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New Psychosocial Work Environment: Implications, Dysfunctions and Challenges

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2022) | Viewed by 56915

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Psychology, University of Oviedo, 33003 Oviedo, Spain
Interests: psychosocial risk factors; psychological and social well-being; equality and discrimination at work; family-work conciliation; work-life balance; precarious employment/work; unemployment effects of atypical (non-standard) forms of employment; mental health at work; labor poverty and poor workers; inclusion and social exclusion; quality of work life; diversity and gender in the workplace; globalization and the future of work; decent work; occupational safety and health
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Guest Editor
Department of Psychology, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Carretera de Valls, s/n, Tarragona, Spain
Interests: psychosocial risk factors; entrepreneurs; entrepreneurial capacity; psychological and social well-being at work; effects of non-standard forms of employment; mental health at work; quality of work life; occupational safety and health

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Health, Universidad Internacional de la Rioja (Unir), Logroño, Spain
Interests: psychosocial risk factors; psychological and social wellbeing at work; equality and discrimination at work; work–life balance; precarious employment/work; unemployment; effects of non-standard forms of employment; mental health at work; working poverty; diversity and gender in the workplace; decent work; quality of work life; occupational safety and health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The current work model is undergoing important and radical transformations. The digital revolution and new information and communication technologies have penetrated all economic, social and labor processes. The new robotization, automation and digitization systems developed in new organizations (and, in turn, demanded of citizens as workers and consumers) have meant disruptive change. This disruptive process has transformed all specific areas of people's work and lives. We are living the transition from an economic paradigm characterized by collective, standardized and stable labor conditions and relations, to individualized, flexible and temporary labor conditions and relations. The characteristics of the new production/consumption/relationship system are generating the emergence and consolidation of new socio-labor phenomena: the extension of the processes of precarious employment, increased in-work poverty, the growth of jobs on digital platforms and remote work, advances in gender inequality and discrimination at work, the growth of new forms of self-employment and entrepreneurship, and an increase in employment gaps in the most vulnerable social groups (women, youth, immigrants, and dependent people). These changes have led to the emergence of a new configuration of society and a comprehensive rethinking of public policies, and the work and management of public and private organizations.

The aim of this Special Issue is to analyze the effects, implications and dysfunctions, especially psychosocial, generated by the extension and consolidation of these labor phenomena. Here, researchers and research groups are invited to present new empirical and theoretical advances on these topics and their consequences. Specifically, studies that analyze the following topics are welcome: job insecurity, job intensification, underemployment, job alienation and inequality, digitization in the workplace, the dysfunctions of teleworking and work at home, and techno-stress. Likewise, in this Special Issue, we are interested in learning about the effects of intermittent and unstable jobs on the mental health and wellbeing of individuals.

Articles that address these topics are invited for this Special Issue, especially those that combine high academic rigor with practical approaches to providing effective solutions for more decent, fair and inclusive work that makes possible improvements in working conditions, relationships, safety, and health.

Prof. Dr. Esteban Agulló
Prof. Dr. Joan Boada
Prof. Dr. Jose Antonio Llosa Fernández
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • psychosocial risk factors
  • psychological and social wellbeing at work
  • mental health at work
  • quality of work life
  • inequality and discrimination at work
  • precarious work
  • effects of atypical forms of employment
  • in-work poverty
  • dysfunctions of teleworking and work at home
  • effects of working on digital platforms

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Editorial

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6 pages, 326 KiB  
Editorial
Technodiscipline of Work: Does Post-Pandemic Platform Employment Generate New Psychosocial Risks?
by José Antonio Llosa and Esteban Agulló-Tomás
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(14), 8609; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148609 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1684
Abstract
In the publication Uses of work and forms of governance: precarious work as a tool of discipline Alonso and Fernández [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

27 pages, 3279 KiB  
Article
A Person-Centered Approach to Job Insecurity: Is There a Reciprocal Relationship between the Quantitative and Qualitative Dimensions of Job Insecurity?
by Sonia Nawrocka, Hans De Witte, Margherita Pasini and Margherita Brondino
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(7), 5280; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20075280 - 27 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1737
Abstract
Radical transformations in the current work model induce qualitative job insecurity (i.e., a threat to job characteristics) and strengthen quantitative job insecurity (i.e., a threat to job loss). Both dimensions are separate yet interdependent work stressors. Although organisational changes are often the core [...] Read more.
Radical transformations in the current work model induce qualitative job insecurity (i.e., a threat to job characteristics) and strengthen quantitative job insecurity (i.e., a threat to job loss). Both dimensions are separate yet interdependent work stressors. Although organisational changes are often the core source for both types of job insecurity, it is predominantly a subjective experience—individual perception ultimately determines the risk and the consequences of these threats. So far, the between-person analysis suggests that the relationship between the two dimensions is in both directions. However, it is not clear whether these associations also reflect within-person processes. This study proposes and tests the reciprocal relationship between quantitative and qualitative job insecurity at the within-person level. We employed a multiple indicator random-intercept cross-lagged panel model (RI-CLPM) to test these associations within-person while controlling for between-person differences. We used three-wave longitudinal data (6 months’ time lag) collected from a Belgian working population (N = 3694). The results suggest a unidirectional relationship (from quantitative to qualitative job insecurity). Furthermore, the results reveal significant within-person carry-over effects of quantitative job insecurity but not for qualitative job insecurity. Overall, these results suggest that a change in the experience of threats to job loss (i.e., higher-than-usual quantitative job insecurity) not only anticipates higher-than-usual threats to job loss (autoregressive paths) but also higher-than-usual threats to job characteristics (i.e., qualitative job insecurity), six months later. This study contributes to the ongoing discussion on how job insecurity dimensions influence each other. Given these results and the continuous changes to how we work, we call for further research to better understand the within-person processes of job insecurity development. Full article
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9 pages, 545 KiB  
Article
Job Insecurity and Company Behavior: Influence of Fear of Job Loss on Individual and Work Environment Factors
by Remberto Castro-Castañeda, Esperanza Vargas-Jiménez, Sara Menéndez-Espina and Raúl Medina-Centeno
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(4), 3586; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20043586 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
The purpose of this research is to analyze to what extent job insecurity is related to different factors related with quality of work life. Specifically, it refers to the individual (work–family balance, job satisfaction, labor and professional development, motivation at work, and well-being [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research is to analyze to what extent job insecurity is related to different factors related with quality of work life. Specifically, it refers to the individual (work–family balance, job satisfaction, labor and professional development, motivation at work, and well-being at work) and work environment (conditions and environment and safety and health at work) dimensions of the construct. The sample group consisted of 842 workers (375 men and 467 women), aged between 18 and 68 years, from Bahía de Banderas, Mexico. Pearson correlation coefficients between the different variables were carried out, as well as MANOVA and ANOVA analyses and a linear regression analysis. The results showed that workers with low job insecurity obtained higher scores in work–family balance, job satisfaction, labor and professional development, motivation at work, well-being at work, conditions and environment, and safety and health at work, in relation to workers with moderate and high insecurity. The regression analysis confirmed that individual factors explain 24% and environmental factors 15% of job insecurity. This article makes an approximation to the phenomenon of job insecurity in the Mexican context, where the relationship of this variable with quality of work life is verified. Full article
12 pages, 568 KiB  
Article
Resilience and Job Satisfaction: Effect of Moderated Mediation on the Influence of interpersonal Justice on the Performance of Public Servants
by Jazael Albalá-Genol, Pedro Antonio Díaz-Fúnez and Miguel Ángel Mañas-Rodríguez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(4), 2957; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20042957 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1859
Abstract
The perception of interpersonal justice is one of the key resources for improving employees’ performance intention. Elements such as employees’ level of satisfaction or their self-perception of their ability to cope with problematic situations are key factors in this relationship according to the [...] Read more.
The perception of interpersonal justice is one of the key resources for improving employees’ performance intention. Elements such as employees’ level of satisfaction or their self-perception of their ability to cope with problematic situations are key factors in this relationship according to the job demands-resources model. The objective of this study was to analyze how the perception of job satisfaction and the self-perception of resilience influence how interpersonal justice affects employee performance. A total of 315 public sector employees, who perform administrative and customer service tasks, have contributed to this study. The results show that the relationship between interpersonal justice and intra-role performance is completely mediated by job satisfaction; however, when we include the modulating effect of resilience between interpersonal justice and job satisfaction, the influence of the former is reduced as the self-perception of resilience. This indicates that the positive effects of justice are reduced as workers’ self-perception of resilience increases. Full article
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26 pages, 466 KiB  
Article
Conceptualization and Validation of the Occupation Insecurity Scale (OCIS): Measuring Employees’ Occupation Insecurity Due to Automation
by Lara C. Roll, Hans De Witte and Hai-Jiang Wang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 2589; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032589 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2433 | Correction
Abstract
Increased use and implementation of automation, accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic, gives rise to a new phenomenon: occupation insecurity. In this paper, we conceptualize and define occupation insecurity, as well as develop an Occupation Insecurity Scale (OCIS) to measure it. From focus groups, [...] Read more.
Increased use and implementation of automation, accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic, gives rise to a new phenomenon: occupation insecurity. In this paper, we conceptualize and define occupation insecurity, as well as develop an Occupation Insecurity Scale (OCIS) to measure it. From focus groups, subject-matter expert interviews, and a quantitative pilot study, two dimensions emerged: global occupation insecurity, which refers to employees’ fear that their occupations might disappear, and content occupation insecurity, which addresses employees’ concern that (the tasks of) their occupations might significantly change due to automation. In a survey-study sampling 1373 UK employees, psychometric properties of OCIS were examined in terms of reliability, construct validity, measurement invariance (across gender, age, and occupational position), convergent and divergent validity (with job and career insecurity), external discriminant validity (with organizational future time perspective), external validity (by comparing theoretically secure vs. insecure groups), and external and incremental validity (by examining burnout and work engagement as potential outcomes of occupation insecurity). Overall, OCIS shows good results in terms of reliability and validity. Therefore, OCIS offers an avenue to measure and address occupation insecurity before it can impact employee wellbeing and organizational performance. Full article
18 pages, 2638 KiB  
Article
Effects of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Mental Disorders on the Labor Market Integration of Young Syrian Refugees
by Hans Dietrich, José Luis Álvaro Estramiana, Alicia Garrido Luque and Volker Reissner
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 2468; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032468 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1811
Abstract
Civil war experience in the Syrian home country, insecurity and critical life events during migration, or adverse events in the receiving country might affect refugees’ mental health. This paper addresses the effects of psychological distress and mental disorders on refugees’ labor market integration [...] Read more.
Civil war experience in the Syrian home country, insecurity and critical life events during migration, or adverse events in the receiving country might affect refugees’ mental health. This paper addresses the effects of psychological distress and mental disorders on refugees’ labor market integration in Germany between 2016 and 2021. We employ survey data from about 2700 young Syrians, delivering information on individuals’ experience of migration and arrival in Germany in 2016. The survey data were successfully merged with register data, delivering detailed information regarding individuals’ process of labor market integration and employment status from 2016 to 2021. Overall, the labor market integration of young refugees improved remarkably over time. In 2021, about 69% of the study population was integrated in a wider sense, and 30% was employed in fulltime contracts in 2021. However, the results indicate long-lasting effects of PTSD and mental disorders on individuals’ labor market integration, whilst individuals’ characteristics related to migration and arrival lose relevance over time and hardly affect labor market integration around five years after arrival. High PTSD scores in 2016 indicate a significantly reduced full-time employment probability in 2021. Anxiety and depression show significant negative effects on individuals’ labor market integration, but with a less severe impact compared to a PTSD diagnosis. Full article
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11 pages, 357 KiB  
Article
Supervision Effects on Negative Affect and Psychological Distress: Evidence from Social Workers in China
by Bin Tu, Chienchung Huang, Sophie Sitar and Yulu Wang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 1764; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20031764 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
Supervision is an imperative practice within the social work field. It provides social workers with support systems, ensures that social workers are adhering to professional standards, and protects clients. Research has also shown that quality supervision can improve social workers’ professional capacity and [...] Read more.
Supervision is an imperative practice within the social work field. It provides social workers with support systems, ensures that social workers are adhering to professional standards, and protects clients. Research has also shown that quality supervision can improve social workers’ professional capacity and reduce work stress. However, most of this research has been confined to social workers’ experiences within Western countries and has been largely qualitative in nature. Thus, this study aims to examine the experience of 489 social workers based in Guangzhou, China to understand how supervision affects their negative affect and psychological distress. The findings indicate that supervision not only reduces negative affect and psychological distress amongst Chinese social workers, but also is especially effective for social workers with high job demands. When job demands are high, social workers who receive both individual and group supervision also appear to have lower negative affect and psychological distress as compared to social workers who only receive individual supervision. These findings emphasize the significance of supervision as a buffer factor to reduce negative affect and psychological distress amongst Chinese social workers who face high job demands. Full article
19 pages, 1013 KiB  
Article
Working Conditions and Mental Health in a Brazilian University
by Livia de Oliveira Borges, Georgina Maria Véras Motta, Geraldo Majela Garcia-Primo, Sabrina Cavalcanti Barros and Camila Teixeira Heleno
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(2), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20021536 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
The highest prevalence of mental illnesses and mental suffering in contemporary society has raised awareness of the theme and their connection to work. In Brazil, university servants (professors and technical-administrative staff) are a focused occupational group. We developed this research with the objective [...] Read more.
The highest prevalence of mental illnesses and mental suffering in contemporary society has raised awareness of the theme and their connection to work. In Brazil, university servants (professors and technical-administrative staff) are a focused occupational group. We developed this research with the objective of exploring the relationship between the perception of working conditions and the mental health of these servants. Structured questionnaires were applied to 285 servants, 33.5% being professors and 66.5% technical-administrative staff. Regarding working conditions, the questionnaires included items that measured 15 primary factors and questions about their contracts and legal conditions. To evaluate mental health, the participants answered a questionnaire about common psychic symptoms, negative and positive affects, self-esteem, and family-work conflict. We composed groups of participants according to their mental health indicator scores (cluster analysis), and after that, we compared the mean scores in working conditions for the groups. Then, we found that the mean scores of 13 from the 15 working condition factors were significantly different between the mental health groups. Our results showed the importance of improving working conditions in universities to prevent mental illnesses. Understanding the content of each working condition factor presents potency to contribute to defining the priorities among different aspects of working conditions. Full article
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13 pages, 935 KiB  
Article
Personality and Person-Work Environment Fit: A Study Based on the RIASEC Model
by Jonatan Santana Batista and Sônia Maria Guedes Gondim
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010719 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3959
Abstract
This study identifies if there are differences in the personality scores of professionals with varying degrees of congruence, considering each dimension of the RIASEC model. Method: A cross-sectional survey study. Participants responded to three measures: Vocational Interests Scale (VIS); Occupational Classification Inventory (OCI-R) [...] Read more.
This study identifies if there are differences in the personality scores of professionals with varying degrees of congruence, considering each dimension of the RIASEC model. Method: A cross-sectional survey study. Participants responded to three measures: Vocational Interests Scale (VIS); Occupational Classification Inventory (OCI-R) for estimating congruence; and The Next Big Five Inventory (BFI-2) for estimating personality. Results: Congruence was associated with at least one personality dimension in the Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, and Conventional types. In addition, we identified significant differences between the personality scores of professionals according to the degree of congruence in the Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, and Enterprising types. Full article
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13 pages, 390 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of Working Conditions and Workers’ Perceptions among On-Site, Telework, and Hybrid Workers in Ecuador during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Andrea Vinueza-Cabezas, Gabriel Osejo-Taco, Alejandro Unda-López, Clara Paz and Paula Hidalgo-Andrade
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(21), 14337; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192114337 - 2 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2748
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has forced many companies to adopt different work modalities to ensure their operation during this period. In this study, we described and compared working conditions and perceptions among face-to-face workers, teleworkers, and hybrid workers in Ecuador. A cross-sectional study was [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has forced many companies to adopt different work modalities to ensure their operation during this period. In this study, we described and compared working conditions and perceptions among face-to-face workers, teleworkers, and hybrid workers in Ecuador. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 542 participants, using a self-report survey to assess sociodemographic data, working conditions, and workers’ perceptions. Variables were described and then compared by the Chi-square test, ANOVA, and the Kruskal–Wallis test. The results indicated a higher proportion of on-site workers without higher education and in the public sector compared to the other modalities. At the same time, there was evidence of increased perceived productivity. People in the hybrid modality tended to have more than one job, earning a higher monthly salary, perceiving a decrease in productivity, an increase in daily working hours, and a lower capacity for time management. In addition, most teleworkers reported fair working conditions, a dedicated workspace, and easy adaptation to this work mode. This study builds a more in-depth understanding of how workers perceived their working conditions among work modalities for organizational decision-making because the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic is modifying the ways of working permanently. Full article
12 pages, 848 KiB  
Article
Musculoskeletal Diseases and Disorders in the Upper Limbs and Health Work-Related Quality of Life in Spanish Sign Language Interpreters and Guide-Interpreters
by Estíbaliz Jiménez-Arberas and Emiliano Díez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(15), 9038; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159038 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1729
Abstract
Disorders in the upper limbs are common among sign language interpreters and are related with different risk factors, among which are the difficulties of interpreting work in the educational setting, posture, and emotional together with physical stress. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Disorders in the upper limbs are common among sign language interpreters and are related with different risk factors, among which are the difficulties of interpreting work in the educational setting, posture, and emotional together with physical stress. The aim of this study was to inquire about the different musculoskeletal disorders and diseases present in a group of sign language interpreters, and to examine its relationship with the work-related quality of life. A battery of four instruments was administered to 62 sign language interpreters, composed of a sociodemographic data and musculoskeletal disease questionnaire, a health-related quality of life measurement scale (SF-36), a measurement scale of the impact of fatigue (MFIS), and an instrument for assessing hand-function outcomes (MHOQ). All the study participants had presented some kind of musculoskeletal pathology during their work career, such as tendinitis, overuse syndrome, and repetitive strain injury. In addition, many of the participants present difficulties in occupational performance that affect their daily activities. A high percentage, close to 70%, of the interpreters suffer from musculoskeletal disorders, serious enough to modify their activities and affect both the quality of their work as interpreters and their quality of life, with important mediating variables being the number of diseases; physical, cognitive, and social fatigue; and satisfaction with the hand function. Full article
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9 pages, 358 KiB  
Article
Difference between Impacts of COVID-19 on Women and Men’s Psychological, Social, Vulnerable Work Situations, and Economic Well-Being
by Enrique Iglesias Martínez, Jorge Roces García, Estibaliz Jiménez Arberas and José Antonio Llosa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(14), 8849; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148849 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1752
Abstract
The SARS-CoV-2 virus changed social reality worldwide, affecting people’s health and work life, particularly their anxiety levels. The purpose of this study is to verify the situation of women in terms of anxiety and social determinants in Spain during the pandemic. The sample [...] Read more.
The SARS-CoV-2 virus changed social reality worldwide, affecting people’s health and work life, particularly their anxiety levels. The purpose of this study is to verify the situation of women in terms of anxiety and social determinants in Spain during the pandemic. The sample consisted of 4686 people (3500 women and 1186 men). The tools used were the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and an ad hoc questionnaire to assess the work and mental situation of the participants. The results indicate a higher rate of anxiety among women than among men and reveal a relationship between higher levels of anxiety and more vulnerable work situations in terms of higher unemployment rates, contract changes, etc. Furthermore, there was a higher percentage of women than men in the sectors where the health crisis has had a greater impact and presence, with repercussions on the physical, mental, and social health of the entire population and especially on women. It is necessary to take into account the social determinants of health, not only at the structural level, in terms of the socio-economic and political contexts, to avoid and limit the axes of inequality such as gender. Full article
11 pages, 369 KiB  
Article
Risk and Protective Factors of Mental Health Conditions: Impact of Employment, Deprivation and Social Relationships
by Beatriz Oliveros, Esteban Agulló-Tomás and Luis-Javier Márquez-Álvarez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(11), 6781; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116781 - 1 Jun 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3228
Abstract
This study looks into the relationship between mental health and social exclusion scenarios, paying special attention to employment-related factors. Previous studies have shown the relationship between mental health, social exclusion and poverty. For this study, authors have used data from the VIII Report [...] Read more.
This study looks into the relationship between mental health and social exclusion scenarios, paying special attention to employment-related factors. Previous studies have shown the relationship between mental health, social exclusion and poverty. For this study, authors have used data from the VIII Report on social development and exclusion in Spain, with a sample of 11,655 households. The SPSS Statistics programme was used for statistical analysis. Several factors that could pose a risk or be a protection for the presence of mental health conditions were designed. By means of a binary logistic regression the impact of these factors on mental health issues was scored. The results show that a deteriorated social network and a negative interpretation of reality are the most influential factors related to the presence of mental health conditions in a given household. On the contrary, positive social relationships protect households and function as a support when mental health conditions are already present. Thus, the support of positive and committed social relationships is a key element to protect the mental health of households. Full article
14 pages, 836 KiB  
Article
Which Personal and Organizational Factors Influence the Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction of Shipyard Blue-Collar Workers?
by Adela Reig-Botella, Miguel Clemente, Sarah Detaille, Annet H. de Lange and Jaime López-Golpe
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4849; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084849 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2366
Abstract
Background: The purpose of this research was to analyze which personal and organizational factors are related to organizational commitment and job satisfaction of shipyard workers who work in different auxiliary shipyard military companies in the north of Spain. Methods: In total, 567 shipyard [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of this research was to analyze which personal and organizational factors are related to organizational commitment and job satisfaction of shipyard workers who work in different auxiliary shipyard military companies in the north of Spain. Methods: In total, 567 shipyard workers participated in this cross-sectional survey study. The ages were between 19 and 64 (M = 39.36, SD = 10.01), males 82.52%, females 17.48%. We used a survey that included questions about personal and organizational factors such as physical environment, occupational risks, and psychosocial risks, in addition to the job commitment and job satisfaction scales. Results: The results of this study show that job commitment is significantly related to a higher age, lower education, and environmental risk (low vs. high). Furthermore, job satisfaction (high vs. low) and organizational commitment (high vs. low) is related with environmental risk (low vs. high). Job commitment is also higher in workers with a low educational level and older workers. Job satisfaction is lower in workers with a high educational level. Conclusions: This study shows that different personal and environmental factors influence the shipyard workers’ organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Full article
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20 pages, 1029 KiB  
Article
Effective Personality as a Protective Factor in Teachers’ Occupational Health
by Cristina Di-Giusto, María Eugenia Martín-Palacio, Marta Soledad García-Rodríguez, Francisco Javier Sánchez-Sánchez, Raquel de la Fuente-Anuncibay, Andrés Fernando Avilés-Dávila and Cesáreo Gabriel García-Rodríguez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 2907; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052907 - 2 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2176
Abstract
In recent decades, there has been a growing body of research showing the relationship between teaching work and several health problems, both physical and psychological. Some of these studies relate personal competencies and resources to teachers’ occupational health. Based on the construct of [...] Read more.
In recent decades, there has been a growing body of research showing the relationship between teaching work and several health problems, both physical and psychological. Some of these studies relate personal competencies and resources to teachers’ occupational health. Based on the construct of Effective Personality, proposed by Martin del Buey, Martín Palacio, and Di Giusto, the aim was to analyse the relationship between the dimensions of the construct and Teachers’ Occupational Health. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. It was based on the application of the Teacher Health Questionnaire (CSD) and the Efficacy Personality Questionnaire-Adults (CPE-A). The sample consisted of 700 non-university teachers aged between 26 and 66 years, M = 47.65 SD = 8.68. Descriptive, correlational, linear regression, and structural equation analyses were carried out. The results confirmed the relationship between the Efficacy Personality construct and Teachers’ Occupational Health (r = 0.45 **). In addition, the regression analysis indicated the relevance of each factor of Efficacy Personality in the factors of Teachers’ Occupational Health. The variance of Self-efficacy is the most explained by the dimensions of Efficacy Personality (40.2%), with positive relationships. The structural equation analysis confirmed the influence between Efficacy Personality and the factors of Self-Efficacy and Satisfaction, explaining 55.0% of the variance. It is concluded, therefore, that Efficacy Personality has a protective function on Teacher Occupational Health; the higher the Efficacy Personality scores are, the better the results in health gain—Self-efficacy and satisfaction—and the lower the result in health loss—burnout, cognitive affections, musculoskeletal affections, and voice alterations. These results facilitate the design of prevention and intervention programmes for teachers’ occupational health, which strengthen and improve personal and socio-affective competencies. Full article
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15 pages, 863 KiB  
Article
To Change or Not to Change: A Study of Workplace Change during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Shu Da, Silje Fossum Fladmark, Irina Wara, Marit Christensen and Siw Tone Innstrand
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(4), 1982; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19041982 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 6574
Abstract
After the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, many employees were suddenly required to work more from home. Previous literature on working from home may not be applicable to this mandatory and overall change. In this study, we drew on the Job Demands–Resources (JD-R) [...] Read more.
After the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, many employees were suddenly required to work more from home. Previous literature on working from home may not be applicable to this mandatory and overall change. In this study, we drew on the Job Demands–Resources (JD-R) model to explore the relationships between job demands (workload and work–home conflict) as well as resources (support from leaders, coworkers, and the family) and wellbeing (burnout and work engagement) in employees who still went to the workplace (no-change group) and employees who transitioned into working from home (change group) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were analyzed with multivariate structural equation modeling. The results indicate that work–home conflict was detrimental for employee wellbeing in both groups. Interestingly, the workload seems to contribute to work engagement for employees who worked from home. Regarding the resources, the three different sources of social support, leaders, coworkers, and family, were all related to employee wellbeing, but in different ways. It seemed that family support was most important for employees’ wellbeing in the change group. This study presents implications for the wellbeing of employees in both the change and no-change group during the COVID-19 pandemic, emphasizing the importance of family-friendly policies. Full article
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17 pages, 2163 KiB  
Article
The Systematic Workplace-Improvement Needs Generation (SWING): Verifying a Worker-Centred Tool for Identifying Necessary Workplace Improvements in a Nursing Home in Japan
by Tomoo Hidaka, Sei Sato, Shota Endo, Hideaki Kasuga, Yusuke Masuishi, Takeyasu Kakamu and Tetsuhito Fukushima
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1671; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031671 - 1 Feb 2022
Viewed by 2111
Abstract
This study developed and tested a new measurement instrument, the Systematic Workplace-Improvement Needs Generation (SWING), to identify workplace-improvement needs. The participants were 53 workers in a Japanese nursing home for the elderly. The respondents used the SWING questionnaire to self-generate five ‘cues’ they [...] Read more.
This study developed and tested a new measurement instrument, the Systematic Workplace-Improvement Needs Generation (SWING), to identify workplace-improvement needs. The participants were 53 workers in a Japanese nursing home for the elderly. The respondents used the SWING questionnaire to self-generate five ‘cues’ they considered important to improve the workplace. The workers determined each cue’s sufficiency level and weight balance (importance), and then we summarised the 265 cues into 21 categories for workplace improvements. The respondents identified the following items as the most important and the least sufficiently provided areas for workplace improvement: ‘interaction with customers’, ‘physical and psychological harassment’, ‘rewarding and challenging work’, and ‘sharing goals and objectives’. Although the workplace-improvement recommendations differed greatly from person to person, SWING prioritised the items by weight (importance) and sufficiency (current status), allowing organisations to address the needed improvements systematically. The SWING tool effectively elicited and prioritised respondents’ recommendations for improving the workplace. Because its items are self-generated by the respondents, SWING can be used for any occupation or workplace. Visualisation with bubble plots to clarify the improvement needs is incorporated into SWING. Full article
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30 pages, 1828 KiB  
Article
The Adverse Environmental Impact Factors Analysis on Fly-In-Fly-Out Personnel at Industrial Enterprises
by Yana Korneeva
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020997 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3073
Abstract
(1) Background: the research purpose is to identify and describe the general and different factors of adverse environmental impact on FIFO personnel at industrial enterprises at different levels of differential analysis of professional activity. (2) Methods: The research involved 359 employees of industrial [...] Read more.
(1) Background: the research purpose is to identify and describe the general and different factors of adverse environmental impact on FIFO personnel at industrial enterprises at different levels of differential analysis of professional activity. (2) Methods: The research involved 359 employees of industrial enterprises with FIFO work organization. The study was carried out using a questionnaire, including a subjective assessment of the discomfort of three groups of negative environment impact factors to the FIFO personnel: climatic-geographical, industrial and social. (3) Results: The relationship between the increase in the degree of discomfort of production factors due to the in-fluence of climatic, geographical and social conditions has been established. With a various location of objects, the greatest discomfort is felt from the action of climatic and production factors; with varying degrees of group isolation and the shift period duration—all three groups, with the greatest influence of domestic and social; in various industries and enterprises—all three groups. (4) Conclusions: The differential analysis of the professional activities of FIFO personnel of industrial enterprises should be carried out at the following levels: the location of an industrial facility, the degree of group isolation, the duration of the shift period, the industry, the type of enterprise and the professional group. Full article
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16 pages, 1253 KiB  
Article
Self-Criticism in In-Work Poverty: The Mediating Role of Social Support in the Era of Flexibility
by José Antonio Llosa, Esteban Agulló-Tomás, Sara Menéndez-Espina, María Luz Rivero-Díaz and Enrique Iglesias-Martínez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010609 - 5 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3344
Abstract
In-work poverty reflects situations of income below the poverty threshold among employed people, involving a deterioration of wellbeing. The International Labour Organization prioritises this situation, which in countries such as Spain, Germany or Italy reaches rates of 11.8%, 10.6% and 11.8%, respectively. Within [...] Read more.
In-work poverty reflects situations of income below the poverty threshold among employed people, involving a deterioration of wellbeing. The International Labour Organization prioritises this situation, which in countries such as Spain, Germany or Italy reaches rates of 11.8%, 10.6% and 11.8%, respectively. Within a context of flexibility, the occupational situation tends to be understood as an individual responsibility, which is why this study analyses the increase in self-criticism in these situations, and the role of social support in this relationship. The mediation of social support in the manifestation of self-criticism among people experiencing in-work poverty is analysed. The participants were 1430 employed people, grouped into those in a situation of poverty and those who are not. The results show that people in a situation of in-work poverty present a higher score in self-criticism and lower in social support. Social support is a mediating variable that prevents the manifestation of self-criticism. Lastly, a gender analysis shows that women experience this relationship more intensely. These findings enable a critical assessment of the activation policies that only take an individual approach. As an alternative, we propose strengthening interventions that foster social support, particularly among women. Full article
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9 pages, 330 KiB  
Article
Ethical Climate as Social Norm: Impact on Judgements and Behavioral Intentions in the Workplace
by Laurent Auzoult and Crisanta-Alina Mazilescu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 6006; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116006 - 3 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2799
Abstract
We present a study that looks at the relationship between the ethical climate, considered as a set of social norms, and judgments and behaviors in the workplace. In this case we think that an ethical rule reflecting the climate is only actualized in [...] Read more.
We present a study that looks at the relationship between the ethical climate, considered as a set of social norms, and judgments and behaviors in the workplace. In this case we think that an ethical rule reflecting the climate is only actualized in conduct and/or decisions if the rule is applicable, is shared, and is the subject of social expectations. A total of 277 professionals responded to a questionnaire measuring the normativity of three ethical rules, socio-moral judgment, trust in supervisors, turnover intention, and discrimination as well as abusive supervision. The results confirm our hypothesis. This leads to a different view of how the ethical climate is measured and constructed in the workplace. Full article
16 pages, 387 KiB  
Article
Psychological Impact of the Lockdown Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic in University Workers: Factors Related to Stress, Anxiety, and Depression
by Alejandro Salazar, Jenifer Palomo-Osuna, Helena de Sola, Jose A. Moral-Munoz, María Dueñas and Inmaculada Failde
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4367; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084367 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4235
Abstract
This study aims to explore the psychological impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-related lockdown in university workers, and to analyse the factors related to their levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. A cross-sectional study was conducted between 8–22 April 2020, 3.5 weeks after [...] Read more.
This study aims to explore the psychological impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-related lockdown in university workers, and to analyse the factors related to their levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. A cross-sectional study was conducted between 8–22 April 2020, 3.5 weeks after the COVID-19-related lockdown in Spain. We collected sociodemographic and occupational data, in addition to housing, work and health conditions. Coping strategies (Brief COPE-28); level of anxiety, stress, and depression (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales DASS-21); perception of the disease (COVID-19) (Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire BIPQ); and perceived level of social support (Escala Multidimensional de Apoyo Social EMAS) were measured. Multiple linear regression models were fitted to explore the factors related to the level of anxiety, depression, and stress. The sample included 677 subjects. Higher scores in depression, anxiety, and stress occurred among females, younger subjects, administration and service workers; and subjects with a smaller home, as well as those with worse health status, worse quality of sleep, and dysfunctional coping strategies. The COVID-19-related lockdown had a great impact on the mental health of university workers. The participants with specific sociodemographic and occupational characteristics, clinical disorders, and dysfunctional coping strategies were more at risk. Full article
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