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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 19, Issue 2 (January-2 2022) – 406 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): There are few activities that are as ubiquitous as the activity of learning how to move. Despite diverse phenomena in diverse areas of application, many models of movement learning still make a claim to general validity that is independent of person and time. If Rousseau’s (1824) reform pedagogy already put the individual in the center of the teaching–learning context, then with the introduction of Peirce’s (1878) interpretant. the subjective could no longer be omitted from the models of research. From a historical point of view, with criteria from Stachowiak's (1973) General Model Theory and Cybernetic Pedagogy, the most common models of movement learning are critically reviewed, and ways to address the replication crisis in the life sciences are derived. View this paper
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3 pages, 289 KiB  
Correction
Correction: García-Aliaga et al. Comparative Analysis of Soccer Performance Intensity of the Pre–Post-Lockdown COVID-19 in LaLiga™. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3685
by Abraham García-Aliaga, Moisés Marquina, Antonio Cordón-Carmona, Manuel Sillero-Quintana, Alfonso de la Rubia, Silvestre Jos Vielcazat, Fabio Nevado Garrosa and Ignacio Refoyo Román
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 999; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020999 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2055
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...] Full article
13 pages, 1885 KiB  
Article
Variations of the Locomotor Profile, Sprinting, Change-of-Direction, and Jumping Performances in Youth Soccer Players: Interactions between Playing Positions and Age-Groups
by Ana Filipa Silva, Sümer Alvurdu, Zeki Akyildiz, Georgian Badicu, Gianpiero Greco and Filipe Manuel Clemente
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 998; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020998 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3257
Abstract
The purpose of this study was two-fold: (i) analyze the variations of locomotor profile, sprinting, change-of-direction (COD) and jumping performances between different youth age-groups; and (ii) test the interaction effect of athletic performance with playing positions. A cross-sectional study design was followed. A [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was two-fold: (i) analyze the variations of locomotor profile, sprinting, change-of-direction (COD) and jumping performances between different youth age-groups; and (ii) test the interaction effect of athletic performance with playing positions. A cross-sectional study design was followed. A total of 124 youth soccer players from five age-groups were analyzed once in a time. Players were classified based on their typical playing position. The following measures were obtained: (i) body composition (fat mass); (ii) jump height (measured in the countermovement jump; CMJ); (iii) sprinting time at 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, 25- and 30-m; (iv) maximal sprint speed (measured in the best split time; MSS); (v) COD asymmetry index percentage); (vi) final velocity at 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (VIFT); and (vii) anaerobic speed reserve (ASR = MSS − VIFT). A two-way ANOVA was used for establishing the interactions between age-groups and playing positions. Significant differences were found between age-groups in CMJ (p < 0.001), 5-m (p < 0.001), 10-m (p < 0.001), 15-m (p < 0.001), 20-m (p < 0.001), 25-m (p < 0.001), 30-m (p < 0.001), VIFT (p < 0.001), ASR (p = 0.003), MSS (p < 0.001), COD (p < 0.001). Regarding variations between playing positions no significant differences were found. In conclusion, it was found that the main factor influencing changes in physical fitness was the age group while playing positions had no influence on the variations in the assessed parameters. In particular, as older the age group, as better was in jumping, sprinting, COD, and locomotor profile. Full article
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30 pages, 1828 KiB  
Article
The Adverse Environmental Impact Factors Analysis on Fly-In-Fly-Out Personnel at Industrial Enterprises
by Yana Korneeva
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020997 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3074
Abstract
(1) Background: the research purpose is to identify and describe the general and different factors of adverse environmental impact on FIFO personnel at industrial enterprises at different levels of differential analysis of professional activity. (2) Methods: The research involved 359 employees of industrial [...] Read more.
(1) Background: the research purpose is to identify and describe the general and different factors of adverse environmental impact on FIFO personnel at industrial enterprises at different levels of differential analysis of professional activity. (2) Methods: The research involved 359 employees of industrial enterprises with FIFO work organization. The study was carried out using a questionnaire, including a subjective assessment of the discomfort of three groups of negative environment impact factors to the FIFO personnel: climatic-geographical, industrial and social. (3) Results: The relationship between the increase in the degree of discomfort of production factors due to the in-fluence of climatic, geographical and social conditions has been established. With a various location of objects, the greatest discomfort is felt from the action of climatic and production factors; with varying degrees of group isolation and the shift period duration—all three groups, with the greatest influence of domestic and social; in various industries and enterprises—all three groups. (4) Conclusions: The differential analysis of the professional activities of FIFO personnel of industrial enterprises should be carried out at the following levels: the location of an industrial facility, the degree of group isolation, the duration of the shift period, the industry, the type of enterprise and the professional group. Full article
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15 pages, 690 KiB  
Article
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Improving Nurses’ Education Level in the Context of In-Hospital Mortality
by Beata Wieczorek-Wójcik, Aleksandra Gaworska-Krzemińska, Piotr Szynkiewicz, Michał Wójcik, Monika Orzechowska and Dorota Kilańska
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 996; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020996 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3285
Abstract
(1) Background: an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of employing an increased number of nurses with higher education from the perspective of the service provider. (2) Methods: Based on a year-long study results and data collected from a large hospital, we conducted of the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of employing an increased number of nurses with higher education from the perspective of the service provider. (2) Methods: Based on a year-long study results and data collected from a large hospital, we conducted of the costs of preventing one death. The study involved intervention by 10% increase in the percentage of nursing care hours provided by nurses with higher education. The measure of health effects was the cost of avoiding one death (CER). The cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) was used as the evaluation method. (3) Results: The cost of employing a larger percentage of nurses with higher education amounts to a total of amounts to a USD 11,730.62 an increase of 3.02% as compared to the base costs. The estimated number of deaths that could be prevented was 44 deaths. Mortality per 1000 patient days was 9.42, mortality after intervention was 8.41. The cost of preventing one death by the 10% increase in BSN/MSN NCH percentage in non-surgical wards USD 263.92. (4) Conclusions: increasing the percentage of care hours provided by nurses with tertiary education is a cost-effective method of reducing in-hospital mortality. Full article
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11 pages, 396 KiB  
Concept Paper
Emerging Zoonotic Infections, Social Processes and Their Measurement and Enhanced Surveillance to Improve Zoonotic Epidemic Responses: A “Big Events” Perspective
by Samuel R. Friedman, Ashly E. Jordan, David C. Perlman, Georgios K. Nikolopoulos and Pedro Mateu-Gelabert
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 995; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020995 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2315
Abstract
Zoonotic epidemics and pandemics have become frequent. From HIV/AIDS through COVID-19, they demonstrate that pandemics are social processes as well as health occurrences. The roots of these pandemics lie in changes in the socioeconomic interface between humanity and non-human host species that facilitate [...] Read more.
Zoonotic epidemics and pandemics have become frequent. From HIV/AIDS through COVID-19, they demonstrate that pandemics are social processes as well as health occurrences. The roots of these pandemics lie in changes in the socioeconomic interface between humanity and non-human host species that facilitate interspecies transmission. The degree to which zoonoses spread has been increased by the greater speed and extent of modern transportation and trade. Pre-existing sociopolitical and economic structures and conflicts in societies also affect pathogen propagation. As an epidemic develops, it can itself become a social and political factor, and change and interact with pre-existing sociobehavioral norms and institutional structures. This paper uses a “Big Events” approach to frame these processes. Based on this framework, we discuss how social readiness surveys implemented both before and during an outbreak might help public health predict how overall systems might react to an epidemic and/or to disease control measures, and thus might inform interventions to mitigate potential adverse outcomes or possibly preventing outbreaks from developing into epidemics. We conclude by considering what “pathways measures”, in addition to those we and others have already developed, might usefully be developed and validated to assist outbreak and epidemic disease responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Human Concepts in Environmental and Public Health)
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23 pages, 387 KiB  
Article
School-Based Physical Activity Intervention: A Qualitative Process Evaluation of a Feasibility Trial in Yangzhou, China
by Haiquan Wang, Yanxing Zhou, Holly Blake and Kaushik Chattopadhyay
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021021 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3006
Abstract
Background: There is an urgent need for children in China to increase their physical activity levels. We first developed a 16-week school-based behavior change intervention based on the Behavior Change Wheel and Theoretical Domains Framework. We then conducted a cluster feasibility non-randomized controlled [...] Read more.
Background: There is an urgent need for children in China to increase their physical activity levels. We first developed a 16-week school-based behavior change intervention based on the Behavior Change Wheel and Theoretical Domains Framework. We then conducted a cluster feasibility non-randomized controlled trial (RCT) among children in Yangzhou, China. Aim: This qualitative process evaluation was embedded within the cluster feasibility non-RCT and aimed to: (1) explore the experiences and perceptions of participants and providers in the intervention and trial; and (2) generate recommendations to inform a future intervention and full-scale cluster RCT. Methods: A qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews with trial participants (n = 20 children: 10 intervention, 10 control), parents (n = 20), and health education providers (n = 2), was conducted in two public schools in Yangzhou, China. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated verbatim from Mandarin to English. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Findings believed to reflect experiences and perceptions of participants in the intervention and the trial are presented as eight major themes: (1) perceived high efficacy of the intervention components to help children become more active, (2) appreciation of the intervention features, (3) factors that facilitated or impeded intervention attendance and delivery, (4) positive experiences and feelings gained through the data collection process, (5) satisfaction regarding the organization and implementation of the trial, (6) influences of personal beliefs and emotional responses to the trial, (7) social influences on participatory decision-making, and (8) key barriers to consider regarding the recruitment of participants. Conclusions: The intervention and trial methods were acceptable to children, parents, and health education providers. School-based behavior change intervention was perceived to be a useful approach to increase physical activity in children aged 10–12 years in China. However, there were barriers to intervention delivery and engagement that should be considered when designing a future cluster RCT to assess the intervention efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Well-Being in School Setting)
11 pages, 350 KiB  
Article
Global DNA Methylation in Dental Implant Failure Due to Peri-Implantitis: An Exploratory Clinical Pilot Study
by Ismael Khouly, Simon Pardiñas López, Silvia María Díaz Prado, Luca Ferrantino, Josephine Kalm, Lena Larsson and Farah Asa’ad
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1020; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021020 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2230
Abstract
Background: Peri-implantitis (PIT) is highly prevalent in patients with dental implants and is a challenging condition to treat due to the limited outcomes reported for non-surgical and surgical therapies. Therefore, epigenetic therapeutics might be of key importance to treat PIT. However, developing epigenetic [...] Read more.
Background: Peri-implantitis (PIT) is highly prevalent in patients with dental implants and is a challenging condition to treat due to the limited outcomes reported for non-surgical and surgical therapies. Therefore, epigenetic therapeutics might be of key importance to treat PIT. However, developing epigenetic therapeutics is based on understanding the relationship between epigenetics and disease. To date, there is still scarce knowledge about the relationship between epigenetic modifications and PIT, which warrants further investigations. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of global DNA methylation associated with implant failure (IF) due to PIT compared to periodontally healthy (PH) patients. Material and Methods: A total of 20 participants were initially enrolled in this pilot, exploratory, single-blinded, cross-sectional clinical human study in two groups: 10 in the PH group and 10 in the IF group. In the participants who have completed the study, gingival tissue and bone samples were harvested from each participant and were used to perform global DNA methylation analysis. The percentage of global DNA methylation (5-mC%) was compared (1) between groups (PH and IF); (2) between the subgroups of gingival tissue and bone separately; (3) in the whole sample, comparing gingival tissue and bone; (4) within groups, comparing gingival tissue and bone. Demographic, periodontal, and peri-implant measurements as well as periodontal staging, were also recorded. All statistical comparisons were made at the 0.05 significance level. Results: Out of the initially enrolled 20 patients, only 19 completed the study and, thus, were included in the final analysis; 10 patients in the PH group and 9 patients in the IF group, contributing to a total of 38 samples. One patient from the IF group was excluded from the study due to systemic disease. The mean implant survival time was 10.8 years (2.17–15.25 years). Intergroup comparison, stratified by group, indicated a similar 5-mC% between the PH and IF groups in both gingival tissue and bone (p = 0.599), only in bone (p = 0.414), and only in gingival tissue (p = 0.744). Intragroup comparison, stratified by the type of sample, indicated a significantly higher 5-mC% in gingival tissue samples compared to bone in both the PH and IF groups (p = 0.001), in the PH group (p = 0.019), and in the IF group (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, higher global DNA methylation levels were found in gingival tissue samples compared to bone, regardless of the study groups. However, similar global DNA methylation levels were observed overall between the IF and PH groups. Yet, differences in the global DNA methylation levels between gingival tissues and bone, regardless of the study group, could reflect a different epigenetic response between various tissues within the same microenvironment. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the present findings and to evaluate the role of epigenetic modifications in IF due to PIT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases)
12 pages, 874 KiB  
Article
Association between Reproductive Factors and Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Yuting Yu, Jing Li, Yonggen Jiang, Maryam Zaid, Qi Zhao, Na Wang, Xing Liu, Yun Qiu, Junjie Zhu, Xin Tong, Shuheng Cui, Yiling Wu, Jianguo Yu and Genming Zhao
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021019 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2147
Abstract
(1) Introduction: The available studies on the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and menopause report conflicting results. (2) Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association of menopausal status, age at menopause, and length of the reproductive period with T2DM. (3) [...] Read more.
(1) Introduction: The available studies on the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and menopause report conflicting results. (2) Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association of menopausal status, age at menopause, and length of the reproductive period with T2DM. (3) Methods: This cross-sectional study is part of the ‘China Eastern Cohort Study’, which is a community-based cohort study. Multistage, stratified, clustered sampling was used to recruit the study participants in Shanghai, China. Age at menarche and menopause was recorded, and reproductive period was calculated. Weighted logistic regression was used to calculate the prevalence ratios (PRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of T2DM. Restricted cubic splines were used to assess the relationship between age at menopause, reproductive period, and T2DM. (4) Results: A total of 20,128 women were included. The prevalence of T2DM was 13.7%. Postmenopausal women exhibited a higher prevalence of T2DM than premenopausal women (p < 0.001) and an unfavorable metabolic profile, including higher body mass index, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. A higher risk of T2DM was observed in postmenopausal women (PR2.12, 95%CI: 1.79–2.51, p < 0.001) compared with premenopausal women, independently of confounding factors. After adjustment for confounding factors, age at menopause and reproductive period were not significantly associated with T2DM. (5) Conclusions: Postmenopausal status is associated with T2DM, while menopausal age and reproductive period are not associated with T2DM. Menopausal status should be considered during T2DM screening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Disease Epidemiology: Advances in Research and Methods)
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15 pages, 1625 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Insomnia in Spain in the COVID-19 Crisis
by Stephen X. Zhang, Richard Z. Chen, Wen Xu, Allen Yin, Rebecca Kechen Dong, Bryan Z. Chen, Andrew Yilong Delios, Saylor Miller, Roger S. McIntyre, Wenping Ye and Xue Wan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021018 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 5720
Abstract
Background: General population, frontline healthcare workers (HCWs), and adult students in Spain are at risk of anxiety, depression, and insomnia symptoms during the COVID-19 crisis. A meta-analysis of the individual studies on these symptoms would provide systematic evidence to aid policymakers and researchers [...] Read more.
Background: General population, frontline healthcare workers (HCWs), and adult students in Spain are at risk of anxiety, depression, and insomnia symptoms during the COVID-19 crisis. A meta-analysis of the individual studies on these symptoms would provide systematic evidence to aid policymakers and researchers in focusing on prevalence, risk, and best interventions. Objective: This paper aims to be the first meta-analysis and systematic review to calculate the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia symptoms in Spain’s adult population (general population, frontline healthcare workers (HCWs), and adult students) during the Covid-19 epidemic. Method: Random-effect meta-analysis was used to estimate the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. Results: The meta-analysis includes 28 studies with 38 individual samples in Spain. The pooled prevalence of anxiety symptoms in 22 studies comprising a sample population of 82,024 was 20% (95% CI: 15–25%), that of depression symptoms in 22 articles with a total sample comprising 82,890 individuals was 22% (95% CI: 18–28%), and that of insomnia symptoms in three articles with a sample population of 745 was 57% (95% CI: 48–66%. Conclusions: The accumulative evidence reveals that adults in Spain suffered higher prevalence rates of mental symptoms during the COVID-19 crisis, with a significantly higher rate relative to other countries such as China. Our synthesis also reveals a relative lack of studies on frontline and general HCWs in Spain. Full article
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15 pages, 598 KiB  
Article
The Sexual and Parenting Rights of People with Physical and Psychical Disabilities: Attitudes of Italians and Socio-Demographic Factors Involved in Recognition and Denial
by Simona Gabriella Di Santo, Margherita Colombo, Marco Silvaggi, Giorgia Rosamaria Gammino, Valentina Fava, Chiara Malandrino, Chiara Nanini, Cristina Rossetto, Sara Simone and Stefano Eleuteri
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021017 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2825
Abstract
The sexual and parenting rights (SPRs) of people with disabilities (PwDs) are under-recognized. Sociodemographic factors may influence attitudes towards them. The aims of this study were: (1) to analyze the levels of agreement of a sample of Italian people with some SPRs of [...] Read more.
The sexual and parenting rights (SPRs) of people with disabilities (PwDs) are under-recognized. Sociodemographic factors may influence attitudes towards them. The aims of this study were: (1) to analyze the levels of agreement of a sample of Italian people with some SPRs of PwDs; (2) to inquire if the SPRs of people with psychical disabilities (PwPSYDs) were less recognized than those with physical disabilities (PwPHDs); (3) to verify if sociodemographic characteristics associated with under-recognition. An online anonymous survey was distributed using non-random sampling methods to conduct an inquiry into the level of agreement with statements regarding the SPRs of PwPHDs and PwPSYDs to have satisfying sexuality, to marry, and to adopt children. Answers from 973 Italian participants, aged 18–84 years (71.1% females) were analyzed. At least 70% of respondents declared in favor of the SPRs of PwPHDs. The SPRs of PwPSYDs were always subjected to higher under-recognition. Religiosity, male sex, higher age, and lower education were the factors most often associated with being against the SPRs of PwDs. Improved identification of the less tolerant respondents and the less recognized categories may allow for specific strategies for promoting the recognition of the SPRs for PwDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sexual Health and Sexual Rights)
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16 pages, 2254 KiB  
Review
Sustainability of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) Systems in Buildings—An Overview
by Nilofar Asim, Marzieh Badiei, Masita Mohammad, Halim Razali, Armin Rajabi, Lim Chin Haw and Mariyam Jameelah Ghazali
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021016 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 11729
Abstract
Increasing demand on heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems and their importance, as the respiratory system of buildings, in developing and spreading various microbial contaminations and diseases with their huge global energy consumption share have forced researchers, industries, and policymakers to focus on [...] Read more.
Increasing demand on heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems and their importance, as the respiratory system of buildings, in developing and spreading various microbial contaminations and diseases with their huge global energy consumption share have forced researchers, industries, and policymakers to focus on improving the sustainability of HVAC systems. Understanding and considering various parameters related to the sustainability of new and existing HVAC systems as the respiratory system of buildings are vital to providing healthy, energy-efficient, and economical options for various building types. However, the greatest opportunities for improving the sustainability of HVAC systems exist at the design stage of new facilities and the retrofitting of existing equipment. Considering the high available percentage of existing HVAC systems globally reveals the importance of their retrofitting. The attempt has been made to gather all important parameters that affect decision-making to select the optimum HVAC system development considerations among the various opportunities that are available for sustainability improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Energy Efficiency, Environment and Health)
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10 pages, 718 KiB  
Article
Estimating US Earnings Loss Associated with COVID-19 Based on Human Capital Calculation
by Fuhmei Wang and Jung-Der Wang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021015 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2226
Abstract
Infection with COVID-19 could result in lockdown, quarantine of contacts, absenteeism from work, and temporary productivity loss. This research aims to calculate (1) how the pandemic affects on-the-job probability and earnings for the working population, and (2) how much productivity loss is associated [...] Read more.
Infection with COVID-19 could result in lockdown, quarantine of contacts, absenteeism from work, and temporary productivity loss. This research aims to calculate (1) how the pandemic affects on-the-job probability and earnings for the working population, and (2) how much productivity loss is associated with self or a family member sick with COVID-19. Based on data collected from the U.S Research and Development Survey (RANDS), this research projects the relationship between on-the-job possibility and age of the index group and calculates the employment possibilities of the index group relative to the healthy group, namely the employment ratio. The weekly loss of productivity, presented by earnings, associated with COVID-19 for groups aged 18–44 years and 45–64 years was calculated, since the 18- to 64-year-old population is an economy’s active workforce. Analytical results indicate that the older the age group, the lower the on-the-job possibility, and the higher the weekly productivity loss due to self or a family member being sick from COVID-19. For the group aged 45–64 years, the employment ratio of the index group relative to the healthy group dropped from 0.863 to 0.39, corresponding to a weekly productivity loss of 136–590 US dollars. The overall impact would be about a 9% loss in GDP. Infected or quarantined people would be confined to working in relatively isolated offices or places to allow for social distancing. Proactive health promotion in the workplace plus reactive work through telecommunication systems would reduce such losses. Such preparedness needs to be implemented early for more vulnerable workers who are of middle or old age and/or those comorbid with diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Burden of COVID-19 in Different Countries)
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11 pages, 343 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of a Mobile Wellness Program for Nurses with Rotating Shifts during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Pilot Cluster-Randomized Trial
by Yeongmi Ha, Sang-Ho Lee, Dong-Ha Lee, Young-Hun Kang, Woonjoo Choi and Jinung An
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021014 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3121
Abstract
Nurses with rotating shifts, including night shifts, have suffered from low physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic and lower sleep quality due to the disruption of their circadian rhythm. This study aimed to develop and examine the effectiveness of a mobile wellness program [...] Read more.
Nurses with rotating shifts, including night shifts, have suffered from low physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic and lower sleep quality due to the disruption of their circadian rhythm. This study aimed to develop and examine the effectiveness of a mobile wellness program on daily steps, sleep quality, exercise self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation for exercise, self-rated fatigue, and wellness. A cluster randomized controlled trial design was used to examine the effectiveness of the mobile wellness program for nurses with rotating shifts. Sixty nurses from one university hospital participated and were allocated to an intervention group and a control group. The intervention group received a 12-week mobile wellness program to improve their physical activity and sleep quality, and the control group was only given a Fitbit to self-monitor their health behaviors. There were significant differences between the two groups in daily steps (p = 0.000), three components (subjective sleep quality, sleep disturbance, daytime dysfunction) of the PSQI, exercise self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation for exercise, and wellness. In conclusion, this study provides meaningful information that the mobile wellness program using Fitbit, online exercise using Zoom, online health coaching on a Korean mobile platform, and motivational text messages effectively promoted physical activity and sleep quality for nurses with rotating shifts during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Exercise and Health)
11 pages, 333 KiB  
Article
Pain Management Strategies among Cancer Patients. Normalization of the CSQ (The Pain Coping Strategies Questionnaire) Form
by Urszula Religioni, Aleksandra Czerw, Katarzyna Sygit, Krzysztof Zdziarski, Olga Partyka, Monika Pajewska, Anna Augustynowicz, Michał Waszkiewicz, Elżbieta Cipora, Ewa Ziółkowska, Dominika Mękal, Sylwia Jopek, Łukasz Strzępek and Tomasz Banaś
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021013 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2886
Abstract
Introduction: Cancer is associated with chronic pain, which significantly reduces the quality of life. The level of pain depends on the dominant pain management strategy that the patient uses. Objective: This study seeks to evaluate the application of the Pain Coping Strategies Questionnaire [...] Read more.
Introduction: Cancer is associated with chronic pain, which significantly reduces the quality of life. The level of pain depends on the dominant pain management strategy that the patient uses. Objective: This study seeks to evaluate the application of the Pain Coping Strategies Questionnaire among cancer patients and develop norms allowing differentiation of patients with diagnosed cancer in terms of pain management strategies. Material and Methods: The study involved 1187 patients diagnosed with malignant cancer, who are under outpatient care of the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute—Oncology Center in Warsaw. The study used the Pain Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) elaborated by A.K. Rosentel and F.J. Keefe. Results: Socioeconomic variables and medical factors affect pain management strategies chosen by patients. The area most strongly differentiated by the studied variables is praying/hoping. Factors that have the greatest impact on the choice of pain management strategies for cancer patients include education, income, and radiation therapy. Sten standards were developed to determine the severity of pain management strategies used in the low-average-high categories. Conclusions: The CSQ questionnaire should be used in cancer patients, and the result of the strategy used can be a prognostic factor for the expected effects of therapy. Knowledge of the variables most strongly affecting patients’ choice of strategies that are not conducive to strengthening health attitudes and the ability to determine the severity of pain management strategies on standard scales allows us to focus psychotherapeutic activities on patients who need support most. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Lifestyle: Health Promotion and Prevention)
19 pages, 1893 KiB  
Article
Diabetes Capabilities for the Healthcare Workforce Identified via a 3-Staged Modified Delphi Technique
by Giuliana Murfet, Joan Ostaszkiewicz and Bodil Rasmussen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021012 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3582
Abstract
Consumers access health professionals with varying levels of diabetes-specific knowledge and training, often resulting in conflicting advice. Conflicting health messages lead to consumer disengagement. The study aimed to identify capabilities required by health professionals to deliver diabetes education and care to develop a [...] Read more.
Consumers access health professionals with varying levels of diabetes-specific knowledge and training, often resulting in conflicting advice. Conflicting health messages lead to consumer disengagement. The study aimed to identify capabilities required by health professionals to deliver diabetes education and care to develop a national consensus capability-based framework to guide their training. A 3-staged modified Delphi technique was used to gain agreement from a purposefully recruited panel of Australian diabetes experts from various disciplines and work settings. The Delphi technique consisted of (Stage I) a semi-structured consultation group and pre-Delphi pilot, (Stage II) a 2-phased online Delphi survey, and (Stage III) a semi-structured focus group and appraisal by health professional regulatory and training organisations. Descriptive statistics and central tendency measures calculated determined quantitative data characteristics and consensus. Content analysis using emergent coding was used for qualitative content. Eighty-four diabetes experts were recruited from nursing and midwifery (n = 60 [71%]), allied health (n = 17 [20%]), and pharmacy (n = 7 [9%]) disciplines. Participant responses identified 7 health professional practice levels requiring differences in diabetes training, 9 capability areas to support care, and 2 to 16 statements attained consensus for each capability—259 in total. Additionally, workforce solutions were identified to expand capacity for diabetes care. The rigorous consultation process led to the design and validation of a Capability Framework for Diabetes Care that addresses workforce enablers identified by the Australian National Diabetes Strategy. It recognises diversity, creating shared understandings of diabetes across health professional disciplines. The findings will inform diabetes policy, practice, education, and research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Primary Healthcare)
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10 pages, 315 KiB  
Article
How Does the Involuntary Choice of Self-Employment Affect Subjective Well-Being in Small-Sized Business Workers? A Cross-Sectional Study from the Fifth Korean Working Conditions Survey
by SangJin Park, Chulyong Park and Joo Hyun Sung
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021011 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1794
Abstract
In South Korea, self-employed workers comprise 24.6% of the working population—among which 99.7% were found to operate with less than 50 employees. However, few studies have investigated the effects of an involuntary choice of self-employment. In this study, based on the fifth Korean [...] Read more.
In South Korea, self-employed workers comprise 24.6% of the working population—among which 99.7% were found to operate with less than 50 employees. However, few studies have investigated the effects of an involuntary choice of self-employment. In this study, based on the fifth Korean Working Conditions Survey, the factors affecting subjective well-being and mental health in small business owners with less than 50 employees among service/sales workers, who account for more than half of the self-employed population in Korea, were analyzed by the World Health Organization—Five Well-Being Index, using the Student’s t-test, ANOVA and logistic regression analysis. Results showed that the well-being level for those who opted for self-employment involuntarily was lower than those who chose it voluntarily. Then, participants were separated into two groups according to sex; the degree corresponding to the poor well-being score group was compared, and that of the group who chose self-employment because they could not find any other work was significantly higher than that of the group who chose it voluntarily, in both men and women, and this was similar even after correcting for covariance. As the number of people being forced to choose self-employment is expected to further increase after the outbreak of COVID-19, future studies should be conducted to improve subjective well-being of such workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Occupational Safety and Health)
14 pages, 2270 KiB  
Article
Prediction Model for the Risk of HIV Infection among MSM in China: Validation and Stability
by Yinqiao Dong, Shangbin Liu, Danni Xia, Chen Xu, Xiaoyue Yu, Hui Chen, Rongxi Wang, Yujie Liu, Jingwen Dong, Fan Hu, Yong Cai and Ying Wang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021010 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2881
Abstract
The impact of psychosocial factors on increasing the risk of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) has attracted increasing attention. We aimed to develop and validate an integrated prediction model, especially incorporating emerging psychosocial variables, for predicting the risk [...] Read more.
The impact of psychosocial factors on increasing the risk of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) has attracted increasing attention. We aimed to develop and validate an integrated prediction model, especially incorporating emerging psychosocial variables, for predicting the risk of HIV infection among MSM. We surveyed and collected sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral information from 547 MSM in China. The participants were split into a training set and a testing set in a 3:1 theoretical ratio. The prediction model was constructed by introducing the important variables selected with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression, applying multivariate logistic regression, and visually assessing the risk of HIV infection through the nomogram. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC), Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, calibration plots, Hosmer–Lemeshow test and population stability index (PSI) were performed to test validity and stability of the model. Four of the 15 selected variables—unprotected anal intercourse, multiple sexual partners, involuntary subordination and drug use before sex—were included in the prediction model. The results indicated that the comprehensive prediction model we developed had relatively good predictive performance and stability in identifying MSM at high-risk for HIV infection, thus providing targeted interventions for high-risk MSM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
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21 pages, 573 KiB  
Article
Establishing Core Competencies and a Professional Curriculum for the Care Service Department in Vocational High Schools in Taiwan
by Nan-Chen Hsieh, Shu-Fang Vivienne Wu, Juin-Ming Tsai, Li-Ju Lin and Juo-Hsiang Sun
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021009 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 2010
Abstract
In response to the emergence of the aging society, the vocational high school education system in Taiwan has established a care service department since 2018. The purpose of this study was to develop core competencies and a professional curriculum for the care service [...] Read more.
In response to the emergence of the aging society, the vocational high school education system in Taiwan has established a care service department since 2018. The purpose of this study was to develop core competencies and a professional curriculum for the care service department in vocational high schools. First, this study invited 20 experts and scholars to take part in a focus group to collect suggestions as the basis for the development of core competencies and a curriculum. Second, this study invited 10 experts and scholars to participate in three rounds of a Delphi survey to evaluate the planning for the development of core competencies and a curriculum that meet educational needs. In this study, we identified eight core competency constructs and 15 indicators across two dimensions relating to the care services taught in vocational high schools. We then designed 26 professional subjects according to the core competencies. We identified the core competencies for long-term care service education and devised a professional curriculum to foster the skills and knowledge among students that are required for successfully meeting the care needs of a rapidly aging society through work in the long-term care industry after graduation. Full article
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17 pages, 747 KiB  
Review
The Lived Experiences of Fathers in Mealtimes: A Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Literature
by Natalie Campbell, Michèle Verdonck, Libby Swanepoel and Laine Chilman
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021008 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2528
Abstract
The paternal experience of family mealtimes is an emerging field within qualitative literature. Previous quantitative studies suggest that differences exist between fathers’ and mothers’ mealtime behaviours, particularly in response to fussy eating. However, qualitative research has not yet focused exclusively on fathers’ fussy [...] Read more.
The paternal experience of family mealtimes is an emerging field within qualitative literature. Previous quantitative studies suggest that differences exist between fathers’ and mothers’ mealtime behaviours, particularly in response to fussy eating. However, qualitative research has not yet focused exclusively on fathers’ fussy eating experiences. This metasynthesis aimed to provide insights into the general paternal experience, inclusive of their fussy eating responses. Thematic synthesis methodology was adopted to achieve this process and consisted of a systematic search resulting in the inclusion of 16 studies (18 papers). The direct quotations presented within each study were subjected to three stages of analysis to produce three analytical themes, supported by eight descriptive themes. The analytical themes presented were: (1) environmental influences on fathers’ mealtime experiences; (2) attitudes and emotions of fathers during mealtimes; and (3) observable behaviours of fathers during mealtimes. These themes highlighted the complexity of the mealtime experience from a paternal perspective. Multidirectional relationships were identified between each mealtime component (i.e., the environment, attitudes, emotions and behaviours) as evidenced by the paternal commentary presented. The findings also provided insights into fathers’ fussy eating experiences, recognising that fathers should be considered as individuals in the presence of mealtime intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Environments and Eating Behaviours in Infants and Children)
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6 pages, 979 KiB  
Case Report
MRSA Femoral Osteomyelitis from Superinfected Scabies Lesions: A Pediatric Case Report
by Marco Ugo Andrea Sartorio, Alice Marianna Munari, Patrizia Carlucci, Paola Erba, Valeria Calcaterra and Valentina Fabiano
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021007 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2049
Abstract
Scabies is a skin infestation from the Sarcoptes scabiei. It is considered a public health issue causing concern in developing countries and is considered a “neglected tropical disease” by the World Health Organization (WHO). Scabies skin lesions may cause severe itching and [...] Read more.
Scabies is a skin infestation from the Sarcoptes scabiei. It is considered a public health issue causing concern in developing countries and is considered a “neglected tropical disease” by the World Health Organization (WHO). Scabies skin lesions may cause severe itching and can be the portal of entry for opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria, which can cause serious systemic infections. We report the case of a 3-year-old boy with recurrent scabies infections who presented to the emergency department because of a fever and refusal to walk. Blood tests showed neutrophilic leukocytosis and significantly increased C reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin. Upon medical examination, his right thigh was extremely painful upon palpation, knee flexion was lost and he was unable to stand, so magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. MRI showed osteomyelitis of metaphysis and distal diaphysis of the right femur with associated subperiosteal purulent collection and concomitant pyomyositis and fasciitis of the distal right thigh. Blood cultures were positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The patient received a long course of intravenous antibiotic therapy and his condition slowly improved. Follow-up femur X-ray showed a mixed pattern of erosion and sclerosis at the meta-diaphyseal region and periosteal reaction at the diaphyseal region. This case highlights the importance of early scabies diagnosis even in Western countries where poverty and household overcrowding are uncommon. Early diagnosis, timely initiation of proper treatment and evidence of clinical resolution are important elements to prevent recurrence of infection and serious systemic superinfections even from multi-drug resistant bacteria. Clinical consequences from unrecognized disease or inadequate eradication are preventable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children and Adolescents: Preventable Infectious Diseases)
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21 pages, 1398 KiB  
Article
Energy Poverty and Depression in Rural China: Evidence from the Quantile Regression Approach
by Jun Zhang, Yuang He and Jing Zhang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021006 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2411
Abstract
Despite the growing awareness and interest in the impact of energy poverty on depression, studies in developing economies are relative limited, and there is a gap of knowledge of such impact among rural individuals in China. In this study, we investigate the impact [...] Read more.
Despite the growing awareness and interest in the impact of energy poverty on depression, studies in developing economies are relative limited, and there is a gap of knowledge of such impact among rural individuals in China. In this study, we investigate the impact of energy poverty on depression among rural Chinese individuals aged 16 and above, and our sample includes 13,784 individuals from 6103 households. With data from the 2018 China Family Panel Studies, we apply the instrumental variable (IV) quantile regression approach to address the potential endogeneity of energy poverty and allow for heterogeneous effects of energy poverty on depression across individuals with different levels of depression. Our estimates from the IV quantile regression suggest a strong positive impact of energy poverty on depression at the upper quantile of depression scores, but no impact at the middle and lower quantiles. The primary results are robust and consistent with alternative energy poverty measures, and we find that energy poverty does not affect depression of low-risk individuals (with low depression scores), but it does affect that of high-risk individuals. We also find individual socio-demographic factors of age, gender, household size, religious belief, education, marriage and employment status play roles in affecting depression. The findings of this study generate policy implications for energy poverty alleviation and mental health promotion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Public Health Statistics and Risk Assessment)
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7 pages, 993 KiB  
Communication
Passability of Chironomid Larvae in Granular Activated Carbon
by Cha Young Lee, Jinseok Byeon, Min Kyung Kim, Tae-gwan Lee and Dong Gun Kim
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1005; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021005 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1649
Abstract
We conducted an experiment to confirm the passability of chironomid larvae (Glyptotendipes tokunagai) in granular activated carbon (GAC) used in water treatment plants. After injecting larvae at different growth stages (first through fourth instars) into circular columns filled with GAC, the [...] Read more.
We conducted an experiment to confirm the passability of chironomid larvae (Glyptotendipes tokunagai) in granular activated carbon (GAC) used in water treatment plants. After injecting larvae at different growth stages (first through fourth instars) into circular columns filled with GAC, the number of individuals and their locations within the GAC columns were recorded after 168 h. We found that more than 80% of the injected larvae in the first instar and 3.3% in the second instar passed, whereas none from the third and fourth instars had passed through the column. The second instar larvae were evenly distributed within the column, whereas the third and fourth instar larvae were mostly distributed within 10 cm of the upper layer of the GAC. Our results demonstrate the passability of chironomid larvae in GAC and can be used as basic information for water quality management in water treatment plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality and Ecosystem Monitoring, Analysis, and Management)
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15 pages, 332 KiB  
Article
Mental Health Symptoms and Workplace Challenges among Australian Paramedics during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Katherine Petrie, Natasha Smallwood, Amy Pascoe and Karen Willis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1004; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021004 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 7099
Abstract
Background: Paramedics are vital to the health system response to the COVID-19 pandemic; however, the pressures on this workforce have been intense and challenging. This study reports on mental health symptoms and the working environment among Australian paramedics during the COVID-19 pandemic and [...] Read more.
Background: Paramedics are vital to the health system response to the COVID-19 pandemic; however, the pressures on this workforce have been intense and challenging. This study reports on mental health symptoms and the working environment among Australian paramedics during the COVID-19 pandemic and explores their experiences of work and wellbeing during this time. Methods: An anonymous, online survey of frontline healthcare workers examined work environment, psychological wellbeing, and contained four open-ended qualitative items. Using a mixed method approach, quantitative data were analysed descriptively and qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. Results: This paper reports findings from 95 paramedics who provided complete quantitative data and 85 paramedics who provided free-text responses to at least one qualitative item. Objectively measured mental health symptoms were common among paramedics, and almost two thirds of paramedics self-reported experiencing burnout. Qualitative analysis highlighted key issues of safety and risk in the workplace, uncertainty and upheaval at work and at home, and lack of crisis preparedness. Qualitative analysis revealed four themes; ‘the pervasiveness of COVID-19 disruptions across all life domains’; ‘the challenges of widespread disruption at work’; ‘risk, uncertainty and feeling unsafe at work’, and ‘the challenges of pandemic (un)preparedness across the health system’. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in considerable occupational disruption for paramedics and was associated with significant negative impacts on mental health. Findings emphasise the need for more adaptive working conditions, mental health support for paramedics, and enhanced crisis preparedness across the health system for future crises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing during and beyond COVID-19)
11 pages, 329 KiB  
Article
Assessing Different Types of HIV Communication and Sociocultural Factors on Perceived HIV Stigma and Testing among a National Sample of Youth and Young Adults
by Gamji M’Rabiu Abubakari, Martez D. R. Smith, Donte T. Boyd, S. Raquel Ramos, Courtney Johnson, Juan L. Benavides, Megan Threats, Junior L. Allen and Camille R. Quinn
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1003; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021003 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2588
Abstract
In the United States, racial/ethnic and sexual youth and young adults (YYA) of color are disproportionately affected by HIV. Subsequently, YYA experience HIV stigma and engage in increased risk behaviors and reduced HIV testing. HIV communication has been identified as a potential buffer [...] Read more.
In the United States, racial/ethnic and sexual youth and young adults (YYA) of color are disproportionately affected by HIV. Subsequently, YYA experience HIV stigma and engage in increased risk behaviors and reduced HIV testing. HIV communication has been identified as a potential buffer to HIV stigma, resulting in health-seeking behaviors, such as HIV testing. In this study, we respond to a meaningful gap in the literature by examining different types of HIV communication and their impact on HIV stigma and HIV testing in a diverse sample of YYA. We analyzed secondary data from the Kaiser Family Foundation National Survey of Teens and Young Adults on HIV/AIDS. A 40-question, web-based survey was conducted with 1437 youth (ages 15–24). Recruitment included a dual sampling method from households with: (1) listed phone numbers, (2) unlisted phone numbers, (3) telephones, (4) no telephone, and (5) only cell phone access. The purpose of the survey was to establish participants’ HIV knowledge, communication, experiences, and testing behaviors. Findings suggested an association between intimate-partner HIV communication, increased HIV testing, and reduced HIV stigma. We also identified differentials in HIV testing and stigma based on gender, income, age, and sexual minority status, explained by HIV communication. Further research is needed that examines ways to use intimate-partner HIV communication to reduce stigma and increase HIV testing among YYA of different sociodemographic characteristics and sexual orientations. Full article
18 pages, 1407 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Interaction Mechanism of the Risk Factors of Gas Explosions in Chinese Underground Coal Mines
by Jinjia Zhang, Yiping Zeng, Genserik Reniers and Jie Liu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021002 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2281
Abstract
Gas explosion accidents easily cause severe casualties in Chinese underground coal mines. Systematic analysis of accident causation is crucial for the prevention of gas explosions. This study identifies the representative risk factors of gas explosions and determines the interrelationship among these risk factors [...] Read more.
Gas explosion accidents easily cause severe casualties in Chinese underground coal mines. Systematic analysis of accident causation is crucial for the prevention of gas explosions. This study identifies the representative risk factors of gas explosions and determines the interrelationship among these risk factors to highlight weak links and develop countermeasures. A total of 21 representative risk factors of gas explosions were identified through 128 case studies and front-line investigations. On this basis, a five-level hierarchical structure model of gas explosions was established to explore the complex interrelationships among the representative risk factors based on a combination of the Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) and Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) methods. Moreover, the Matrix of Cross Impact Multiplications Applied to Classification (MICMAC) method was applied to achieve risk factor classification into four clusters, namely, driving factors, linkage factors, dependent factors and autonomous factors. The results indicated that the interrelationships and emergence properties among the risk factors may cause gas explosions, which should give more attention to the interrelationships among multiple factors and multiple subsystems for coal enterprises. Meanwhile, the complex geological conditions, poor safety supervision, inadequate safety education and training, incomplete execution safety regulations and poor safety technology and input are the long-term focus of risk management for coal enterprises. Finally, 10 countermeasures were proposed to control these representative risk factors and interrelationships. The results are helpful to the development of gas explosion risk management policies and to the preferential allocation of limited resources to resolve these issues. Full article
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15 pages, 1379 KiB  
Article
Loss of Skeletal Muscle Mass and Intracellular Water as Undesired Outcomes of Weight Reduction in Obese Hyperglycemic Women: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study
by Jolanta Zalejska-Fiolka, Anna Birková, Tomasz Wielkoszyński, Beáta Hubková, Beata Szlachta, Rafał Fiolka, Urszula Błaszczyk, Aleksandra Kuzan, Andrzej Gamian, Mária Mareková and Michał Toborek
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021001 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2244
Abstract
The current study is focused on the influence of hyperglycemia on weight loss in obese premenopausal women. Specifically, the study evaluated the impact of a six-month individualized low-calorie diet combined with moderate exercise on weight reduction and glucose metabolism in obese women with [...] Read more.
The current study is focused on the influence of hyperglycemia on weight loss in obese premenopausal women. Specifically, the study evaluated the impact of a six-month individualized low-calorie diet combined with moderate exercise on weight reduction and glucose metabolism in obese women with normoglycemia compared to obese women with moderate hyperglycemia. The results indicated that patients with normoglycemia achieved a successful weight loss, which was connected to a decrease in adipose tissue and reflected by diminished content of visceral fat area (VFA) and percent body fat. In contrast, weight reduction in patients with hyperglycemia was connected not only to the loss of VFA but also to undesired decrease in skeletal muscle mass as well as intracellular and total body water. These unfavorable outcomes were observed despite normalization of glucose metabolism reflected by statistically significant lowering glucose, fructosamine, advanced glycation end-products, and HOMA-IR levels. Overall, the obtained results indicate the importance of the measurement of the carbohydrate profile in obese women and the need for an early introduction of weight reduction strategies before the development of hyperglycemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Overweight and Obesity—Diagnosis and Treatment)
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14 pages, 1314 KiB  
Article
Therapeutic and Preventive Efficacy of an Intervention on Workers in a Back School
by Alberto Benito Rodríguez, Hugo Guillermo Ternavasio-de la Vega, José Ángel Santos Sánchez, Helena Iglesias de Sena, Miguel Marcos, Antonio Javier Chamorro and José Antonio Mirón-Canelo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021000 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1904
Abstract
Back pain and its ailments are the main cause of absenteeism and sick leave. Furthermore, the cause of pain and disability in a large number of workers is unknown, and treatments are not effective in controlling it. For this reason, the Back Schools [...] Read more.
Back pain and its ailments are the main cause of absenteeism and sick leave. Furthermore, the cause of pain and disability in a large number of workers is unknown, and treatments are not effective in controlling it. For this reason, the Back Schools (BSs) provide theoretical and practical training to workers so that they can acquire knowledge and skills that will allow them to adequately manage their back problems, enabling them to recover their autonomy and prevent relapses. The aim of the study is to analyse the efficacy of a BS by means of the evaluation of pain and disability scales in workers in different sectors and in construction. The most important clinical benefits obtained after the intervention of a BS are the reduction of pain and disability. Statistically significant and clinically relevant results have been observed between the initial assessment and the 6-month review. BS has been shown to be effective in reducing low back and neck pain and disability during the first 6 months of follow-up. Construction workers have pain and disability rates at the overall mean and with improvements between the initial assessment and the 6-month review. Their rates of improvement are clinically more relevant than for the overall population analysed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Trauma Pathophysiology)
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17 pages, 902 KiB  
Article
An Exploratory Study on the Acoustic Musical Properties to Decrease Self-Perceived Anxiety
by Emilia Parada-Cabaleiro, Anton Batliner and Markus Schedl
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020994 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2680
Abstract
Musical listening is broadly used as an inexpensive and safe method to reduce self-perceived anxiety. This strategy is based on the emotivist assumption claiming that emotions are not only recognised in music but induced by it. Yet, the acoustic properties of musical work [...] Read more.
Musical listening is broadly used as an inexpensive and safe method to reduce self-perceived anxiety. This strategy is based on the emotivist assumption claiming that emotions are not only recognised in music but induced by it. Yet, the acoustic properties of musical work capable of reducing anxiety are still under-researched. To fill this gap, we explore whether the acoustic parameters relevant in music emotion recognition are also suitable to identify music with relaxing properties. As an anxiety indicator, the positive statements from the six-item Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, a self-reported score from 3 to 12, are taken. A user-study with 50 participants assessing the relaxing potential of four musical pieces was conducted; subsequently, the acoustic parameters were evaluated. Our study shows that when using classical Western music to reduce self-perceived anxiety, tonal music should be considered. In addition, it also indicates that harmonicity is a suitable indicator of relaxing music, while the role of scoring and dynamics in reducing non-pathological listener distress should be further investigated. Full article
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18 pages, 333 KiB  
Article
Trust in the Healthcare System and Physicians in Croatia: A Survey of the General Population
by Krunoslav Nikodem, Marko Ćurković and Ana Borovečki
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 993; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020993 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2167
Abstract
Trust in healthcare systems and physicians is considered important for the delivery of good healthcare. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random three-stage sample of the general population of Croatia (N = 1230), stratified by regions. Of respondents, 58.7% displayed a high [...] Read more.
Trust in healthcare systems and physicians is considered important for the delivery of good healthcare. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random three-stage sample of the general population of Croatia (N = 1230), stratified by regions. Of respondents, 58.7% displayed a high or very high level of trust in the healthcare system, 65.6% in physicians, and 78.3% in their family physician. Respondents’ views regarding patients’ roles in the discussion of treatment options, confidence in physicians’ expertise, and underlying motives of physicians were mixed. Respondents with a lower level of education, those with low monthly incomes, and those from smaller settlements had lower levels of trust in physicians and the healthcare system. Trust in other institutions, religiosity and religious beliefs, tolerance of personal choice, and experience of caring for the seriously ill and dying were predictors of trust in healthcare and physicians. Our findings suggest that levels of healthcare-related trust in Croatia are increasing in comparison with previous research, but need improvement. Levels of trust are lowest in populations that are most vulnerable and most in need of care and protection. Full article
18 pages, 1846 KiB  
Article
Addressing Challenges When Applying GRADE to Public Health Guidelines: A Scoping Review Protocol and Pilot Analysis
by Lucia Kantorová, Tereza Friessová, Simona Slezáková, Alena Langaufová, Jiří Kantor, Zachary Munn, Timothy Hugh Barker, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Reem A. Mustafa, Marija Franka Žuljević, Marina Lukežić, Jitka Klugarová, Abanoub Riad, Tereza Vrbová, Andrea Pokorná, Petra Búřilová, Jiří Búřil, Aleksandar Kirkovski, Nensi Ćaćić, Ljerka Delač, Ružica Tokalić, Tina Poklepović Peričić and Miloslav Klugaradd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 992; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020992 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3904
Abstract
This is a protocol for a scoping review that aims to determine how guideline authors using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) approach have addressed previously identified challenges related to public health. The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology for scoping [...] Read more.
This is a protocol for a scoping review that aims to determine how guideline authors using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) approach have addressed previously identified challenges related to public health. The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology for scoping reviews will be followed. We will search and screen titles of guidelines for all languages published in 2013–2021 in: the GIN library, BIGG database, Epistemonikos GRADE guidelines repository, GRADEpro Database, MAGICapp, NICE and WHO websites. Two reviewers will independently screen full texts of the documents identified. The following information will be extracted: methods used for identifying different stakeholders and incorporating their perspectives; methods for identification and prioritization of non-health outcomes; methods for determining thresholds for decision-making; methods for incorporating and grading evidence from non-randomized studies; methods for addressing concerns with conditional recommendations in public health; methods for reaching consensus; additional methodological concerns; and any modifications made to GRADE. A combination of directed content analysis and descriptive statistics will be used for data analysis, and the findings presented narratively in a tabular and graphical form. In this protocol, we present the pilot results from 13 identified eligible guidelines issued between January and August 2021. We will publish the full review results when they become available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Care Sciences & Services)
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