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The Association between Autism Spectrum Disorder and Pre- and Postnatal Antibiotic Exposure in Childhood—A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

1
Department of Nursing, Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Hoseo University, Asan 31499, Korea
2
Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, Inje University, Busan 47392, Korea
3
Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Gachon University, Incheon 21936, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4042; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204042
Received: 8 October 2019 / Revised: 17 October 2019 / Accepted: 18 October 2019 / Published: 22 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Children's Health)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that begins in early childhood and has been associated with several environmental and genetic factors. We aimed to conduct two-side meta-analyses to determine the association between ASD and pre- and postnatal antibiotic exposure in childhood. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library for articles published up to February 2019. We evaluated observational studies that assessed the association between ASD and antibiotic exposure. Of 1459 articles, nine studies were used in the meta-analysis. We found that early antibiotic exposure, including pre- and postnatal, significantly increased the ASD risk in children. Furthermore, early antibiotic exposure, including pre- and postnatal, was significantly increased in children with ASD. Specifically, prenatal antibiotic exposure was significantly increased in children with ASD; however, postnatal antibiotic exposure was not. Our results indicate an association between ASD and early antibiotic exposure; specifically, that prenatal antibiotic exposure is an important risk factor of ASD in children. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic exposure; autism spectrum disorder (ASD); childhood; meta-analysis; systematic review antibiotic exposure; autism spectrum disorder (ASD); childhood; meta-analysis; systematic review
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Lee, E.; Cho, J.; Kim, K.Y. The Association between Autism Spectrum Disorder and Pre- and Postnatal Antibiotic Exposure in Childhood—A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4042.

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