Special Issue "Physical Activity and Health"

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Lee Smith
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The Cambridge Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK
Interests: physical activity promotion; sedentary behaviour reduction; the relationship between physical activity and health; the relationship between sedentary behaviour and health; the role of physical activity in cancer survivorship; public health; epidemiology; sports medicine
Dr. Sarah E. Jackson
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Behavioural Science and Health, University College London, London, UK
Interests: behavioural influences on health; obesity and weight change; the impact of chronic diseases on health and wellbeing; public health; epidemiology; ageing
Dr. Igor Grabovac
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 15/1, 1090 Vienna, Austria
Interests: health promotion; health behaviour modification; occupational health; human sexuality; social discrimination; sports medicine

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As you are no doubt aware, regular and sustained participation in physical activity is beneficial for almost every facet of human health. However, disparities in the levels of physical activity and health differ within and between countries. Not only does physical activity behaviour and health differ by geographical location, but also by the demographics of those residing in each location (e.g. socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity, age, sex, sexual orientation). This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, “Physical Activity and Health”, offers an opportunity to publish high-quality, multi-disciplinary research relating to physical activity and health (physical and mental) by geographical location and/or across various settings (e.g. occupational settings). We are particularly interested in research that compares physical activity profiles and health profiles between geographical locations. We also welcome papers investigating physical activity profiles and health profiles between the demographics of populations (e.g. high SES versus low SES or between the ethnicities) within geographical locations. Manuscripts utilising any method are welcome (e.g. epidemiology, evaluation of interventions, reviews, or those of a qualitative nature). All manuscripts will be peer reviewed by experts in the field and should be submitted by 31 October 2019.

Dr. Lee Smith
Dr. Sarah E. Jackson
Dr. Igor Grabovac
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • physical activity
  • geographical location
  • health
  • disparities
  • country

Published Papers (28 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Active or Passive Commuter? Discrepancies in Cut-off Criteria among Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 3796; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203796 - 09 Oct 2019
Abstract
Active commuting to school has health implications for young people. Previous research has shown the need to consistently define the concept of “active commuter”, given that assessment as well as comparison between studies may be hindered by current discrepancies in frequency criteria. Using [...] Read more.
Active commuting to school has health implications for young people. Previous research has shown the need to consistently define the concept of “active commuter”, given that assessment as well as comparison between studies may be hindered by current discrepancies in frequency criteria. Using a sample of 158 Spanish students (12th–13th grade, 60.8% girls), the current study aimed to compare several cut-off criteria to rigorously identify the frequency of weekly active trips to school in order to categorize adolescents as active or passive commuters, and to analyze whether the threshold living distance to school is associated with the different trip cut-off criteria. Percentages of active commuters ranged from 75% to 88.6%, varying significantly depending on the cut-off criteria (5–10 active trips/week) used. The results also support the need to be stricter in the selection of a cut-off criterion when the distance to the school becomes shorter. Our findings highlight the importance of following a standard criterion to classify individuals as active or passive commuters, considering the characteristics of the context in which each study is conducted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Signage Interventions for Stair Climbing at Work: More than 700,000 Reasons for Caution
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3782; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193782 - 08 Oct 2019
Abstract
Increased stair climbing reduces cardiovascular disease risk. While signage interventions for workplace stair climbing offer a low-cost tool to improve population health, inconsistent effects of intervention occur. Pedestrian movement within the built environment has major effects on stair use, independent of any health [...] Read more.
Increased stair climbing reduces cardiovascular disease risk. While signage interventions for workplace stair climbing offer a low-cost tool to improve population health, inconsistent effects of intervention occur. Pedestrian movement within the built environment has major effects on stair use, independent of any health initiative. This paper used pooled data from UK and Spanish workplaces to test the effects of signage interventions when pedestrian movement was controlled for in analyses. Automated counters measured stair and elevator usage at the ground floor throughout the working day. Signage interventions employed previously successful campaigns. In the UK, minute-by-minute stair/elevator choices measured effects of momentary pedestrian traffic at the choice-point (n = 426,605). In Spain, aggregated pedestrian traffic every 30 min measured effects for ‘busyness’ of the building (n = 293,300). Intervention effects on stair descent (3 of 4 analyses) were more frequent than effects on stair climbing, the behavior with proven health benefits (1 of 4 analyses). Any intervention effects were of small magnitude relative to the influence of pedestrian movement. Failure to control for pedestrian movement compromises any estimate for signage effectiveness. These pooled data provide limited evidence that signage interventions for stair climbing at work will enhance population health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Associations between Mental Well-Being and Adherence to Physical Activity Guidelines in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease: Results from the Scottish Health Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3596; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193596 - 26 Sep 2019
Abstract
The association between physical activity (PA) and mental well-being in individuals with a cardiovascular disease (CVD) is poorly studied. The objective of this study was to assess the association between mental well-being and adherence to the recommended guidelines for PA in a Scottish [...] Read more.
The association between physical activity (PA) and mental well-being in individuals with a cardiovascular disease (CVD) is poorly studied. The objective of this study was to assess the association between mental well-being and adherence to the recommended guidelines for PA in a Scottish adult population with CVD. The study used data from 3128 adults who had CVD conditions (1547 men and 1581 women; mean age 63.29 years) who participated in the Scottish Health Survey between 2014 and 2017. The Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS) was used as a surrogate measure of mental health. PA was classified as “met” or “unmet” on the basis of the recommended PA guidelines (150 min of moderate activity or 75 min of vigorous activity per week). The relationship between PA guidelines being met and the WEMWBS score was explored using hierarchical linear regression accounting for a set of health and sociodemographic characteristics. Of the participants, ~41.8% met the recommended PA levels. Among those with CVD, the mean (SD) WEMWBS scores of individuals who did not have a long-standing illness (51.14 ± 7.65 vs 47.07 ± 9.54; p < 0.05), diabetes (48.44 ± 9.05 vs 46.04 ± 10.25; p < 0.05), or high blood pressure (48.63 ± 9.08 vs 47.52 ± 9.47; p < 0.05) were significantly higher than those of individuals with such conditions. Meeting PA recommendations was significantly associated with a higher mean WEMWBS score (50.64 ± 7.97 vs 46.06 ± 9.75; p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis of health-related behaviors improved the prediction of mental well-being over and above meeting the recommended PA levels. Mental well-being was strongly correlated with PA adherence in CVD patients. It seems that for patients with CVD, PA should be tailored to meet patients’ health conditions in order to promote mental well-being and improve overall health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
Open AccessArticle
Identifying Predictors of Changes in Physical Activity Level in Adolescence: A Prospective Analysis in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2573; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142573 - 18 Jul 2019
Abstract
It is known that physical activity levels (PA levels) decline during adolescence, but there is a lack of knowledge on possible predictors of changes in PA levels in this period of life. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the relationship between sociodemographic and [...] Read more.
It is known that physical activity levels (PA levels) decline during adolescence, but there is a lack of knowledge on possible predictors of changes in PA levels in this period of life. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the relationship between sociodemographic and behavioral factors (predictors), PA levels and changes in PA levels in older adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The sample comprised 872 participants (404 females) tested at baseline (16 years of age) and at follow-up (18 years of age). Predictors were sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, socioeconomic status, urban/rural residence, paternal and maternal education level) and variables of substance misuse (consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and illicit drugs). The PA level, as measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A), was observed as a criterion. Boys had higher PAQ-A scores than girls at baseline and follow-up. Paternal education levels were correlated with PAQ-A scores at baseline (Spearman’s R: 0.18, 0.15 and 0.14, p < 0.05, for the total sample, females and males, respectively) and at follow-up (Spearman’s R: 0.12, p < 0.01 for the total sample). Logistic regression, which was used to calculate changes in PA levels between baseline and follow-up as a binomial criterion (PA decline vs. PA incline), evidenced a higher likelihood of PA incline in adolescents whose mothers were more educated (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.05–1.60) and who live in urban communities (OR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.16–2.10). The consumption of illicit drugs at baseline was evidenced as a factor contributing to the lower likelihood of PA incline (OR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.14–0.92). The negative relationship between illicit drug consumption and PA decline could be a result of a large number of children who quit competitive sports in this period of life. In achieving appropriate PA-levels, special attention should be placed on children whose mothers are not highly educated, who live in rural communities, and who report the consumption of illicit drugs. The results highlighted the importance of studying correlates of PA levels and changes in PA levels during adolescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Do Older People with Diabetes Meet the Recommended Weekly Physical Activity Targets? An Analysis of Objective Physical Activity Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142489 - 12 Jul 2019
Abstract
Appropriate management of diabetes mellitus (DM) includes following a healthy lifestyle, in which reaching physical activity (PA) recommendations is an important factor. Despite this, it remains unclear whether people with DM meet the recommended PA targets. We therefore aimed to investigate the proportion [...] Read more.
Appropriate management of diabetes mellitus (DM) includes following a healthy lifestyle, in which reaching physical activity (PA) recommendations is an important factor. Despite this, it remains unclear whether people with DM meet the recommended PA targets. We therefore aimed to investigate the proportion of older adults with DM (type 1 and 2) engaging in the recommended amount of PA per week in a cross-sectional study. PA levels were objectively measured using the GT1M ActiGraph accelerometer for seven consecutive days, and the cut-off of 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was used. To assess the relationship between not meeting the recommendation for, and the significant factors associated with PA level (MVPA < 150 min/week), a multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied. 197 diabetic participants (mean age = 66.8 years; 46.7% males) spent only 74.5 ± 94.4 min/weekly in MVPA, and only 39 (=19.8%) reached the cut-off for sufficient PA levels. Significant correlates of not meeting the recommendation for PA levels were female sex, depressive symptoms, and age. In conclusion, only one-fifth of diabetic people reached the recommended amount of PA, suggesting that more intervention is needed to increase PA levels in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
Open AccessArticle
Intensity of Health Behaviors in People Who Practice Combat Sports and Martial Arts
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2463; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142463 - 11 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Health behaviors are associated with a healthy lifestyle, in which relative possibilities of choice play an important part. Athletes are a group of people who should particularly endeavor to have a health-oriented lifestyle. It is believed that combat sports (CS) and [...] Read more.
Background: Health behaviors are associated with a healthy lifestyle, in which relative possibilities of choice play an important part. Athletes are a group of people who should particularly endeavor to have a health-oriented lifestyle. It is believed that combat sports (CS) and martial arts (MA) have an especially significant educational potential, connected with several desirable values which provide positive patterns of health behaviors. The aim of the work was to assess the intensity of health behaviors in athletes who practiced CS and MA in relation to the length of their training history, their age, sex, place of residence, education level, and financial situation. Methods: The research involved 441 men and women who practiced boxing (B), Brazilian ju-jitsu (BJJ), karate (K), mixed martial arts (MMA) and Muay Thai (MT). The average age of the subjects was 24.68 ± 8.24 years. The standardized Health Behavior Inventory (HBI) questionnaire and another questionnaire for a lifestyle survey were applied. Individual behaviors covered four areas: Correct eating habits (CEH), preventive behaviors (PB), positive mental attitude (PMA), and health practices (HP). The one-way analysis of variance (F-test) for independent groups was used (ANOVA). The effect size was calculated with Hedge’s g for Student’s t-test, and with Cramér’s V for the χ2 test. The value of p ≤ 0.05 was assumed to be statistically significant. Results: CS and MA athletes presented a moderate level of health behaviors. The greater intensity of health behaviors (HBI and its categories) was found among B, K and MMA athletes, and the smaller among those who practiced MT. Correct eating habits (CEH) were characteristic of subjects who practiced every day and whose length of training history was 4–8 years. Greater intensity of preventive behaviors (PB) was observed among individuals aged under-19 years, who still studied. Greater intensity of health practices (HP) was found among those who exercised every day. Influence of financial situation was observed in relations to PMA. Conclusions: It seems that the existing educational potential of CS and MA was not fully realized in the studied population. Determining the place of health in the system of values of CS and MA athletes may be the basis for predicting health behaviors and developing health education programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
Open AccessArticle
Gender-Specific Risk Factors of Physical Activity-Related Injuries among Middle School Students in Southern China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2359; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132359 - 03 Jul 2019
Abstract
This cross-sectional study was carried out to explore the potential risk factors of physical activity-related injuries (PARI) among middle-school students of different genders. Selected by the random cluster sampling method, students aged from 12 to 16 years old in grades 7–8 from six [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study was carried out to explore the potential risk factors of physical activity-related injuries (PARI) among middle-school students of different genders. Selected by the random cluster sampling method, students aged from 12 to 16 years old in grades 7–8 from six middle schools in Shantou, southern China, were recruited for this investigation in November 2017. Information about socio-demographics, physical activity (PA) exposure time, individual exercise behaviors, risk-taking behaviors, and PARI experiences in the past 12 months was collected. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to explore the risk factors of PARI. A total of 1270 students completed valid questionnaires, with an overall injury incidence of 33.6% (boys: 42.0%; girls: 25.0%), an injury risk of 0.68 injuries/student/year, and an injury rate of 1.43 injuries per 1000 PA exposure hours. For boys, living in a school dormitory, participating in sports teams, exercising on a wet floor, rebellious behavior, and having longer PA exposure time were the risk factors of PARI. For girls, those who were sports team members, whose parents were divorced or separated, and those with longer PA exposure time were more vulnerable to suffer from PARI. In conclusion, PARI was a health problem among middle school students in southern China. Boys and girls differed in PARI occurrence and were affected by different risk factors, which provides a basis for targeted gender-specific intervention programs to reduce the occurrence of PARI among middle-school students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
Open AccessArticle
Reliability of the 30 s Chair Stand Test in Women with Fibromyalgia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2344; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132344 - 02 Jul 2019
Abstract
Background: The 30 s chair stand test is often used to evaluate physical fitness in chronic pain populations. In patients with fibromyalgia, physical fitness is closely related to pain, quality of life, and fear of falling. However, the reliability of this test has [...] Read more.
Background: The 30 s chair stand test is often used to evaluate physical fitness in chronic pain populations. In patients with fibromyalgia, physical fitness is closely related to pain, quality of life, and fear of falling. However, the reliability of this test has only been evaluated concerning the number of repetitions. Objective: To evaluate the test–retest reliability of the 30 s chair stand test in women with fibromyalgia (n = 30), using data from the contact and non-contact time registered with an automatic chronometer (chronojump). Methods: Participants carried out the 30 s chair stand test twice with five minutes as a rest period, while an automatic chronometer recorded the time elapsed in contact with the chair (impulse phase) and not in contact (non-contact phase). Number and fear of falls in the last year and in the last six weeks were also recorded. Results: The reliability of duration of both phases was good. A relationship between these results and the number and fear of falling was also found. Conclusion: The analysis of movement phases in the 30 s chair stand test showed a good reliability in females with fibromyalgia, providing further useful information about the onset of muscle fatigue during the test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
Open AccessArticle
Normative Data on Grip Strength in a Population-Based Study with Adjusting Confounding Factors: Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014–2015)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122235 - 25 Jun 2019
Abstract
Background: We investigated population-based data on grip strength, analyzed for demographic factors, and proposed a formula to estimate grip strength that could be generalized to a population with different anthropometric and background characteristics. Methods: This study used a complex, stratified, multistage probability [...] Read more.
Background: We investigated population-based data on grip strength, analyzed for demographic factors, and proposed a formula to estimate grip strength that could be generalized to a population with different anthropometric and background characteristics. Methods: This study used a complex, stratified, multistage probability cluster survey with a representative sample of the population. Select household Korean participants (n = 6577) over age 10 who were able to perform daily tasks without issue were included. Grip strength was measured in both hands, alternately, three times using a digital grip strength dynamometer. Results: There was a curvilinear relationship between grip strength and age, and grip strength was higher in males than females (p = 0.001). Hand preference significantly affected grip strength (p = 0.001). Weight and height were positively correlated with strength in both hands (p = 0.001), but waist circumference was negatively correlated with strength in both hands (p = 0.001). The intensity of occupational labor did significantly affect grip strength in both hands (p = 0.001). The formulas for estimating grip strength of each hand are presented as main results. Conclusions: To determine normative data on grip strength, we may consider factors such as occupations with different physical demands, underlying medical conditions, anthropometric characteristics, and unmodifiable factors such as age and sex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
Open AccessArticle
Sedentary Behavior: A Key Component in the Interaction between an Integrated Lifestyle Approach and Cardiac Autonomic Function in Active Young Men
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2156; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122156 - 18 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study aimed to verify the association between autonomic cardiac function (CAF) and the integration of caloric expenditure by physical activity (PA) intensity, sedentary behavior (SB), and sleep quality (PSQI) in active young men. Thirty-five subjects were included, and caloric expenditure in moderate-to-vigorous [...] Read more.
This study aimed to verify the association between autonomic cardiac function (CAF) and the integration of caloric expenditure by physical activity (PA) intensity, sedentary behavior (SB), and sleep quality (PSQI) in active young men. Thirty-five subjects were included, and caloric expenditure in moderate-to-vigorous and light-intensity PA, SB, and PSQI were assessed using questionnaires. Heart rate variability (HRV) was recorded for short periods of time in the supine and orthostatic positions. Multiple linear regression was realized unadjusted and adjusted for covariables, such as age, body mass index, and fat mass. No adjusted analysis indicated that, in the supine position, there were negative associations between the SB and the TP, HF, and NorHF indices, and positive associations between SB and NorLF and LF/HF. In the orthostatic position, an interaction between SB and NorLF was found. Significance of proportion with the TP, HF, and LF/HF indices was confirmed. When adjusted, for the supine position, negative interactions were documented between SB and the TP as well as the HF indices, and between PSQI and the LF/HF index, with interference under the HF and LF/HF indices. Finally, our findings indicate that the proposed approach interacts with CAF, and SB is significantly related to CAF in young active men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness and Estimation of Cost-Effectiveness of a Group-Based Multicomponent Physical Exercise Programme on Risk of Falling and Frailty in Community-Dwelling Older Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2086; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122086 - 13 Jun 2019
Abstract
This study analyses the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a group-based multicomponent physical exercise programme aimed at reducing the risk of falling and frailty in community-dwelling older adults. This is a pretest–posttest non-equivalent control group design, with an intervention group and a comparison group. [...] Read more.
This study analyses the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a group-based multicomponent physical exercise programme aimed at reducing the risk of falling and frailty in community-dwelling older adults. This is a pretest–posttest non-equivalent control group design, with an intervention group and a comparison group. Participants were evaluated at baseline and after 9 months. The effectiveness analyses showed significant reduction in the risk of falling (−45.5%; p = 0.000) and frailty (−31%; p = 0.000) after the intervention for the participants in the physical exercise programme. Moreover, these participants showed an improvement in limitations in activities of daily living, self-care ability and the use of health resources, physical performance, balance and body mass index. The cost-effectiveness analyses showed that the intervention was cost-saving and more effective than usual care scenario. A novel group-based multicomponent physical exercise programme showed to be more effective and cost-effective than usual care for older adults suffering from risk of falling and frailty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Winter Exercise Reduces Allergic Airway Inflammation: A Randomized Controlled Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 2040; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16112040 - 08 Jun 2019
Abstract
Background: Physical exercise is often recommended as additional treatment for people suffering from allergic rhinitis and/or asthma, but less is known about the specific effects of recreational winter outdoor exercise on allergic airway inflammation. Methods: We performed a longitudinal, randomized controlled intervention study [...] Read more.
Background: Physical exercise is often recommended as additional treatment for people suffering from allergic rhinitis and/or asthma, but less is known about the specific effects of recreational winter outdoor exercise on allergic airway inflammation. Methods: We performed a longitudinal, randomized controlled intervention study to investigate the effects of recreational winter exercise on allergic airway inflammation, quality of life, spirometry and cardiorespiratory fitness in adults suffering from allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. The exercise group participated in a ten-day winter sports program. The control group did not receive any intervention. Results: A significant improvement of fractional oral exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO; p = 0.008, day 10) and a significant decrease in FeNO after a single 4 h hiking tour (p < 0.001, time effect) were observed for the exercise group. The nasal eosinophilic cell count revealed a short-term reduction (p = 0.021, treatment effect) in the exercise group and for the visual analogue scale sustainable improvements in allergic symptoms (p < 0.001, day 60) were found. No adverse effects of outdoor winter exercise were observed. Conclusion: Recreational winter exercise at moderately cold temperatures reduces allergic airway inflammation measured as FeNO, nasal eosinophilic cell count and induces sustainable improvements in allergic symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Bout Length-Specific Physical Activity and Adherence to Physical Activity Recommendations among Japanese Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 1991; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16111991 - 04 Jun 2019
Abstract
We aimed to clarify the patterns of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in the Japanese adult population, and the proportion of people meeting the recommendations of the Physical Activity Guidelines (PAG) for Americans, second edition (2nd PAG; ≥150 min/week of total MVPA [...] Read more.
We aimed to clarify the patterns of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in the Japanese adult population, and the proportion of people meeting the recommendations of the Physical Activity Guidelines (PAG) for Americans, second edition (2nd PAG; ≥150 min/week of total MVPA including bouts of any length) and those meeting the previously recommended PAG (2008-PAG; of ≥150 min/week of total MVPA lasting 10 min or longer [long-bout MVPA]). A total of 204 adults (aged 18 to 64 years) from two workplaces were asked to wear an accelerometer. MVPA was classified by bout length, and the proportion of long-bout MVPA was clarified. The proportion of participants adhering to the 2008-PAG and the 2nd PAG recommendations was calculated. Valid data was obtained from 184 adults. Long-bout MVPA accounted for 13.4% of total MVPA. Our results showed that 12.5% of individuals performed MVPA as recommended by the 2008-PAG whereas 92.4% performed MVPA as recommended by the 2nd PAG. Our results, hence, showed that long-bout MVPA comprised only a small proportion of total MVPA, and the proportion of individuals who satisfied the criteria stated in the guidelines (≥150 min/week) significantly changed by whether or not bout length of MVPA was taken into account. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Public Libraries and Walkable Neighborhoods
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1780; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101780 - 20 May 2019
Abstract
Public libraries constitute a ubiquitous social infrastructure found in nearly every community in the United States and Canada. The hypothesis of this study is that public libraries can be understood as important supports of walking in neighborhoods, not only as walkable destinations, but [...] Read more.
Public libraries constitute a ubiquitous social infrastructure found in nearly every community in the United States and Canada. The hypothesis of this study is that public libraries can be understood as important supports of walking in neighborhoods, not only as walkable destinations, but also as providers of programs that increase walking in communities. Recent work by public health scholars has analyzed how libraries contribute to community health. This particular topic has not previously been researched. As such, a qualitative, exploratory approach guides this study. Grounded theory techniques are used in a content analysis of a corpus of 94 online articles documenting this phenomenon. Results show that across North America public librarians endeavor to support walking through programs oriented around stories, books, and local history, as well as through walking groups and community partnerships. While this exploratory study has many limitations, it does set the stage for future, more rigorous research on the contributions public libraries and public librarians make to walking in neighborhoods. The principal conclusion of this study is that additional research is needed to comprehensively understand the intersection between public librarianship and public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Older and Newer Generation Active Style Pro Accelerometers in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Surveillance under a Free-Living Environment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(9), 1597; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091597 - 07 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background. Comparability of accelerometers in epidemiological studies is important for public health researchers. This study aimed to compare physical activity (light, LPA; moderate, MPA; and moderate-to-vigorous, MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) data collected using two Omron triaxial accelerometer generations (Active style Pro, [...] Read more.
Background. Comparability of accelerometers in epidemiological studies is important for public health researchers. This study aimed to compare physical activity (light, LPA; moderate, MPA; and moderate-to-vigorous, MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) data collected using two Omron triaxial accelerometer generations (Active style Pro, ASP) among a sample of Japanese workers in a free-living environment. Methods. Thirty active and sedentary workers (24–62 years) wore two types of ASP accelerometers, the HJA-350IT (350IT) and the HJA-750C (750C), simultaneously for seven consecutive days to represent a typical week. The accelerometers estimated daily average step counts and time spent per day in LPA, MPA, and MVPA. If a participant had data for ≥4 days (>10 h/day) it was considered valid. The difference and agreement between the two ASPs were analyzed using a paired t-test, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), and a Bland–Altman analysis in total and for each type of worker. Results. Among all workers, the 750C measured significantly (p < 0.05) less SB, MPA, MVPA, and more LPA compared with the 350IT. The agreements in ICC were high (ICC ≥ 0.94). Conclusions. Compared with the 350IT, the newer generation 750C ASP accelerometer may not provide equivalent estimates of activity time, regardless of the type of physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
Open AccessArticle
Motivational Climate in Sport Is Associated with Life Stress Levels, Academic Performance and Physical Activity Engagement of Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1198; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071198 - 03 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The present study sought to define and contrast an explanatory model incorporating motivational climate towards sport, life stress, academic performance, and engagement in physical activity, and to analyze the existing relationships between these variables as a function of sex. A total of 2452 [...] Read more.
The present study sought to define and contrast an explanatory model incorporating motivational climate towards sport, life stress, academic performance, and engagement in physical activity, and to analyze the existing relationships between these variables as a function of sex. A total of 2452 adolescents of both sexes (42.7% males and 57.3% females) participated in the present study, with self-reported ages between 13 and 16 years (M = 14.43; SD = 1.15). Participants were from Granada (Spain) and perceived motivational climate towards sport (PMCSQ-2), life stress (PSS), academic performance, and engagement in physical activity (PAQ-A) were analyzed. A multi-group structural equation model was constructed, which demonstrated excellent fit to the observed data (χ2 = 309.402; DF = 40; p < 0.001; CFI = 0.973; NFI = 0.970; IFI = 0.973; and RMSEA = 0.052). A negative and direct association exists between ego climate and task climate. A positive association was found between motivational climate, task climate (males r = 0.336/females r = 0.238), and ego climate (males r = 0.198/ females r = 0.089) and engagement in physical activity. A task climate was associated with better academic performance and lower levels of life stress. The main conclusions of this study highlight that a task-involving climate and engagement in physical activity are both associated with lower levels of life stress and higher levels of academic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Validity of Self-Reported Body Mass, Height, and Body Mass Index in Female Students: The Role of Physical Activity Level, Menstrual Cycle Phase, and Time of Day
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071192 - 03 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A large part of research using questionnaires for female university students relies on self-reported body mass, height, and body mass index (BMI) data; however, the validity of these data in this population group is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study is [...] Read more.
A large part of research using questionnaires for female university students relies on self-reported body mass, height, and body mass index (BMI) data; however, the validity of these data in this population group is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the validity of self-reported body mass, height, and BMI in female students. Female students of biomedical sciences (n = 93, age 21.8 ± 4.7 years, height 1.63 ± 0.06 m, weight 60.5 ± 11.9 kg, and BMI 22.7 ± 3.8 kg/m2) completed the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and were tested for anthropometric characteristics at three different times of the day (12–2 p.m., n = 36; 2–4 p.m., n = 20; 4–6 p.m., n = 37). Participants over-reported height (+0.01 ± 0.02 m, +0.9 ± 1.2%, Cohen’s d = 0.22) and under-reported weight (−0.8 ± 2.1 kg, −1.2 ± 3.6%, d = −0.07) and BMI (−0.7 ± 1.0 kg/m2, −2.9 ± 4.2%, d = −0.19) (p < 0.001). A moderate main effect of time of day on %Δweight (p = 0.017, η2 = 0.086) and %ΔBMI (p = 0.045, η2 = 0.067), but not on %Δheight (p = 0.952, η2 = 0.001), was observed, where the group tested at 4–6 p.m. under-reported weight and BMI more than the 2–4 p.m. group. The weekly metabolic equivalent (MET) × min did not correlate with %Δheight (r = 0.06, p = 0.657), but its correlations with %Δweight (r = −0.27, p = 0.051) and %ΔBMI (r = −0.238, p = 0.089) reached statistical significance. Participants in the early follicular phase reported BMI more accurately (p = 0.084, d = 0.68) than those in the mid-luteal phase. In conclusion, female students over-reported height and under-reported weight and BMI. Under-reporting weight and BMI is influenced by time of day and menstrual cycle phase. These findings should be considered by health professionals and researchers when administering questionnaires to female students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Body Composition, Physical Fitness, Physical Activity and Nutrition in Polish and Spanish Male Students of Sports Sciences: Differences and Correlations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1148; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071148 - 30 Mar 2019
Abstract
It is important to study differences in body composition, physical fitness and lifestyle behaviours between university students from different countries to develop country-specific recommendations on health promotion to provide to students when transitioning to university. The present study aimed to analyse differences in [...] Read more.
It is important to study differences in body composition, physical fitness and lifestyle behaviours between university students from different countries to develop country-specific recommendations on health promotion to provide to students when transitioning to university. The present study aimed to analyse differences in body composition, physical fitness and lifestyle behaviours between Polish and Spanish students of Sports Sciences. One-hundred-and-eighty-six male students participated (81 from Poland and 105 from Spain). Polish males were on average 21.5 ± 1.9 yrs old and Spanish males 21.5 ± 2.5. The body composition variables measured were body weight (kg), fat-free mass (FFM, kg and %), fat mass (FM, kg and %), total body water (TBW, kg and %), basal metabolic rate (BMR, kcal), body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), fat-free mass index (FFMI, kg/m2) and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2). The physical fitness variables measured were squat jump (SJ, height in cm, power in watts and w/kg), countermovement jump (CMJ, height in cm, power in watts and w/kg), running speed (10, 20 and 30 m (time in s)), and progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (PACER, stage, final speed in km/h, distance in m, VO2max in mL/kg/min). Lifestyle variables measured were vigorous physical activity (VPA, days/week, min/week), moderate physical activity (MPA, days/week, min/week), walking (days/week, min/week), sitting (min/week), meals/day, vegetables/day, fruits/day, seafood/week, dairy products/week, sweets, chips, fast food/week, litres of liquid/day, litres of sugary drinks/day, alcohol/week and cigarettes/day. In comparison to Spanish students, Polish students had greater FFM (kg), greater TBW (kg), higher BMR, greater power in SJ, greater height and power in CMJ, lower times in running speed tests (10 and 20 m) and greater consumption of vegetables and liquids. In comparison to Polish students, Spanish students participated in more physical activity, and consumed more seafood, more dairy products, less sugary drinks, less alcohol and less tobacco. VPA and consumption of vegetables and liquids had positive influences on body composition and physical fitness. According to these results, universities should promote a healthy lifestyle in order to improve body composition and physical fitness in male students studying sport science. In the cases of Spain and Poland, special attention should be paid to the weak points detected in this study. This would be useful for avoiding future risk of diseases such as obesity or diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
Open AccessArticle
Gender Differences in the Prevalence of Chronic Pain and Leisure Time Physical Activity Among US Adults: A NHANES Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 988; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060988 - 19 Mar 2019
Abstract
Gender disparities in chronic pain are well documented in the literature. However, little is known regarding the relationship between physical activity (PA) and gender disparities in chronic pain. This study described gender differences in prevalence of chronic pain and PA, and identified a [...] Read more.
Gender disparities in chronic pain are well documented in the literature. However, little is known regarding the relationship between physical activity (PA) and gender disparities in chronic pain. This study described gender differences in prevalence of chronic pain and PA, and identified a type of leisure time PA that individuals frequently chose in a nationally representative sample of US adults (N = 14,449). Data from the National Health Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004 were analyzed. Individuals were categorized into no chronic pain (NCP), localized chronic pain (LCP), and widespread chronic pain (WCP) groups based on responses to a pain questionnaire. A self-report PA questionnaire was used to estimate the time spent in different types of PA. Women showed higher prevalence of LCP and WCP compared to men. Men spent more hours per week for leisure time PA compared to women, but men and women showed similar prevalence of sufficient PA to meet a PA recommendation (≥150 min/week of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA) across chronic pain categories. However, the prevalence of sufficient PA was substantially higher among men and women with NCP compared to men and women with LCP and WCP. Additionally, both men and women chose walking as the primary type of leisure time PA. Together, gender disparities exist in the prevalence of chronic pain and hours spent for leisure time PA. More research is needed to explore the role of increasing leisure time PA, such as walking, in reducing gender disparities in chronic pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
Open AccessArticle
Associations of Sensor-Derived Physical Behavior with Metabolic Health: A Compositional Analysis in the Record Multisensor Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050741 - 01 Mar 2019
Abstract
Previous studies about the effects of physical activity and sedentary behaviors on health rarely recorded the exact body postures and movements, although they might be of metabolic relevance. Moreover, few studies treated the time budget of behaviors as compositions and little was done [...] Read more.
Previous studies about the effects of physical activity and sedentary behaviors on health rarely recorded the exact body postures and movements, although they might be of metabolic relevance. Moreover, few studies treated the time budget of behaviors as compositions and little was done to characterize the distribution of durations of behavior sequences in relation with health. Data from the RECORD (Residential Environment and CORonary heart Disease) study of two combined VitaMove accelerometers worn at the trunk and upper leg for a week by 154 male and female adults (age = 50.6 ± 9.6 years, BMI = 25.8 ± 3.9 kg/m2) were analyzed. Using both iso-temporal substitution and compositional analysis, we examined associations between five physical behaviors (lying, sitting, standing, low physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous activity) and seven health outcomes (fasting serum glucose, low- and high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides levels, body mass index, and waist circumference). After adjustment for confounding variables, total standing time was positively associated with better lipid profile, and lying during the day with adiposity. No significant association was observed between breaking up moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and health. This study highlights the importance of refined categories of postures in research on physical activity and health, as well as the necessity for new tools to characterize the distribution of behavior sequence durations, considering both bouts and micro-sequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Frailty Level Monitoring and Analysis after a Pilot Six-Week Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Using the FRED Exergame Including Biofeedback Supervision in an Elderly Day Care Centre
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050729 - 28 Feb 2019
Abstract
Background: Frailty is a status of extreme vulnerability to endogenous and exogenous stressors exposing the individual to a higher risk of negative health-related outcomes. Exercise using interactive videos, known as exergames, is being increasingly used to increase physical activity by improving health [...] Read more.
Background: Frailty is a status of extreme vulnerability to endogenous and exogenous stressors exposing the individual to a higher risk of negative health-related outcomes. Exercise using interactive videos, known as exergames, is being increasingly used to increase physical activity by improving health and the physical function in elderly adults. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the reduction in the degree of frailty, the degree of independence in activities of daily living, the perception of one’s state of health, safety and cardiac healthiness by the exercise done using FRED over a 6-week period in elderly day care centre. Material and Methods: Frail volunteers >65 years of age, with a score of <10 points (SPPB), took part in the study. A study group and a control group of 20 participants respectively were obtained. Following randomisation, the study group (20) took part in 18 sessions in total over 6 months, and biofeedback was recorded in each session. Results: After 6 weeks, 100% of patients from the control group continued evidencing frailty risk, whereas only 5% of patients from the study group did so, with p < 0.001 statistical significance. In the case of the EQ-VAS, the control group worsened (−12.63 points) whereas the study group improved (12.05 points). The Barthel Index showed an improvement in the study group after 6 weeks, with statistically significant evidence and a value of p < 0.003906. Safety compliance with the physical activity exceeded 87% and even improved as the days went by. Discussion: Our results stand out from those obtained by other authors in that FRED is an ad hoc-designed exergame, significantly reduced the presence and severity of frailty in a sample of sedentary elders, thus potentially modifying their risk profile. It in turn improves the degree of independence in activities of daily living and the perception of one’s state of health, proving to be a safe and cardiac healthy exercise. Conclusions: The study undertaken confirms the fact that the FRED game proves to be a valid technological solution for reducing frailty risk. Based on the study conducted, the exergame may be considered an effective, safe and entertaining alternative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Physical Activity of Workers in a Hospital
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040532 - 13 Feb 2019
Abstract
Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the physical activity of healthcare personnel and the affecting factors of physical activity (PA) in a hospital using an accelerometer device (Actigraph wGT3X-BT). Method: A total of 63 subjects (22 physicians, 19 nurses, and 23 [...] Read more.
Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the physical activity of healthcare personnel and the affecting factors of physical activity (PA) in a hospital using an accelerometer device (Actigraph wGT3X-BT). Method: A total of 63 subjects (22 physicians, 19 nurses, and 23 supporting staff) participated and wore an accelerometer for seven days. Among the outputs, the mean counts for a minute, time spent for light, moderate, and vigorous intensity PA, and step count were extracted. As a secondary study, 16 subjects continued for one more week after feedback on their PA of the previous week and counseling to encourage PA. Result: Most of (62/63) the participants fulfilled the recommended amount of PA, which is more than 300 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Physicians showed significantly less PA than nurses or supporting staffs: Mean counts per minute (210.4 vs. 476.0 and 441.8 respectively), time in MVPA per week (904.7 min vs. 1471.3 min and 1451.0 min), and step counts per week (69,029 vs. 87,119 and 84,700) (p < 0.001). Nurses and supporting staff were not statistically different. There was no significant difference in the PA of workers in the hospital regarding gender and marital status. However, the average calorie expenditure of the child raising group was significantly higher. There was no statistically significant difference in PA before and after counseling. No participants reported a vigorous degree of exercise intensity over the study period. Conclusion: Most of the healthcare personnel met the recommended PA, however, only 57% (36/63) recalled having engaged in MVPA during the study period. The group of physicians showed less PA compared to nurses or supporting staff. Single check-up and counseling were not found to increase PA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Participation in Physical Activity is Associated with Sexual Activity in Older English Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030489 - 08 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Physical activity (PA) is a potential modifiable correlate of the age-related decline in sexual function, but no studies have explicitly tested this. This study aimed to examine associations between PA, television viewing (TV) time and sexual activity, problems, and concerns. Data were from [...] Read more.
Physical activity (PA) is a potential modifiable correlate of the age-related decline in sexual function, but no studies have explicitly tested this. This study aimed to examine associations between PA, television viewing (TV) time and sexual activity, problems, and concerns. Data were from 7,038 men and women aged ≥50 years participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. PA and TV viewing time were self-reported. Sexual behaviour and concerns were assessed by self-completion questionnaire. Covariates included age, partnership status, socio-economic status, limiting long-standing illness, smoking status, alcohol intake and depressive symptoms. The odds of reporting any sexual activity were increased among individuals who participated in moderate (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.24–2.15 in men) or vigorous (OR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.50–2.84 in men, OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.09–1.85 in women) PA at least once a week. Erectile difficulties were less common among men who were active (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.44–0.77 for vigorous PA). Women who watched ≥6 hours of TV/day had lower odds of thinking about sex frequently (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50–0.96) or, if they did not live with a partner, being sexually active (OR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.22–0.72). Encouraging older adults to be more physically active could help to improve sexual relationships and, as a result, mental health and wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Exercise as an Alternative Approach for Treating Smartphone Addiction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Random Controlled Trials
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 3912; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203912 - 15 Oct 2019
Abstract
Background: With the emergence of electronic products, smartphones have become an indispensable tool in our daily life. On the other hand, smartphone addiction has become a public health issue. To help reduce smartphone addiction, cost-effective interventions such as exercise are encouraged. Purpose: We [...] Read more.
Background: With the emergence of electronic products, smartphones have become an indispensable tool in our daily life. On the other hand, smartphone addiction has become a public health issue. To help reduce smartphone addiction, cost-effective interventions such as exercise are encouraged. Purpose: We therefore performed a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating existing literature on the rehabilitative effects of exercise interventions for individuals with a smartphone addiction. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, CNKI, and Wanfang from inception to September 2019. Nine eligible randomized controlled trials (RCT) were finally included for meta-analysis (SMD represents the magnitude of effect of exercise) and their methodological quality were assessed using the PEDro scale. Results: We found significant positive effects of exercise interventions (Taichi, basketball, badminton, dance, run, and bicycle) on reducing the total score (SMD = −1.30, 95% CI −1.53 to −1.07, p < 0.005, I2 = 62%) of smartphone addiction level and its four subscales (withdrawal symptom: SMD = −1.40, 95% CI −1.73 to −1.07, p < 0.001, I2 = 81%; highlight behavior: SMD = −1.95, 95% CI −2.99 to −1.66, p < 0.001, I2 = 79%; social comfort: SMD = −0.99, 95% CI −1.18 to −0.81, p = 0.27, I2 = 21%; mood change: SMD = −0.50, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.69, p = 0.25, I2 = 25%). Furthermore, we found that individuals with severe addiction level (SMD = −1.19, I2 = 0%, 95%CI:−1.19 to −0.98) benefited more from exercise engagement, as compared to those with mild to moderate addiction levels (SMD = − 0.98, I2 = 50%, 95%CI:−1.31 to −0.66); individuals with smartphone addiction who participated in exercise programs of 12 weeks and above showed significantly greater reduction on the total score (SMD = −1.70, I2 = 31.2%, 95% CI −2.04 to −1.36, p = 0.03), as compared to those who participated in less than 12 weeks of exercise intervention (SMD = −1.18, I2 = 0%, 95% CI−1.35 to −1.02, p < 0.00001). In addition, individuals with smartphone addiction who participated in exercise of closed motor skills showed significantly greater reduction on the total score (SMD = −1.22, I2 = 0 %, 95% CI −1.41 to −1.02, p = 0.56), as compared to those who participated in exercise of open motor skills (SMD = −1.17, I2 = 44%, 95% CI−1.47 to −0.0.87, p = 0.03). Conclusions: Exercise interventions may have positive effects on treating smartphone addiction and longer intervention durations may produce greater intervention effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
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Open AccessReview
Associations between Self-Determined Motivation, Accelerometer-Determined Physical Activity, and Quality of Life in Chinese College Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2941; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162941 - 16 Aug 2019
Abstract
Purpose: To better promote college students’ physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL), it is imperative to understand this population’s PA correlates, such as self-determined motivation and perceived competence. However, few studies existed in this area of inquiry among Chinese college [...] Read more.
Purpose: To better promote college students’ physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL), it is imperative to understand this population’s PA correlates, such as self-determined motivation and perceived competence. However, few studies existed in this area of inquiry among Chinese college students. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among Chinese college students’ self-determined motivation, PA, and QoL. Method: A total of 220 college students (115 females; Mage = 20.29 years, SD = 2.37; MBMI = 20.67) were recruited from one university in south-central China. Participants were instructed to wear the ActiGraph GT9X Link (ActiGraph, Pensacola, FL, USA) accelerometers for 7 days. A minute-by-minute stepping rate methodology was used to determine participants sedentary behaviors, light physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Participants’ self-determined motivation (autonomous, controlled, and amotivation), perceived competence, and QoL (physical function, stress, depression, fatigue, sleep, and social issues) were assessed by a battery of validated surveys in June 2017. Results: Participants reported moderate–high levels of PA correlates and QoL as the means ranged from 5.5 to 6 (out of 7) for PA correlates and 2.75 to 4 (out of 4) for QoL. The minute-by-minute stepping rate revealed participants had average 580.51 min/day in sedentary, 134.77 min/day in LPA, and 1.57 min/day in MVPA. Regression analyses for physical function, stress, depression, and social issues suggested that the models explained 4%–8% of the variances. Specifically, perceived competence was the negative predictor of the problems with physical function (β = −0.17, p < 0.05) and depression (β = −0.18, p < 0.01), amotivation was positively associated with depression and stress (p < 0.05). Additionally, controlled motivation predicted the ability to participate in social roles and activities (β = 0.22, p < 0.05). No significant predictors emerged for fatigue or for sleep. Conclusions: Findings suggest Chinese college students’ perceived competence and social support are critical for improving PA and QoL. In addition, strategies are needed to motivate Chinese college students to engage in PA participation and improve overall well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
Open AccessReview
The Effect of Exercise on Glucoregulatory Hormones: A Countermeasure to Human Aging: Insights from a Comprehensive Review of the Literature
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1709; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101709 - 15 May 2019
Abstract
Hormones are secreted in a circadian rhythm, but also follow larger-scale timetables, such as monthly (hormones of the menstrual cycle), seasonal (i.e., winter, summer), and, ultimately, lifespan-related patterns. Several contexts modulate their secretion, such as genetics, lifestyle, environment, diet, and exercise. They play [...] Read more.
Hormones are secreted in a circadian rhythm, but also follow larger-scale timetables, such as monthly (hormones of the menstrual cycle), seasonal (i.e., winter, summer), and, ultimately, lifespan-related patterns. Several contexts modulate their secretion, such as genetics, lifestyle, environment, diet, and exercise. They play significant roles in human physiology, influencing growth of muscle, bone, and regulating metabolism. Exercise training alters hormone secretion, depending on the frequency, duration, intensity, and mode of training which has an impact on the magnitude of the secretion. However, there remains ambiguity over the effects of exercise training on certain hormones such as glucoregulatory hormones in aging adults. With advancing age, there are many alterations with the endocrine system, which may ultimately alter human physiology. Some recent studies have reported an anti-aging effect of exercise training on the endocrine system and especially cortisol, growth hormone and insulin. As such, this review examines the effects of endurance, interval, resistance and combined training on hormones (i.e., at rest and after) exercise in older individuals. We summarize the influence of age on glucoregulatory hormones, the influence of exercise training, and where possible, examine masters’ athletes’ endocrinological profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)

Other

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Open AccessCommentary
Environmental Interventions for Physical and Mental Health: Challenges and Opportunities for Greater Los Angeles
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2180; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122180 - 20 Jun 2019
Abstract
The fields of urban planning and public health were conceived under the same pressures and goals at their inception in the 17th and 18th centuries and continue to address the health concerns of an ever-increasing urban population. While the mutual need that both [...] Read more.
The fields of urban planning and public health were conceived under the same pressures and goals at their inception in the 17th and 18th centuries and continue to address the health concerns of an ever-increasing urban population. While the mutual need that both philosophies have for each other becomes more tangible through research and practice, the application of their interrelatedness continues to benefit residents and visitors of mindfully-built environments. In health-conscious Los Angeles, there lacks a comprehensive assessment of health-centered considerations being implemented by those entrusted with the responsibility of shaping our cities. As a greater majority of the world’s population moves into urban settings, built environment interventions play a progressively vital role in addressing physical and mental health concerns. This piece hopes to bring to attention the need for focused and dynamic approaches in addressing health concerns by means of design, planning, and policy, by focusing on the challenges and opportunities faced by the geographic and human resources of the Greater Los Angeles area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
Open AccessBrief Report
Sedentary Behaviour, Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction, Happiness and Perceived Health Status in University Students from 24 Countries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2084; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122084 - 13 Jun 2019
Abstract
The aim of this investigation was to estimate the independent and combined associations of sedentary behaviour (SB) and physical activity (PA) with life satisfaction, happiness and perceived health in university students. In a cross-sectional survey, 12,492 university students (median age 20 years, interquartile [...] Read more.
The aim of this investigation was to estimate the independent and combined associations of sedentary behaviour (SB) and physical activity (PA) with life satisfaction, happiness and perceived health in university students. In a cross-sectional survey, 12,492 university students (median age 20 years, interquartile range = 3) from 24 countries responded to a questionnaire on SB, PA and well-being indicators. In adjusted linear regression, higher SB (4 to <8 h and ≥8 h) was associated with poorer life satisfaction (β = −0.21, confidence interval (CI): −0.27 to −0.14) and lower happiness (β = −0.31, CI: −0.46 to −0.17), and higher SB (≥8 h) was associated with lower perceived health (β = −0.08, CI: −0.13 to 0.03). In addition, moderate and/or high PA increased the odds for higher life satisfaction (β = 0.10, CI: 0.04 to 0.16), greater happiness (β = 0.27, CI: 0.15 to 0.39) and better perceived health (β = 0.12, CI: 0.08 to 0.15). Programmes that reduce SB and increase PA may promote life satisfaction, happiness and perceived health status in this university student population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
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