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Article

School-Based Physical Activity Intervention: A Qualitative Process Evaluation of a Feasibility Trial in Yangzhou, China

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Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
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The Nottingham Centre for Evidence-Based Healthcare: A Joanna Briggs Institute Centre of Excellence, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
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School of Humanities and Social Science, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
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School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2HA, UK
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NIHR Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alberto Grao-Cruces and Rocio Izquierdo-Gomez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021021
Received: 8 December 2021 / Revised: 12 January 2022 / Accepted: 14 January 2022 / Published: 17 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Well-Being in School Setting)
Background: There is an urgent need for children in China to increase their physical activity levels. We first developed a 16-week school-based behavior change intervention based on the Behavior Change Wheel and Theoretical Domains Framework. We then conducted a cluster feasibility non-randomized controlled trial (RCT) among children in Yangzhou, China. Aim: This qualitative process evaluation was embedded within the cluster feasibility non-RCT and aimed to: (1) explore the experiences and perceptions of participants and providers in the intervention and trial; and (2) generate recommendations to inform a future intervention and full-scale cluster RCT. Methods: A qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews with trial participants (n = 20 children: 10 intervention, 10 control), parents (n = 20), and health education providers (n = 2), was conducted in two public schools in Yangzhou, China. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated verbatim from Mandarin to English. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Findings believed to reflect experiences and perceptions of participants in the intervention and the trial are presented as eight major themes: (1) perceived high efficacy of the intervention components to help children become more active, (2) appreciation of the intervention features, (3) factors that facilitated or impeded intervention attendance and delivery, (4) positive experiences and feelings gained through the data collection process, (5) satisfaction regarding the organization and implementation of the trial, (6) influences of personal beliefs and emotional responses to the trial, (7) social influences on participatory decision-making, and (8) key barriers to consider regarding the recruitment of participants. Conclusions: The intervention and trial methods were acceptable to children, parents, and health education providers. School-based behavior change intervention was perceived to be a useful approach to increase physical activity in children aged 10–12 years in China. However, there were barriers to intervention delivery and engagement that should be considered when designing a future cluster RCT to assess the intervention efficacy. View Full-Text
Keywords: physical activity; qualitative study; process evaluation; interview; children; China physical activity; qualitative study; process evaluation; interview; children; China
MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, H.; Zhou, Y.; Blake, H.; Chattopadhyay, K. School-Based Physical Activity Intervention: A Qualitative Process Evaluation of a Feasibility Trial in Yangzhou, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 1021. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021021

AMA Style

Wang H, Zhou Y, Blake H, Chattopadhyay K. School-Based Physical Activity Intervention: A Qualitative Process Evaluation of a Feasibility Trial in Yangzhou, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(2):1021. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021021

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Haiquan, Yanxing Zhou, Holly Blake, and Kaushik Chattopadhyay. 2022. "School-Based Physical Activity Intervention: A Qualitative Process Evaluation of a Feasibility Trial in Yangzhou, China" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 2: 1021. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19021021

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