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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 16, Issue 20 (October-2 2019) – 268 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Estimating the Responses of Hydrological and Sedimental Processes to Future Climate Change in Watersheds with Different Landscapes in the Yellow River Basin, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4054; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204054 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 773
Abstract
This study concerned the sediment issue of the Yellow River basin. The responses of hydrological and sedimental processes to future climate change in two upland watersheds with different dominant landscapes were estimated. Four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios with different radiative forcing levels [...] Read more.
This study concerned the sediment issue of the Yellow River basin. The responses of hydrological and sedimental processes to future climate change in two upland watersheds with different dominant landscapes were estimated. Four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios with different radiative forcing levels were considered. The outputs of eleven Global Climate Models (GCMs) were used to represent the future climate status of the 2050s and 2070s, and an ensemble means was achieved to avoid uncertainty. The Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG) was employed to downscale the outputs of GCMs for future site-scale daily weather data estimations. The Generalized Watershed Loading Functions (GWLF) model was employed to model the streamflow and sediment yields under various scenarios and periods. The results showed that there would be generally hotter and wetter weather conditions in the future. Increased erosion and sediment yields could be found in the study area, with lesser increments in sediment in woodland than in cultivated field. The peak of sediment would appear in the 2050s, and integrated measures for sediment control should be implemented to reduce erosion and block delivery. The multi-model approach proposed in this study had reliable performance and could be applied in other similar areas with modest data conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Impacts on Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Potentially Harmful Element Concentrations in the Vegetables Cultivated on Arable Soils, with Human Health-Risk Implications
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4053; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204053 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 760
Abstract
Potentially harmful elements (PHEs) were investigated in eight groups of vegetables cultivated in southern Poland and the relevant health-risk implications were assessed. The PHE contents belonged to the following ranges (mg/kg wet weight) in edible parts: As < limit of detection (LOD)-0.056, Cd [...] Read more.
Potentially harmful elements (PHEs) were investigated in eight groups of vegetables cultivated in southern Poland and the relevant health-risk implications were assessed. The PHE contents belonged to the following ranges (mg/kg wet weight) in edible parts: As < limit of detection (LOD)-0.056, Cd < LOD–0.375, Co < LOD–0.029, Cu < LOD–7.638, Hg < LOD–0.163, Ni < LOD–0.299, Pb < LOD–0.580, Sb < LOD–0.163, Tl < LOD–0.128, and Zn 1.23–34.9. The PHE concentrations decreased in the following order: Zn > Cu > Ni > Cd > Pb > Sb > Hg > Tl > As > Co. The concentrations of essential PHEs decreased as follows: root > leaf > seed > tuber > legume > inflorescence > shoot > fruit, while the unnecessary PHEs followed this sequence: leaf > root > tuber > legume > inflorescence > seed > shoot > fruit. Soil-to-plant transfer factors revealed capacities to adsorb Cd, Hg, and Tl in roots; Cd, Hg, Tl, and Zn in leaves; Cd, Hg, and Sb in tubers; and Cu, Sb, and Zn in legumes and seeds. The daily intake rates, as a percentage of permissible maximum tolerable daily intake, amounted to the following proportions: Cd 23%, Tl 13%, Hg 5.0%, Ni 3.1%, Pb 2.6%, and As 0.4%. Non-carcinogenic risk described as hazard quotient (HQ) was exceeded in root (HQ = 12.1), leafy (HQ = 2.1), and tuber (HQ = 1.4) vegetables. The carcinogenic risk of As (CR = 8.54 × 10−5) was found unacceptable. The margins of exposure for adults (MOE = 3.1) and children (MOE = 1.6), respectively, indicated a low health risk of Pb in consumed vegetables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Pollution and Health Risk Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
Anthropogenic Rare Earth Elements: Gadolinium in a Small Catchment in Guizhou Province, Southwest China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4052; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204052 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 786
Abstract
Rare earth elements (REEs), known as “industrial vitamins”, are widely used in medical treatment, industry, agriculture, etc. However, with the increasing demand for REEs, excess REEs, such as gadolinium (Gd), are considered micropollutants in the environment. In this paper, the distributions of dissolved [...] Read more.
Rare earth elements (REEs), known as “industrial vitamins”, are widely used in medical treatment, industry, agriculture, etc. However, with the increasing demand for REEs, excess REEs, such as gadolinium (Gd), are considered micropollutants in the environment. In this paper, the distributions of dissolved REEs were analyzed in three small streams, in order to determine the extent and occurrence of Gd anomalies. The shale-normalized REE patterns in the three streams were less smooth with heavy REEs higher than light REEs, for a weak reaction of the heavy REE complexes. A negative Ce (cerium) anomaly and positive samarium (Sm) and europium (Eu) anomalies were observed in the three streams and the negative Ce anomaly was affected by the pH of the alkaline rivers. However, a positive Gd anomaly was found in only a typical urban small stream, Jinzhong. With a population of approximately 60,000, Jinzhong runs by a hospital and through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The concentrations of Gd in Jinzhong ranged from 1.54 to 86.65 ng/L with high anthropogenic Gd proportions (63.64%–98.07%). Anthropogenic Gd showed significant seasonal variations and distinct spatial disparities from upstream to downstream, and it was associated with certain ions such as Cl. Anthropogenic Gd could be attributed to gadopentetic acid (Gd-DTPA), which is used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in hospitals. This type of Gd was shown to be correlated with municipal wastewater. Due to the high stability and low particulate reactivity in water, anthropogenic Gd has great potential to serve as a tracer to prove the presence of medical wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence, Distribution and Ecological Risk of Contaminants in River)
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Open AccessArticle
Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Depression of Elderly People Living Alone
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4051; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204051 - 22 Oct 2019
Viewed by 1388
Abstract
Background and objectives: Only a few studies analyzed the physical activity level of elderly people living alone in local communities and evaluated the relationship between it and mental health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between regular physical activity [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Only a few studies analyzed the physical activity level of elderly people living alone in local communities and evaluated the relationship between it and mental health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between regular physical activity and depression in the elderly living alone and to provide basic data for the prevention of depression in the elderly. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 256 elderly people living alone aged 65 years or older who completed the 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Depression was defined as a score of 10 or higher using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). This study investigated walking per week, days of muscular strength exercise performance in the past 1 week, days of flexibility exercise in the past 1 week, mean hours in a sitting position per day, the numbers of days and hours conducting a high intensity physical activity in the past 1 week, and numbers of days and hours conducting a medium intensity physical activity in the past 1 week to define physical activity. Our study presented prevalence odds ratios (pOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by using complex sample logistic regression analysis in order to identify the relationship between physical activity and depression. Results: The results of complex sample logistic regression analysis showed that flexibility exercise was significantly related to depression (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the mean hours in a sitting position per day, aerobic physical activity, walking, and muscular strength exercise were not significantly related to geriatric depression. Conclusions: The results of our study implied that persistent flexibility exercise might be more effective to maintain a healthy mental status than muscular strength exercise. A longitudinal study is required to prove the causal relationship between physical activity and depression in the old age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Open AccessArticle
A Longitudinal Study of the Associations of Family Structure with Physical Activity across the Week in Boys and Girls
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4050; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204050 - 22 Oct 2019
Viewed by 725
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine how family structure is associated with moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) for children aged between 6 and 11. At 6, 9 and 11 years, children wore an accelerometer and parents/carers completed questionnaires on demographics and family [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine how family structure is associated with moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) for children aged between 6 and 11. At 6, 9 and 11 years, children wore an accelerometer and parents/carers completed questionnaires on demographics and family structure. Linear regression models examined cross-sectional associations between family structure and MVPA at age 9 and 11. Linear multilevel models examined longitudinal associations between age 6 and 11, differences in change over time were examined using interaction terms. No associations between exposures and MVPA were evident at age 9. Compared to boys living in one home, eleven-year-old boys who lived in multiple homes performed 15.99 (2.46–29.52) fewer minutes of MVPA on weekend days. In longitudinal analyses, the evidence was unclear whether the association with family structure changed over time. Models that assumed associations with family structure remained constant over time, found that boys who lived in multiple homes performed 11.02 (0.76–21.28) fewer minutes of MVPA per weekend day, while for each additional sibling, girls performed an extra 1.89 (0.25–3.53) minutes of MVPA per weekend day. Findings indicate a small number of associations, varying in magnitude, between family structure and children’s MVPA. Therefore, families of all structures should be supported to help their children meet MVPA recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children's Health)
Open AccessReview
Adapting Translational Research Methods to Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4049; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204049 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 989
Abstract
Translational research applies scientific techniques to achieve practical outcomes, connecting pure research and pure practice. Many translational research types have arisen since the mid-1900s, reflecting the need to better integrate scientific advancement with policy and practice. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) development efforts [...] Read more.
Translational research applies scientific techniques to achieve practical outcomes, connecting pure research and pure practice. Many translational research types have arisen since the mid-1900s, reflecting the need to better integrate scientific advancement with policy and practice. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) development efforts have aimed to reduce morbidity and mortality and improve service delivery; thus, associated research has a strong orientation toward applied studies that use diverse methods to support decision-making. Drawing from knowledge that emerged to support other professional fields, such as manufacturing and clinical healthcare, we characterize different types of translational research and clarify nomenclature and principles. We describe study approaches relevant to translational research questions, and offer overarching recommendations, specific examples, and resources for further study as practical advice to professionals who seek to apply translational methods to WaSH problems. To enhance collective outcomes, professionals should mindfully align projects within the translational spectrum. We further recommend overarching good practices such as documenting intervention adaptations, overtly considering contextual factors, and better distinguishing efficacy from effectiveness research by replicating studies in different contexts. By consciously improving the compatibility and linkages between WaSH science and practice, this guide can accelerate urgently needed progress toward global development goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Urban and Environmental Factors as Respiratory Disease Predictors in Italian Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4048; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204048 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
Risk monitoring in childhood is useful to estimate harmful health effects at later stages of life. Thus, here we have assessed the effects of tobacco smoke exposure and environmental pollution on the respiratory health of Italian children and adolescents using spirometry and the [...] Read more.
Risk monitoring in childhood is useful to estimate harmful health effects at later stages of life. Thus, here we have assessed the effects of tobacco smoke exposure and environmental pollution on the respiratory health of Italian children and adolescents using spirometry and the forced oscillation technique (FOT). For this purpose, we recruited 188 students aged 6–19 years living in Chivasso, Italy, and collected from them the following data: (1) one filled out questionnaire; (2) two respiratory measurements (i.e., spirometry and FOT); and (3) two urine tests for Cotinine (Cot) and 15-F2t-Isoprostane (15-F2t-IsoP) levels. We found a V-shape distribution for both Cotinine and 15-F2t-IsoP values, according to age groups, as well as a direct correlation (p = 0.000) between Cotinine and tobacco smoke exposure. These models demonstrate that tobacco smoke exposure, traffic, and the living environment play a fundamental role in the modulation of asthma-like symptoms (p = 0.020) and respiratory function (p = 0.007). Furthermore, the results from the 11–15-year group indicate that the growth process is a protective factor against the risk of respiratory disease later in life. Lastly, the FOT findings highlight the detrimental effects of tobacco smoke exposure and urbanization and traffic on respiratory health and asthma-like symptoms, respectively. Overall, monitoring environmental and behavioral factors in childhood can provide valuable information for preventing respiratory diseases in adulthood. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Utilising Digital Health Technology to Support Patient-Healthcare Provider Communication in Fragility Fracture Recovery: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4047; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204047 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
The objective of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of digital health supported targeted patient communication versus usual provision of health information, on the recovery of fragility fractures. The review considered studies including older people, aged 50 and above, with a fragility [...] Read more.
The objective of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of digital health supported targeted patient communication versus usual provision of health information, on the recovery of fragility fractures. The review considered studies including older people, aged 50 and above, with a fragility fracture. The primary outcome was prevention of secondary fractures by diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis, and its adherence. This review considered both experimental and quasi-experimental study designs. A comprehensive search strategy was built to identify key terms including Medical subject headings (MeSH) and applied to the multiple electronic databases. An intention to treat analysis was applied to those studies included in the meta-analysis and odds ratio was calculated with random effects. Altogether, 15 studies were considered in the final stage for this systematic review. Out of these, 10 studies were Randomised controlled trials (RCT) and five were quasi experimental studies, published between the years 2003 and 2016 with a total of 5037 participants. Five Randomised control trails were included in the meta-analysis suggesting that digital health supported interventions were overall, twice as effective when compared with the usual standard care (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.30–3.48), despite the population sample not being homogeneous. Findings from the remaining studies were narratively interpreted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Health Interventions in Everyday Settings)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Status and Willingness towards Hepatitis B Vaccination among Migrant Workers in Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4046; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204046 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 770
Abstract
Background: Rural-to-urban migrant workers may serve as a bridge population for the cross-regional spread of hepatitis B vaccination (HBV) due to frequent shifts between their work areas and homelands, and they are less likely to be covered by the national hepatitis B (HB) [...] Read more.
Background: Rural-to-urban migrant workers may serve as a bridge population for the cross-regional spread of hepatitis B vaccination (HBV) due to frequent shifts between their work areas and homelands, and they are less likely to be covered by the national hepatitis B (HB) immunization program. This study aimed to investigate the current inoculation status of HB vaccine among migrant workers and the willingness to be vaccinated among non-vaccinated ones. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey using anonymous interviews with migrant workers selected by two-stage cluster sampling from July to December 2018. Binary logistic regression models were adopted to detect influencing factors associated with HB inoculation status and vaccination willingness. Results: 1574 respondents were recruited in the surveys, and 773 (49.11%) respondents reported that they had been inoculated with HB vaccine. Only 285 (35.58%) non-vaccinated respondents were willing to be inoculated. Logistic regression indicated that younger age, higher education level, less wearing of condoms, higher knowledge scores of HB, and higher risk perception of HBV infection were positively associated with inoculation of HB vaccine. Respondents who were more highly educated, and drinkers, with higher knowledge scores of HB and with higher risk perception of HBV infection were more willing to be vaccinated. Conclusions: the HB vaccination rate of migrant workers in Chongqing was relatively low and only a small section of non-vaccinated migrant workers had vaccination willingness. Health interventions and policies are needed to improve knowledge and cognition of HB among migrant workers, particularly for those who are older, less educated, poor in HB knowledge, less likely to wear condoms, and non-drinkers. Peer education, as well as the combination of traditional and new media, would be accessible and effective ways to disseminate HB related knowledge for migrant workers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Parenting Practices, Life Satisfaction, and the Role of Self-Esteem in Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4045; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204045 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1719
Abstract
Introduction: Studies have shown significant associations between parenting practices, life satisfaction, and self-esteem, and the role of parenting practices in adolescent adjustment, emphasizing its influence on wellbeing. Objectives: To analyze the relationships between parenting practices, self-esteem, and life satisfaction, and test the mediating [...] Read more.
Introduction: Studies have shown significant associations between parenting practices, life satisfaction, and self-esteem, and the role of parenting practices in adolescent adjustment, emphasizing its influence on wellbeing. Objectives: To analyze the relationships between parenting practices, self-esteem, and life satisfaction, and test the mediating effect of self-esteem on the relationship between the different parenting practices and life satisfaction of adolescents. Method: The sample came to a total of 742 adolescents, with an average age of 15.63 (SD = 1.24; range 13–19). The Parenting Style Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale were used. Results: Perception by adolescents of high levels of affect and communication, self-disclosure, and a sense of humor related to their parents, as well as low levels of psychological control, explained the life satisfaction of the adolescents. Self-esteem exerted a partial mediating effect on the relationship between parenting practices and satisfaction with the life of the adolescent. Finally, self-esteem also appeared to be a moderator variable, specifically in the effect of self-disclosure on the life satisfaction of the adolescent. Conclusions: The results reinforce the role of personal variables, especially self-esteem, in parent-child interaction and in the improved subjective wellbeing of the adolescent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
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Open AccessArticle
A Study on Small Clinics Waste Management Practice, Rules, Staff Knowledge, and Motivating Factor in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4044; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204044 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 846
Abstract
Thousands of small clinics in Pakistan are generating dispersed medical waste, unlike large hospitals, small clinic waste management is often ignored. This study was conducted on 135 small clinics in Hyderabad, Pakistan, with the aim to determine small clinics’ waste management practices in [...] Read more.
Thousands of small clinics in Pakistan are generating dispersed medical waste, unlike large hospitals, small clinic waste management is often ignored. This study was conducted on 135 small clinics in Hyderabad, Pakistan, with the aim to determine small clinics’ waste management practices in contrast to rules, level of knowledge, the environmental impact of disposal methods, and motivating factor analysis to understand the current situation from multiple perspectives. Overall, the waste generation rate was calculated to be 2.01 kg/clinic/day and the hazardous waste generation rate was 0.89 kg/clinic/day, whereas the general waste generation rate was 1.12 kg/clinic/day. The hazardous waste generation rate percentage is found to be higher than those found in large hospitals by 20%. The waste management practice among surveyed clinics was deplorable; none of the clinics were completely following hospital waste management rules of 2005 and thus the absence of proper segregation, storage, transportation, and disposal was commonly encountered during the study. Clinic staff possessed low level of knowledge and awareness, and acquired no training about waste management practice and rules, moreover, frequent employee turnover was noticed too. Additionally, two hypotheses were checked for creditability of motivating factors with an exploratory factor analysis to check their contribution to motivating clinic staff to practice sound healthcare waste management. Out of 10 indicators, nine were found in support of the hypotheses. Hence, it was discovered that active government involvement and financial support in providing training and inspecting small clinics could help in improving the condition. The findings of the present study can play a vital role in documenting evidence, and for policymakers and governments to plan solid waste management of small clinics and other healthcare facilities. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Understanding the Antecedents of Organic Food Consumption in Pakistan: Moderating Role of Food Neophobia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4043; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204043 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1060
Abstract
Environmental and health problems have increased the interest of researchers and practitioners in investigating the factors that affect organic food consumption. However, little attention has been paid to the actual organic food buying behavior, particularly in developing countries like Pakistan. Therefore, the aim [...] Read more.
Environmental and health problems have increased the interest of researchers and practitioners in investigating the factors that affect organic food consumption. However, little attention has been paid to the actual organic food buying behavior, particularly in developing countries like Pakistan. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to determine the actual buying patterns of consumers. For this purpose, a conceptual model based on green perceived value framework which predicts consumer’s purchase intention and purchase behavior has been empirically tested. Likewise, moderating role of food neophobia has also been explored. Data is collected from millennials that are under rated but constitute the most important consumer segment in Pakistan. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is employed to analyze the data. Results from 221 university students reveal that functional value, social value, emotional value, and conditional value positively influence the consumer purchase intention. Moreover, purchase intention is positively linked to the consumer purchase behavior of organic food. Furthermore, the study findings also confirm the moderating role of food neophobia between purchase intention and consumption of organic food. This paper depicts some noteworthy insights of consumer behavior for organic food producers, marketers, and researchers. At the end, limitations and recommendations for future research are elaborated. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Association between Autism Spectrum Disorder and Pre- and Postnatal Antibiotic Exposure in Childhood—A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4042; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204042 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1274
Abstract
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that begins in early childhood and has been associated with several environmental and genetic factors. We aimed to conduct two-side meta-analyses to determine the association between ASD and pre- and postnatal antibiotic exposure in childhood. [...] Read more.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that begins in early childhood and has been associated with several environmental and genetic factors. We aimed to conduct two-side meta-analyses to determine the association between ASD and pre- and postnatal antibiotic exposure in childhood. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library for articles published up to February 2019. We evaluated observational studies that assessed the association between ASD and antibiotic exposure. Of 1459 articles, nine studies were used in the meta-analysis. We found that early antibiotic exposure, including pre- and postnatal, significantly increased the ASD risk in children. Furthermore, early antibiotic exposure, including pre- and postnatal, was significantly increased in children with ASD. Specifically, prenatal antibiotic exposure was significantly increased in children with ASD; however, postnatal antibiotic exposure was not. Our results indicate an association between ASD and early antibiotic exposure; specifically, that prenatal antibiotic exposure is an important risk factor of ASD in children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children's Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Attributable Burden and Expenditure of Cardiovascular Diseases and Associated Risk Factors in Mexico and other Selected Mega-Countries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4041; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204041 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1102
Abstract
Background: This paper describes the health and economic burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Mexico and other mega-countries through a review of literature and datasets. Methods: Mega-countries with a low (Nigeria), middle (India), high (China/Brazil/Mexico), and very high (the U.S.A./Japan) human development index [...] Read more.
Background: This paper describes the health and economic burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Mexico and other mega-countries through a review of literature and datasets. Methods: Mega-countries with a low (Nigeria), middle (India), high (China/Brazil/Mexico), and very high (the U.S.A./Japan) human development index were included. The review was focused on prevalence of dyslipidemias and CVD economic impact and conducted according to the PRISMA statement. Public datasets of CVD indicators were explored. Results: Heterogeneity in economic data and limited information on dyslipidemias were found. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were higher in Mexico compared with other countries. Higher contribution of dietary risk factors for cardiovascular mortality and greater probability of dying prematurely from CVD were observed in developing countries. From 1990–2016, a greater decrease in cardiovascular mortality in developed countries was registered. In 2015, a CVD expense equivalent to 4% of total health expenditure was reported in Mexico. CVD ranked first in health expenditures in almost all these nations and the economic burden will remain significant for decades to come. Conclusions: Resources should be assured to optimize CVD risk monitoring. Educational and medical models must be improved to enhance CVD diagnosis and the prescription and adherence to treatments. Long-term benefits could be attained by modifying the food system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impaired Eating and Swallowing Function in Older Adults in the Community: The Kurihara Project
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4040; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204040 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 869
Abstract
Introduction: Older adults with dementia often develop aspiration pneumonia as a complication due to deterioration of swallowing function. Herein, we report our findings of eating and swallowing-related functions in elderly local residents. Methods: The subjects were 229 elderly residents in Kurihara [...] Read more.
Introduction: Older adults with dementia often develop aspiration pneumonia as a complication due to deterioration of swallowing function. Herein, we report our findings of eating and swallowing-related functions in elderly local residents. Methods: The subjects were 229 elderly residents in Kurihara City, including 97 healthy (Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR): 0), 108 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (CDR: 0.5), and 24 with dementia (CDR: 1 or higher: CDR 1+). We analyzed the relationships between the findings, eating, and swallowing, based on the database of the Kurihara Project performed from 2008 to 2010. Results: In the CDR 0.5 group, some deterioration in oral condition, oral function and swallowing function was confirmed. In the CDR 0.5 group, tooth staining, decrease in oral diadochokinesis (oral motion velocity), increased number of points below the cut-off value in a repetitive saliva swallowing test and the questionnaire, and prolonged water swallowing time were confirmed. In the CDR 1+ group, bad breath, elimination of the pharyngeal reflex, increase in disturbed soft palate elevation, and prolonged jelly swallowing time were confirmed. Conclusions: Deterioration of swallowing function was confirmed, even in subjects with mild dementia, in addition to development of problems related to food intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Aging and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle
Association of Workplace Bullying and Workplace Vulnerability in the Psychological Distress of Chilean Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4039; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204039 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1014
Abstract
Workplace bullying has been identified as a global problem because of its growing magnitude and the harmful effects in victims and organizations. Workplace vulnerability is a component of job precarious1ness that reflects insecurity, fear, and labor uncertainty. This paper aims to analyze the [...] Read more.
Workplace bullying has been identified as a global problem because of its growing magnitude and the harmful effects in victims and organizations. Workplace vulnerability is a component of job precarious1ness that reflects insecurity, fear, and labor uncertainty. This paper aims to analyze the associations between the exposure to workplace vulnerability and psychological distress, and to explore the associations between exposure to workplace bullying and psychological distress, by sex. A cross-sectional and probabilistic survey was applied to a randomly-selected valid sample of 1995 salaried workers in three main metropolitan areas of Chile. Chi-square test and logistic regression models controlling for confounders were tested. Female workers were more exposed to workplace vulnerability and presented a higher prevalence of psychological distress. Among women who were vulnerable, one of three reported psychological distress (30.8%), which is higher than men (16.5%). Workers exposed to workplace vulnerability had a greater chance of workplace bullying, workers who perceived high workplace vulnerability had a greater chance of psychological distress, and workers exposed to workplace violence had a greater likelihood of psychological distress in comparison to those who were not exposed. Increasing employment security can reduce the perception of job vulnerability and help prevent the existence of workplace bullying. Additionally, occupational health protection policies should prevent, protect from, and intervene in workplace bullying as a precursor to mental health problems in Chile. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Parental Declaration of Adverse Event Following Immunization in a Cross-Sectional Study in Poland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4038; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204038 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 732
Abstract
Vaccines are a well-known and effective preventive measure in communicable diseases. However, like any medical product, vaccines can cause some adverse effects. With increasing population awareness, the number of reported events related to vaccination has increased. Aim: The aim of the study was [...] Read more.
Vaccines are a well-known and effective preventive measure in communicable diseases. However, like any medical product, vaccines can cause some adverse effects. With increasing population awareness, the number of reported events related to vaccination has increased. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the frequency and type of reported adverse events following childhood immunization (AEFI), and to recognize the determinant of their occurrence related with a socio-demographic situation, parental knowledge, and/or opinions on vaccinations. Material and Methods: The self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to a group of 3000 random parents or legal guardians living in the Silesian Voivodship (the southern part of Poland) in 2016. The response rate was eventually 41.3% from 1239 participants. Both, the number of children and the percentage of vaccinations given in the studied region, was representative for Poland as a whole. Results: Approximately one-third (32%) of surveyed parents declared the occurrence of AEFI in their children. The most frequently declared AEFIs were: redness, pain, swelling at the injection site (27%), and fever (24.9%). The frequency of reported AEFI was associated with a higher level of parental education and the number of vaccinations given. A negative attitude toward vaccination and the belief that vaccination is unsafe were associated with a higher number of reported AEFI. Conclusions: The results obtained confirmed that the number of declared mild and moderate AEFI is related to a lower parental educational level and is associated with a better experience as a consequence of a higher number of vaccinations given. Frequent AEFI reporters represent negative attitudes toward vaccinations. Further investigation with the exact surveillance system is needed to improve parental trust in vaccination safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children's Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of a Club in Making Differences in Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices on Family Planning Among Married Adolescent Girls in Urban Slums in Bangladesh
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4037; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204037 - 22 Oct 2019
Viewed by 840
Abstract
Early marriage and childbearing have led to Bangladesh having the highest adolescent fertility rate in the Asia Pacific region. Adolescent pregnancy is correlated with pregnancy-related complications, preterm delivery, delivery of low-birth weight babies, and spousal violence. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in four [...] Read more.
Early marriage and childbearing have led to Bangladesh having the highest adolescent fertility rate in the Asia Pacific region. Adolescent pregnancy is correlated with pregnancy-related complications, preterm delivery, delivery of low-birth weight babies, and spousal violence. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in four urban slums (two intervention and two control areas) of Dhaka from July 2014 to August 2016 to assess the effectiveness of a married adolescent girls club (MAG club) in reducing the unmet need for family planning (FP) among married girls between the ages of 14 and 19 (n = 1601, 799 in intervention and 802 in control areas). The percentages of the targeted population using any modern method of contraception were significantly higher among respondents in the intervention areas than those in the control areas (72.6% versus 63.5%). The unmet need for FP was significantly lower among respondents in the intervention areas than that of the control areas (16.2% versus 20.7%). The MAG club was a well-received strategy to provide comprehensive information on FP, which in turn helped improve contraceptive method practices and reduced the unmet need for FP among married adolescent girls in urban slums in Bangladesh. The government could leverage its existing resources to expand the MAG Club model in rural parts of the country to achieve the targets outlined in its Adolescent Reproductive Health Strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Women's Reproductive and Maternal Health)
Open AccessArticle
Dairy Production under Climatic Risks: Perception, Perceived Impacts and Adaptations in Punjab, Pakistan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4036; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204036 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 966
Abstract
The changing climatic conditions coupled with fodder availability have posed severe challenges and threats for the dairy sector in Pakistan. The current paper determines the influence of climate change on the dairy sector in Pakistan. Comprehensive data set was collected from 450 farmers. [...] Read more.
The changing climatic conditions coupled with fodder availability have posed severe challenges and threats for the dairy sector in Pakistan. The current paper determines the influence of climate change on the dairy sector in Pakistan. Comprehensive data set was collected from 450 farmers. The majority of farmers experienced the climate change and its variability and explained that severity and frequency of climatic extreme events such as droughts, heat waves, floods, pests and diseases and humidity is increasing. The study found that farmers considered drought as one of the major climatic risks which severely affects all aspects of dairy production. Specifically, to estimate the perceived impacts of climatic extreme event on milk production, an ordered probit model was applied and identified that climate change had high adverse impact on milk quantity in the study area. Different adaptation practices, such as changing cropping pattern for fodder production, off-farm income activities, diversifying the farm and regular vaccination are mostly used by dairy farmers. The study recommends policy initiatives to be taken by government for long term developments in the dairy farming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Adaptation and Risk Reduction)
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Open AccessArticle
Community-Based Healthcare Programs Sustainability Impact on the Sustainability of Host Organizations: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4035; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204035 - 21 Oct 2019
Viewed by 705
Abstract
The sustainability of community-based programs represents a major focus of the literature on community-based interventions in the last few decades. However, without sustainable host organizations to effectively implement them, many are prone to failure. This paper analyzes the influence of the sustainability factors [...] Read more.
The sustainability of community-based programs represents a major focus of the literature on community-based interventions in the last few decades. However, without sustainable host organizations to effectively implement them, many are prone to failure. This paper analyzes the influence of the sustainability factors of healthcare community-based programs on the host organization’s sustainability. Based on a sample of 11 community-based healthcare programs and 401 respondents and using structural equation modeling, the study investigated if program specific, organization specific, and community specific factors are indeed measures of community-based programs’ sustainability, if social and economic dimensions are measures of host organization sustainability, and if the sustainability of the community-based program influences thee host organization’s sustainability. The results confirmed all three research hypothesis. The main contribution of the paper is to demonstrate a direct relationship between the sustainability of community-based programs and the overall sustainability of the organizations implementing them. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Latent Profiles Based on Light Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Perceived Body Shape, and Body Mass Index in Patients with Dyslipidemia Influence Their Quality of Life
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4034; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204034 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 773
Abstract
Despite the increasing prevalence and economic burden of dyslipidemia in South Korea, we have little data on the physical activity of patients. Thus, we aimed to investigate how quality of life among patients with dyslipidemia is influenced by a combination of the following [...] Read more.
Despite the increasing prevalence and economic burden of dyslipidemia in South Korea, we have little data on the physical activity of patients. Thus, we aimed to investigate how quality of life among patients with dyslipidemia is influenced by a combination of the following variables: light physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), perceived body shape, and body mass index (BMI). We examined data from the Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI 2015), collected in 2015 by the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The analysis included 534 individuals with dyslipidemia out of 7380 survey participants. Latent profile analysis identified three latent classes of individuals based on their physical profiles. Class 1 patients (active; n = 48) were more active, possessed more positive views of their body shape, were less sedentary, and had a lower BMI than Class 3 patients (inactive; n = 154). Class 2 patients (moderate; n = 331) had profiles in between the other two classes. Additionally, Class 1 and 2 patients had better quality of life than Class 3 patients. Our results suggest that promoting light PA and altering perceived body shape through counselling may improve quality of life in patients with dyslipidemia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Levels of Physical Activity, Obesity and Related Factors in Young Adults Aged 18–30 During 2009–2017
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4033; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204033 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 920
Abstract
The objective of this study was to analyze the temporal trend of physical activity and body mass index in young adults aged 18–30 in Spain and to ascertain their relationship with sociodemographic and psychosocial variables in the period of 2009–2017. Methods: A descriptive [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to analyze the temporal trend of physical activity and body mass index in young adults aged 18–30 in Spain and to ascertain their relationship with sociodemographic and psychosocial variables in the period of 2009–2017. Methods: A descriptive study with a sample of 10,061 young adults aged 18–30 years was performed. The data were obtained from the European Health Survey in Spain in 2009 and 2014 and the National Health Survey in 2011/2012 and 2017. The chi-square test was used for qualitative variables, and multiple linear regression analysis was performed for physical activity. Results: Sedentary levels had decreased in 2017 as compared to 2011/2012 (p < 0.001); smokers were more sedentary than non-smokers (p < 0.001); men were more active than women (p < 0.001); and the year with the highest physical activity was 2014. Body mass index in the total sample increased from 2009 to 2017 (p < 0.01), showing a significant increase in obesity in women (p < 0.05) and no difference in men (p ≥ 0.05). Conclusions: In the period 2011/2012–2017, the sedentary lifestyle of young adults was reduced and physical activity was increased, with men being more active than women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Association between Running Performance and Game Performance Indicators in Professional Soccer Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4032; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204032 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1329
Abstract
Running performance (RP) and game performance indicators (GPI) are important determinants of success in soccer (football), but there is an evident lack of knowledge about the possible associations between RP and GPI. This study aimed to identify associations between RP and GPI in [...] Read more.
Running performance (RP) and game performance indicators (GPI) are important determinants of success in soccer (football), but there is an evident lack of knowledge about the possible associations between RP and GPI. This study aimed to identify associations between RP and GPI in professional soccer players and to compare RP and GPI among soccer playing positions. One hundred one match performances were observed over the course of half of a season at the highest level of national competition in Croatia. Players (mean ± SD, age: 23.85 ± 2.88 years; body height: 183.05 ± 8.88 cm; body mass: 78.69 ± 7.17 kg) were classified into five playing positions (central defenders (n = 26), full-backs (n = 24), central midfielders (n = 33), wide midfielders (n = 10), and forwards (n = 8). RP, as measured by global positioning system, included the total distance covered, distance covered in five speed categories (walking, jogging, running, high-speed running, and maximal sprinting), total number of accelerations, number of high-intensity accelerations, total number of decelerations, and number of high-intensity decelerations. The GPI were collected by the position-specific performance statistics index (InStat index). The average total distance was 10,298.4 ± 928.7 m, with central defenders having the shortest and central midfielders having the greatest covered distances. The running (r = 0.419, p = 0.03) and high-intensity accelerations (r = 0.493, p = 0.01) were correlated with the InStat index for central defenders. The number of decelerations of full-backs (r = −0.43, p = 0.04) and the distance covered during sprinting of forwards (r = 0.80, p = 0.02) were associated with their GPI obtained by InStat index. The specific correlations between RP and GPI should be considered during the conditioning process in soccer. The soccer training should follow the specific requirements of the playing positions established herein, which will allow players to meet the game demands and to perform successfully. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health, Exercise and Sports Performance)
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Open AccessReview
Work-Related Stress, Physio-Pathological Mechanisms, and the Influence of Environmental Genetic Factors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4031; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204031 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 947
Abstract
Work-related stress is a growing health problem in modern society. The stress response is characterized by numerous neurochemicals, neuroendocrine and immune modifications that involve various neurological systems and circuits, and regulation of the gene expression of the different receptors. In this regard, a [...] Read more.
Work-related stress is a growing health problem in modern society. The stress response is characterized by numerous neurochemicals, neuroendocrine and immune modifications that involve various neurological systems and circuits, and regulation of the gene expression of the different receptors. In this regard, a lot of research has focused the attention on the role played by the environment in influencing gene expression, which in turn can control the stress response. In particular, genetic factors can moderate the sensitivities of specific types of neural cells or circuits mediating the imprinting of the environment on different biological systems. In this current review, we wish to analyze systematic reviews and recent experimental research on the physio-pathological mechanisms that underline stress-related responses. In particular, we analyze the relationship between genetic and epigenetic factors in the stress response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress and Work)
Open AccessArticle
Influence of Two-Stage Combinations of Constructed Wetlands on the Removal of Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Nutrients from Goose Wastewater
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4030; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204030 - 21 Oct 2019
Viewed by 805
Abstract
Antibiotic and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been considered as emerging environmental contaminants and possess potential crisis to global public health. However, little is known about the differences between various configurations of two-stage combinations of constructed wetlands (CWs) on antibiotics and ARG removal [...] Read more.
Antibiotic and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been considered as emerging environmental contaminants and possess potential crisis to global public health. However, little is known about the differences between various configurations of two-stage combinations of constructed wetlands (CWs) on antibiotics and ARG removal from wastewater. In the study, three configurations of two-stage hybrid CWs (horizontal subsurface flow-down-flow vertical subsurface flow CWs, HF-DVF; horizontal subsurface flow-up-flow vertical subsurface flow CWs, HF-UVF; down-flow vertical subsurface flow-up-flow vertical subsurface flow CWs, DVF-UVF) were operated to evaluate their ability to remove high-concentration antibiotics (tilmicosin—TMS and doxycycline—DOC), ARGs (seven tet genes and three erm genes), intI1, 16S rRNA, and nutrients from goose wastewater. The results showed that all three hybrid CWs could remove more than 98% of TMS and DOC from wastewater, without significant difference among treatments (p > 0.05). For ARGs, DVF-UVF showed significantly higher removal efficiencies of intI1, ermB, ermC, ermF, tetW, and tetG compared to HF-UVF (p < 0.05), mainly because they might remove and arrest growth of bacteria. The relatively high removal efficiencies of NH4+-N, NO3N, and NO2--N were also observed from DVF-UVF, ranging from 87% to 95% (p > 0.05), indicating that anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) might be established in the CWs. Our results demonstrate that the removal performances of antibiotics using two-stage hybrid CWs are not affected by the combined configuration, whereas the combination of DVF and UVF CWs perform better on the removal of ARGs and nutrients compared with HF-DVF and HF-UVF CWs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical and Biological Effects on Activated Sludge Performance and Activity Recovery of Damaged Sludge by Exposure to CeO2 Nanoparticles in Sequencing Batch Reactors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4029; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204029 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 725
Abstract
Recently, the growing release of CeO2 nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) into sewage systems has attracted great concern. Several studies have extensively explored CeO2 NPs’ potential adverse impacts on wastewater treatment plants; however, the impaired activated sludge recovery potentials have seldom been [...] Read more.
Recently, the growing release of CeO2 nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) into sewage systems has attracted great concern. Several studies have extensively explored CeO2 NPs’ potential adverse impacts on wastewater treatment plants; however, the impaired activated sludge recovery potentials have seldom been addressed to date. To explore the physicochemical and biological effects on the activated sludge performance and activity recovery of damaged sludge by exposure to CeO2 NPs in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), four reactors and multiple indicators including water quality, key enzymes, microbial metabolites, the microbial community structure and toxicity were used. Results showed that 10-week exposure to higher CeO2 NP concentration (1, 10 mg/L) resulted in a sharp decrease in nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies, which were consistent with the tendencies of key enzymes. Meanwhile, CeO2 NPs at concentrations of 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/L decreased the secretion of tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances to 0.13%, 3.14%, and 28.60%, respectively, compared to the control. In addition, two-week recovery period assays revealed that the functional bacteria Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae and Planctomycetes recovered slightly at the phyla level, as analyzed through high-throughput sequencing, which was consistent with the small amount of improvement of the effluent performance of the system. This reflected the small possibility of the activity recovery of damaged sludge. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Sludge Treatment and Disposal)
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Open AccessArticle
The Association Between Health Conditions, Consciousness, Involvement, and Knowledge and Dietary Supplement Intake among University Students in South Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4028; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204028 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 729
Abstract
Dietary supplements (DSs) are typically used by the elderly in a population, but younger age groups are increasingly purchasing these products. In consideration of this issue, the present study investigated the DS-related behaviors and general lifestyles of university students in South Korea. The [...] Read more.
Dietary supplements (DSs) are typically used by the elderly in a population, but younger age groups are increasingly purchasing these products. In consideration of this issue, the present study investigated the DS-related behaviors and general lifestyles of university students in South Korea. The health conditions, consciousness, involvement, and knowledge, as well as the future behavioral intentions, of DS users and non-users were determined and compared. A survey was administered to the respondents, and measurements were adapted and rephrased to suit the Korean context. Results showed that although the behaviors of DS users and non-users were characterized by similar patterns, significant differences in health involvement and future purchase were found between these groups. Health involvement influenced DSs buying intentions in the future, but no significant differences in the other variables were found. The findings suggested that university students take DSs regardless of their expectations about their efficacy and that their knowledge does not affect their intention to purchase such products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Open AccessReview
A Scoping Review and Conceptual Model of Social Participation and Mental Health among Refugees and Asylum Seekers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4027; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204027 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1136
Abstract
Social participation plays a key role in the integration of refugees and asylum seekers into their host societies, and is also closely tied to the mental health of those populations. The aim of this scoping review was to study how the concept of [...] Read more.
Social participation plays a key role in the integration of refugees and asylum seekers into their host societies, and is also closely tied to the mental health of those populations. The aim of this scoping review was to study how the concept of social participation is described in empirical research, and how it is associated with mental health outcomes. Methods: In total, 64 studies were identified through searches in PubMed, PsycInfo, and Sociological Abstracts. These studies describe various forms of social participation among refugees and asylum seekers, and 33 of them also addressed various forms of mental health outcomes. Results: The identified studies described forms and conditions of social participation—both in the host country and transnationally—that could be synthesized into three broad dimensions: (1) Regulatory frameworks, conditions and initiatives; (2) Established societal organizations and social structures; and (3) Community organized groups. Each of these consisted of several sub-domains. The identified dimensions of social participation were also associated with psychosocial well-being and decreased psychological distress. Conclusions: There is a need for policies to enable and support the participation of refugees and asylum seekers in various dimensions of social structures in host societies. Social participation enhances resilience, re-establishes social lives, and acts as a protective factor against poor mental health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Spatial Distribution of Biodiversity in a Changing Temperature Pattern: The Case of Catalonia, Spain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4026; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204026 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 696
Abstract
The impacts that climate change and land-use dynamics have on biodiversity are already visible in the distribution and behaviour of a large number of species. By using a Bayesian framework, including land-use, meteorological, topography and other variables as explanatory variables, such as distance [...] Read more.
The impacts that climate change and land-use dynamics have on biodiversity are already visible in the distribution and behaviour of a large number of species. By using a Bayesian framework, including land-use, meteorological, topography and other variables as explanatory variables, such as distance to roads and urban centres, we modeled a number of species within each cell of a regular lattice for Catalonia, Spain, in the period of 2004 to 2010. We estimated a slight increase in daily maximum temperature and a more significant increase in minimum temperature (a 5-year increase of 0.159 °C in maximum temperature, and an increase of 0.332 °C in minimum temperature). The estimation shows that the total number of species was greater than expected in the cells where land use was not urban—38.4%, in forests and 55.2% in mixed forests. Finally, we observed that most invasive species are found in areas where the minimum temperature is expected to increase. Our study can help with making important recommendations as to where, when and how future threats could affect specie distribution and the kind of planning processes needed for when protected natural areas will be unable to continue to support all the species they were designed to protect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
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Open AccessArticle
‘There You Enjoy Life, Here You Work’: Brazilian and Dominican Immigrants’ Views on Work and Health in the U.S.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4025; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204025 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 880
Abstract
Structural inequalities in the U.S. work environment place most immigrants in low paying, high-risk jobs. Understanding how work experiences and influence the health of different immigrant populations is essential to address disparities. This article explores how Brazilian and Dominican immigrants feel about their [...] Read more.
Structural inequalities in the U.S. work environment place most immigrants in low paying, high-risk jobs. Understanding how work experiences and influence the health of different immigrant populations is essential to address disparities. This article explores how Brazilian and Dominican immigrants feel about their experiences working in the U.S. and how the relationship between work and culture might impact their health. In partnership with the Dominican Development Center and the Brazilian Worker Center, we held five cultural conversations (CCs) with Brazilians (n = 48) and five with Dominicans (n = 40). CCs are participatory, unstructured groups facilitated by representatives from or embedded in the community. Brazilian immigrants focused on physical health and the American Dream while Dominicans immigrants emphasized concerns about the influence of work on mental health. Dominicans’ longer tenure in the U.S. and differences in how Brazilians and Dominicans are racialized in the region might account for the variation in perspectives between groups. Future studies should further investigate the relationship between health and how immigrants’ work lives are shaped by culture, race and immigrant status. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Achieving Environmental Health Equity: Great Expectations)
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