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Open AccessArticle

Regenerative Intelligent Brake Control for Electric Motorcycles

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1648;
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods to Improve Energy Use in Road Vehicles)
PDF [4453 KB, uploaded 20 October 2017]


Vehicle models whose propulsion system is based on electric motors are increasing in number within the automobile industry. They will soon become a reliable alternative to vehicles with conventional propulsion systems. The main advantages of this type of vehicles are the non-emission of polluting gases and noise and the effectiveness of electric motors compared to combustion engines. Some of the disadvantages that electric vehicle manufacturers still have to solve are their low autonomy due to inefficient energy storage systems, vehicle cost, which is still too high, and reducing the recharging time. Current regenerative systems in motorcycles are designed with a low fixed maximum regeneration rate in order not to cause the rear wheel to slip when braking with the regenerative brake no matter what the road condition is. These types of systems do not make use of all the available regeneration power, since more importance is placed on safety when braking. An optimized regenerative braking strategy for two-wheeled vehicles is described is this work. This system is designed to recover the maximum energy in braking processes while maintaining the vehicle’s stability. In order to develop the previously described regenerative control, tyre forces, vehicle speed and road adhesion are obtained by means of an estimation algorithm. A based-on-fuzzy-logic algorithm is programmed to carry out an optimized control with this information. This system recuperates maximum braking power without compromising the rear wheel slip and safety. Simulations show that the system optimizes energy regeneration on every surface compared to a constant regeneration strategy. View Full-Text
Keywords: regeneration; electric vehicles; antilock brake system (ABS); fuzzy logic regeneration; electric vehicles; antilock brake system (ABS); fuzzy logic

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Castillo Aguilar, J.J.; Pérez Fernández, J.; Velasco García, J.M.; Cabrera Carrillo, J.A. Regenerative Intelligent Brake Control for Electric Motorcycles. Energies 2017, 10, 1648.

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