuel cells, photovoltaic arrays, a microturbine, and battery energy storage in order to fulfill the required load demand is presented in this paper. In the proposed system, the microgrid
[...] Read more.
A novel method for a day-ahead optimal operation of a hybrid microgrid system including fuel cells, photovoltaic arrays, a microturbine, and battery energy storage in order to fulfill the required load demand is presented in this paper. In the proposed system, the microgrid has access to the main utility grid in order to exchange power when required. Available municipal waste is utilized to produce the hydrogen required for running the fuel cells, and natural gas will be used as the backup source. In the proposed method, an energy scheduling is introduced to optimize the generating unit power outputs for the next day, as well as the power flow with the main grid, in order to minimize the operational costs and produced greenhouse gases emissions. The nature of renewable energies and electric power consumption is both intermittent and unpredictable, and the uncertainty related to the PV array power generation and power consumption has been considered in the next-day energy scheduling. In order to model uncertainties, some scenarios are produced according to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, and microgrid optimal energy scheduling is analyzed under the generated scenarios. In addition, various scenarios created by MC simulations are applied in order to solve unit commitment (UC) problems. The microgrid’s day-ahead operation and emission costs are considered as the objective functions, and the particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to solve the optimization problem. Overall, the proposed model is capable of minimizing the system costs, as well as the unfavorable influence of uncertainties on the microgrid’s profit, by generating different scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessArticle Investigating the Plasma-Assisted and Thermal Catalytic Dry Methane Reforming for Syngas Production: Process Design, Simulation and Evaluation
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1429; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091429
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 2 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2244 | PDF Full-text (11269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The growing surplus of green electricity generated by renewable energy technologies has fueled research towards chemical industry electrification. By adapting power-to-chemical concepts, such as plasma-assisted processes, cheap resources could be converted into fuels and base chemicals. However, the feasibility of those electrified processes
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The growing surplus of green electricity generated by renewable energy technologies has fueled research towards chemical industry electrification. By adapting power-to-chemical concepts, such as plasma-assisted processes, cheap resources could be converted into fuels and base chemicals. However, the feasibility of those electrified processes at large scale has not been investigated yet. Thus, the current work strives to compare, for first time in the literature, plasma-assisted production of syngas, from CH4 and CO2 (dry methane reforming), with thermal catalytic dry methane reforming. Specifically, both processes are conceptually designed to deliver syngas suitable for methanol synthesis (H2/CO ≥ 2 in mole). The processes are simulated in the Aspen Plus process simulator where different process steps are investigated. Heat integration and equipment cost estimation are performed for the most promising process flow diagrams. Collectively, plasma-assisted dry methane reforming integrated with combined steam/CO2 methane reforming is an effective way to deliver syngas for methanol production. It is more sustainable than combined thermal catalytic dry methane reforming with steam methane reforming, which has also been proposed for syngas production of H2/CO ≥ 2; in the former process, 40% more CO2 is captured, while 38% less H2O is consumed per mol of syngas. Furthermore, the plasma-assisted process is less complex than the thermal catalytic one; it requires higher amount of utilities, but comparable capital investment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Scheduling Strategy for Domestic Electric Water Heaters Based on the Temperature State Priority List
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1425; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091425
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1566 | PDF Full-text (5241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the rapid growth of thermostatically controlled loads, active power fluctuation and peak demand growth within an autonomous micro-grid become serious problems. This paper tries to suppress power fluctuation and shave peak demand for a micro-grid through optimizing domestic electric water heaters (controllable
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With the rapid growth of thermostatically controlled loads, active power fluctuation and peak demand growth within an autonomous micro-grid become serious problems. This paper tries to suppress power fluctuation and shave peak demand for a micro-grid through optimizing domestic electric water heaters (controllable load). In this paper, domestic electric water heater models are first built to optimize power flow within a single water heater. Subsequently, the Monte Carlo method is proposed to simulate power consumption of a cluster of domestic electric water heaters. After that, the temperature state priority list method is presented to suppress power flow and shave peak demand for a given micro-grid. Optimization results show that the proposed temperature state priority list method can reduce peak demand by 12.5%. However, it has a wider active power fluctuation range and needs a longer reaction time compared with the simplified temperature state priority list method. In addition, the optimization results show that by increasing the number of controllable loads participating in load scheduling, active power fluctuation can be reduced and the maximum active power of the given micro-grid can be cut. However, to achieve this, about 1.2% of extra electrical energy needs to be generated by the external grid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessArticle Super Capacitor Energy Storage Based MMC for Energy Harvesting in Mine Hoist Application
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1428; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091428
Received: 23 August 2017 / Revised: 10 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 17 September 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1598 | PDF Full-text (1910 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a super capacitor energy storage-based modular multilevel converter (SCES-MMC) for mine hoist application. Different from the conventional MMCs, the sub-modules employ distributed super capacitor banks, which are designed to absorb the regenerative energy of mine hoist and released in the
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This paper proposes a super capacitor energy storage-based modular multilevel converter (SCES-MMC) for mine hoist application. Different from the conventional MMCs, the sub-modules employ distributed super capacitor banks, which are designed to absorb the regenerative energy of mine hoist and released in the traction condition, so as to improve energy utilization efficiency. The key control technologies are introduced in detail, followed by analysis of the configuration and operation principles. The feasibility of the proposed SCES-MMC topology and the control theory are also verified. Simulation results show that SCES-MMC can adapt to the variable frequency speed regulation of the motor drive, which shows good application prospects in the future for medium- and high-voltage mine hoist systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decentralised Energy Supply Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Design and Numerical Simulations of a Flow Induced Vibration Energy Converter for Underwater Mooring Platforms
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1427; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091427
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 10 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1136 | PDF Full-text (6935 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Limited battery energy restricts the duration of the underwater operation of underwater mooring platforms (UMPs). In this paper, a flow-induced vibration energy converter (FIVEC) is designed to produce power for the UMPs and extend their operational time. The FIVEC is equipped with a
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Limited battery energy restricts the duration of the underwater operation of underwater mooring platforms (UMPs). In this paper, a flow-induced vibration energy converter (FIVEC) is designed to produce power for the UMPs and extend their operational time. The FIVEC is equipped with a thin plate to capture the kinetic energy in the vortices shed from the surface of the UMP. A magnetic coupling (MC) is applied for the non-contacting transmission of the plate torque to the generators so that the friction loss can be minimized. In order to quantify and evaluate the performance of the FIVEC, two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed. Simulations are based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and the shear stress transport (SST) k-ω turbulent model is utilized. The CFD method is firstly validated using existing experimental data. Then the influences of plate length and system damping on the performance of the FIVEC are evaluated. The results show that the device has a maximum averaged power coefficient of 0.0520 (13.86 W) in the considered situations. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of this energy converter plan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessArticle Hierarchical Distributed Motion Control for Multiple Linear Switched Reluctance Machines
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1426; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091426
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 995 | PDF Full-text (2202 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigates a distributed, coordinated motion control network based on multiple direct-drive, linear switched reluctance machines (LSRMs). A hierarchical, two-level synchronization control strategy is proposed for the four LSRMs based motion control network. The high-level, reference signals agreement algorithm is first employed
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This paper investigates a distributed, coordinated motion control network based on multiple direct-drive, linear switched reluctance machines (LSRMs). A hierarchical, two-level synchronization control strategy is proposed for the four LSRMs based motion control network. The high-level, reference signals agreement algorithm is first employed to correct the asynchronous behaviors of the position commands. Then, the low-level tracking synchronization method is applied for the collaborative position control of the four LSRMs. The proposed two-level, fault-tolerant control strategy eliminates the asynchrony of the reference signals and it also guarantees the coordinated tracking control performance of the four LSRMs. Experimental results demonstrate that effective coordinated tracking control can be ensured, based on the successful agreement of reference signals and an absolute tracking error falling within 2 mm can be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Networked and Distributed Control Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Electric Arc Furnace Modeling with Artificial Neural Networks and Arc Length with Variable Voltage Gradient
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1424; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091424
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
Viewed by 1876 | PDF Full-text (4817 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electric arc furnaces (EAFs) contribute to almost one third of the global steel production. Arc furnaces use a large amount of electrical energy to process scrap or reduced iron and are relevant to study because small improvements in their efficiency account for significant
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Electric arc furnaces (EAFs) contribute to almost one third of the global steel production. Arc furnaces use a large amount of electrical energy to process scrap or reduced iron and are relevant to study because small improvements in their efficiency account for significant energy savings. Optimal controllers need to be designed and proposed to enhance both process performance and energy consumption. Due to the random and chaotic nature of the electric arcs, neural networks and other soft computing techniques have been used for modeling EAFs. This study proposes a methodology for modeling EAFs that considers the time varying arc length as a relevant input parameter to the arc furnace model. Based on actual voltages and current measurements taken from an arc furnace, it was possible to estimate an arc length suitable for modeling the arc furnace using neural networks. The obtained results show that the model reproduces not only the stable arc conditions but also the unstable arc conditions, which are difficult to identify in a real heat process. The presented model can be applied for the development and testing of control systems to improve furnace energy efficiency and productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessArticle Olive Mill Wastewater: From a Pollutant to Green Fuels, Agricultural Water Source and Bio-Fertilizer—Part 1. The Drying Kinetics
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1423; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091423
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1204 | PDF Full-text (3171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Olive Mill Wastewater (OMWW) treatment is considered to be one of the main challenges that Mediterranean countries face. Although several procedures and technologies are mentioned in the literature, these techniques have several disadvantages or have been limited to laboratory pilot validation without posterior
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Olive Mill Wastewater (OMWW) treatment is considered to be one of the main challenges that Mediterranean countries face. Although several procedures and technologies are mentioned in the literature, these techniques have several disadvantages or have been limited to laboratory pilot validation without posterior industrial projection. Recently, an advanced environmental friendly strategy for the recovery of OMWW was established involving the impregnation of OMWW on dry biomasses, drying of these impregnated samples, and finally green fuels and biochar production. This established strategy revealed that the drying step is crucial for the success of the entire recovery process. Hence, two impregnated samples were prepared through OMWW impregnation on sawdust (IS) and olive mill solid waste (ISW). The drying kinetics of OMWW and impregnated samples (IS and ISW) were examined in a convective dryer (air velocity range from 0.7–1.3 m/s and the temperature from 40–60 °C). The experimental results indicated that the drying of the impregnated samples occurred twice as fast as for the OMWW sample. Such behavior was attributed to the remaining thin layer of oil on the OMWW surface Furthermore, the Henderson and Pabis model showed the suitable fit of the drying curves with a determination coefficient R2 above 0.97. The drying rates were extracted from the mathematical models and the drying process was analyzed. The coefficient of effective diffusivity varied between 2.8 and 11.7 × 10−10 m2/s. In addition, the activation energy values ranged between 28.7 and 44.9 kJ/mol. These values were in the same range as those obtained during the drying of other agrifood byproducts. The final results could be very helpful to engineers aiming to improve and optimize the OMWW drying process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Hybrid Wind Speed Forecasting System Based on a ‘Decomposition and Ensemble’ Strategy and Fuzzy Time Series
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091422
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1246 | PDF Full-text (2633 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate and stable wind speed forecasting is of critical importance in the wind power industry and has measurable influence on power-system management and the stability of market economics. However, most traditional wind speed forecasting models require a large amount of historical data and
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Accurate and stable wind speed forecasting is of critical importance in the wind power industry and has measurable influence on power-system management and the stability of market economics. However, most traditional wind speed forecasting models require a large amount of historical data and face restrictions due to assumptions, such as normality postulates. Additionally, any data volatility leads to increased forecasting instability. Therefore, in this paper, a hybrid forecasting system, which combines the ‘decomposition and ensemble’ strategy and fuzzy time series forecasting algorithm, is proposed that comprises two modules—data pre-processing and forecasting. Moreover, the statistical model, artificial neural network, and Support Vector Regression model are employed to compare with the proposed hybrid system, which is proven to be very effective in forecasting wind speed data affected by noise and instability. The results of these comparisons demonstrate that the hybrid forecasting system can improve the forecasting accuracy and stability significantly, and supervised discretization methods outperform the unsupervised methods for fuzzy time series in most cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Science and Big Data in Energy Forecasting)
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Open AccessReview State-Of-The-Art in Microgrid-Integrated Distributed Energy Storage Sizing
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1421; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091421
Received: 23 August 2017 / Revised: 2 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1377 | PDF Full-text (1981 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Distributed energy storage (DES) plays an important role in microgrid operation and control, as it can potentially improve local reliability and resilience, reduce operation cost, and mitigate challenges caused by high penetration renewable generation. However, to ensure an acceptable economic and technical performance,
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Distributed energy storage (DES) plays an important role in microgrid operation and control, as it can potentially improve local reliability and resilience, reduce operation cost, and mitigate challenges caused by high penetration renewable generation. However, to ensure an acceptable economic and technical performance, DES must be optimally sized and placed. This paper reviews the existing DES sizing methods for microgrid applications and presents a generic sizing method that enables microgrid planners to efficiently determine the optimal DES size, technology, and location. The proposed method takes into consideration the impact of DES operation on its lifetime to enhance the obtained results accuracy and practicality. The presented model can be used for both grid-tied (considering both grid-connected and islanded modes) and isolated microgrids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Energy Storage Applications in Smart Grid)
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Eroded Blades on Wind Turbine Performance Using Numerical Simulations
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1420; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091420
Received: 23 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1525 | PDF Full-text (1965 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During their operation, wind turbine blades are eroded due to rain and hail, or they are contaminated with insects. Since the relative inflow velocity is higher at the outer than at the inner part of the blades, erosion occurs mostly at the outer
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During their operation, wind turbine blades are eroded due to rain and hail, or they are contaminated with insects. Since the relative inflow velocity is higher at the outer than at the inner part of the blades, erosion occurs mostly at the outer blade region. In order to prevent strong erosion, it is possible to install a leading edge protection, which can be applied to the blades after the initial installation, but changes the shape of the initial airfoil sections. It is unclear how this modification influences the aerodynamic performance of the turbine. Hence, it is investigated in this work. The NREL 5 MW turbine is simulated with clean and eroded blades, which are compared to coated blades equipped with leading edge protection. Aerodynamic polars are generated by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics, and load calculations are conducted using the blade element momentum theory. The analysis in this work shows that, compared to clean rotor blades, the worse aerodynamic behaviour of strongly eroded blades can lead to power losses of 9 % . In contrast, coated blades only have a small impact on the turbine power of less than 1 % . Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine Loads and Wind Plant Performance)
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Open AccessArticle Study and Analysis of an Intelligent Microgrid Energy Management Solution with Distributed Energy Sources
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1419; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091419
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1935 | PDF Full-text (8381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a robust energy management solution which will facilitate the optimum and economic control of energy flows throughout a microgrid network is proposed. The increased penetration of renewable energy sources is highly intermittent in nature; the proposed solution demonstrates highly efficient
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In this paper, a robust energy management solution which will facilitate the optimum and economic control of energy flows throughout a microgrid network is proposed. The increased penetration of renewable energy sources is highly intermittent in nature; the proposed solution demonstrates highly efficient energy management. This study enables precise management of power flows by forecasting of renewable energy generation, estimating the availability of energy at storage batteries, and invoking the appropriate mode of operation, based on the load demand to achieve efficient and economic operation. The predefined mode of operation is derived out of an expert rule set and schedules the load and distributed energy sources along with utility grid. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Economic and Technical Efficiency of the Biomass Industry in China: A Network Data Envelopment Analysis Model Involving Externalities
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091418
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 902 | PDF Full-text (298 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes the network data envelopment analysis (DEA) model accounting for negative externalities and applies it for decomposition of profit inefficiency in the biomass-agriculture circular system (Bio-AG system). A circular structure of the Bio-AG system which is different from the previously applied
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This paper proposes the network data envelopment analysis (DEA) model accounting for negative externalities and applies it for decomposition of profit inefficiency in the biomass-agriculture circular system (Bio-AG system). A circular structure of the Bio-AG system which is different from the previously applied network structures is assumed. Since the negative externalities (i.e., pollutant emissions from the biomass industry) occur in the Bio-AG system, the property rights are taken into consideration to model the externalities-adjusted profits. Therefore, the changes in profits due to changes in the property rights (assuming no property rights, allocating property rights to agricultural sector, and allocating property rights to biomass power generation sector) are quantified. Further, the decomposition shows that the biomass power generation sector is less affected by technical inefficiency if contrasted to allocative inefficiency in terms of the profit loss. The findings suggest that the biomass power generation technology influences the profits of the biomass industry. What is more, the inefficient allocation of resources is now the key factor undermining performance of the biomass industry. Therefore, the government should adopt measures to improve the allocation of resources and prevent excessive investments or development of less efficient technologies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Efficient Energy Saving Scheme for Base Stations in 5G Networks with Separated Data and Control Planes Using Particle Swarm Optimization
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1417; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091417
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 10 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1383 | PDF Full-text (7869 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reducing energy consumption of mobile communication networks has gained significant attentions since it takes a major part of the total energy consumption of information and communication technology (ICT). In this paper, we consider 5G networks with heterogeneous macro cells and small cells, where
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Reducing energy consumption of mobile communication networks has gained significant attentions since it takes a major part of the total energy consumption of information and communication technology (ICT). In this paper, we consider 5G networks with heterogeneous macro cells and small cells, where data and control planes are separated. We consider two types of data traffic, i.e., low rate data traffic and high rate data traffic. In basic separation architecture, a macro cell base station (MBS) manages control signals, while a small cell base station (SBS) manages both low rate data traffic and high rate data traffic. In the considered modified separation architecture, an MBS manages control signals and low rate data traffic, while an SBS manages high rate data traffic. Then, an efficient energy saving scheme for base stations (BSs) is proposed, where the state of a BS is determined depending on the number of user equipments (UEs) that request high rate data traffic and the number of UEs that exist under the overlapping areas commonly covered by the considered BS and the neighbor BSs. We formulate an optimization problem for the proposed energy saving scheme and obtain the solution using particle swarm optimization (PSO). Numerical results show that the proposed energy saving scheme in the modified separated network architecture has better energy efficiency compared to the conventional energy saving schemes in both basic and modified separated network architectures. Also, the proposed energy saving scheme has lower aggregate delay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-Efficient Computing and Networking in the 5G Era)
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