Special Issue "Rethinking Work in the Digital Era to Protect the Environment and Promote Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Digital Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Gabriela Topa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, UNED, Madrid, Spain
Interests: occupational health; retirement; late career; psychological contract; organizational justice; healthy aging; aging at work; migrant workers; gender gap in retirement
Dr. Xuesong Zhai
E-Mail
Guest Editor
School of Educational Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
Interests: Smart learning environments; Teachers’ burnout; Emerging technology enhanced educational environments

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

New technologies, digitization, and automation are changing workplace and education environments worldwide. The 4thindustrial revolution is now affecting the ways of doing work, the training of employees, life long learning, the entire organizational structure, and the managers’ and employees’ roles.

The newest work and organizational psychology (WOP) approaches outline both the transition currently taking place in the labor market and its implications for people’s wellbeing and continuous education. As job polarization arises, consisting of services decomposed into low-tech and low-paying vs. high-tech and high-paying jobs, WOP needs to address several concerns. First, how to help those less-qualified workers to better adapt to the changes in the digital era for achieving decent flexible work. Second, how to train people that apply to jobs in growing fields like health, education, and other services, and how to maintain their soft skills needed for in-person services. Third, how to support managers who cope with technology undermining their status, power, and control, for creating value in future work. Moreover, how to promote people to be healthier workers, with greater autonomy and control of their time, combining traditional and independent work with flexible employment, clear boundaries between work and private life, and higher wellbeing (both hedonic and eudemonic). Therefore, the present Special Issue is intended to address the psychosocial processes that underlie these complex and unsettled questions.

Innovative contributions and results of empirical studies that increase our understanding of how the workplace and/or educational settings are changing and how people can embrace emerging forms of work and learning are the focus of this Special issue. Hence, it is open to articles, reviews, case reports, and position papers on these themes.

Prof. Gabriela Topa
Dr. Xuesong Zhai
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Work psychology
  • Organizational Psychology
  • The psychological and Social environment
  • Smart learning and working environments
  • Continuous education for workers in digital era
  • Occupational Health promotion
  • Prevention of risk factors at work
  • Employees wellbeing
  • Positive attitudes at work
  • Prosocial behavior in groups and organizations
  • Healthy organizations
  • Smart learning environments and health
  • Decent and flexible work
  • Quality of working life
  • Psychological and social capital
  • New management styles
  • Psychological and physical Workability
  • High-performance work practices
  • Engaged workers
  • Work-health balance
  • Work – life interface
  • Employability promotion
  • Innovative and intrapreneurial skills

Published Papers (29 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Intrapreneurial Self-Capital Mediates the Connectedness to Nature Effect on Well-Being at Work
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4359; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224359 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
Researchers are being called upon to find and explore viable solutions to protect the environment and promote health in the new digital era of the 21st century, since the rapid changes transpiring within our technological societies may be detrimental to workers but also [...] Read more.
Researchers are being called upon to find and explore viable solutions to protect the environment and promote health in the new digital era of the 21st century, since the rapid changes transpiring within our technological societies may be detrimental to workers but also offer opportunities for growth. The concept of connectedness to nature, on the one hand, is a proxy for important environmentally protective and responsible behaviors; on the other, it has been studied in relation to people’s well-being. To promote health, it is crucial to act from a primary prevention perspective, which is focused on finding variables that can be increased through specific training. In this framework, intrapreneurial self-capital (ISC) appears to be related both to people’s connectedness to nature and their well-being. This study analyzes exploratively the relationship between connectedness to nature, ISC, and well-being at work, since these variables have never been studied together. A mediation model is tested to assess whether ISC could mediate the relationship between connectedness to nature and workers’ well-being. The mediation analysis highlights that ISC, as a core of preventive resources, potentially sustains the effect of feeling connected to nature on well-being at work. Thus, interventions aimed at increasing and acquiring preventive resources, such as ISC, could be beneficial in protecting the environment and in promoting health among workers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Smartphone Application in Postgraduate Clinical Psychology Training: Trainees’ Perspectives
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4206; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214206 - 30 Oct 2019
Abstract
M-learning refers to the learning that takes advantage of mobile technologies. Although research shows enhanced educational outcomes from m-learning in some Asian countries, the generalizability to postgraduate clinical psychology training in Singapore remains unclear. Current professional standards in clinical psychology training emphasize the [...] Read more.
M-learning refers to the learning that takes advantage of mobile technologies. Although research shows enhanced educational outcomes from m-learning in some Asian countries, the generalizability to postgraduate clinical psychology training in Singapore remains unclear. Current professional standards in clinical psychology training emphasize the importance of attainment of clinical competencies in trainees. Although learning theories indicated potential for m-learning to be incorporated into the local clinical psychology curriculum, trainees’ perspectives have not been adequately explored on m-learning. The study aimed to address this gap by exploring the use of m-learning via a novel smartphone application in clinical psychology training using mixed-methods design. Eight clinical psychology trainees between the ages of 26 to 43 years old (mean age of 31.75, SD = 5.49) enrolled in a relevant coursework subject were recruited. Participants were randomly allocated to the experimental and control groups. The experimental group accessed the novel application weekly, from week 1 to week 6, and participants in the control group accessed the application after week 6. Participants from both groups completed a brief demographic questionnaire, and the following scales New General Self-Efficacy Scale adapted for Education (NGSES-E) and self-reported scale of learning outcomes (SLO). The qualitative study explored how participants perceived and experienced the novel application. Participants from the experimental group were invited to provide open-ended responses about the novel application. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results from the qualitative analysis yielded four themes of: Convenience, preferred learning style, building confidence, and putting theory into practice. Findings from the qualitative study were consistent with previous studies about advantages of m-learning: That the e-platform was convenient, the learning style was engaging, which helped to build confidence, and facilitate practical learning of skills. The qualitative results were helpful in understanding the users’ perspectives and experience of the novel application, indicating that future research in this innovative area is necessary. However, the quantitative outcomes were not significant, limitations would be discussed, and recommendations made for future research. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Authentic Leadership and Employees’ Innovative Behaviour: A Multilevel Investigation in Three Countries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4201; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214201 - 30 Oct 2019
Abstract
The innovativeness of individual employees is a vital source of competitive advantage of firms, contributing to societal development. Therefore, the aim of this multilevel study was to examine how entrepreneurial firm owners’ authentic leadership relates to their employees’ innovative behaviour. Our conceptual model [...] Read more.
The innovativeness of individual employees is a vital source of competitive advantage of firms, contributing to societal development. Therefore, the aim of this multilevel study was to examine how entrepreneurial firm owners’ authentic leadership relates to their employees’ innovative behaviour. Our conceptual model postulates that the relationship between business owners’ authentic leadership (as perceived by their employees) and their employees’ innovative behaviour is mediated by employees’ personal initiative and their work engagement. Hypotheses derived from this model were tested on data collected from 711 employees working in 85 small firms from three European countries: the Netherlands, Poland, and Spain. The results of the multilevel modelling confirmed our model, showing that when business owners are perceived as more authentic leaders, their employees show higher personal initiative and are more engaged at work and, in turn, identify more innovative solutions to be implemented in the organization. A cross-national difference was observed: employees from Spain (in comparison to Dutch and Polish employees) reported engaging less frequently in innovative behaviour. These research findings suggest that the innovative behaviour of employees can be boosted through leadership training, improving the quality of relationships between leaders and subordinates, and strengthening employees’ personal initiative and work engagement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Workplace Bullying and Workplace Vulnerability in the Psychological Distress of Chilean Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4039; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204039 - 22 Oct 2019
Abstract
Workplace bullying has been identified as a global problem because of its growing magnitude and the harmful effects in victims and organizations. Workplace vulnerability is a component of job precarious1ness that reflects insecurity, fear, and labor uncertainty. This paper aims to analyze the [...] Read more.
Workplace bullying has been identified as a global problem because of its growing magnitude and the harmful effects in victims and organizations. Workplace vulnerability is a component of job precarious1ness that reflects insecurity, fear, and labor uncertainty. This paper aims to analyze the associations between the exposure to workplace vulnerability and psychological distress, and to explore the associations between exposure to workplace bullying and psychological distress, by sex. A cross-sectional and probabilistic survey was applied to a randomly-selected valid sample of 1995 salaried workers in three main metropolitan areas of Chile. Chi-square test and logistic regression models controlling for confounders were tested. Female workers were more exposed to workplace vulnerability and presented a higher prevalence of psychological distress. Among women who were vulnerable, one of three reported psychological distress (30.8%), which is higher than men (16.5%). Workers exposed to workplace vulnerability had a greater chance of workplace bullying, workers who perceived high workplace vulnerability had a greater chance of psychological distress, and workers exposed to workplace violence had a greater likelihood of psychological distress in comparison to those who were not exposed. Increasing employment security can reduce the perception of job vulnerability and help prevent the existence of workplace bullying. Additionally, occupational health protection policies should prevent, protect from, and intervene in workplace bullying as a precursor to mental health problems in Chile. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Workaholism, Intensive Smartphone Use, and the Sleep-Wake Cycle: A Multiple Mediation Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3517; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193517 - 20 Sep 2019
Abstract
Recent contributions have reported sleep disorders as one of the health impairment outcomes of workaholism. A possible factor affecting the sleep-wake cycle might be the intensive use of smartphones. The current study aimed to explore the role of intensive smartphone use in the [...] Read more.
Recent contributions have reported sleep disorders as one of the health impairment outcomes of workaholism. A possible factor affecting the sleep-wake cycle might be the intensive use of smartphones. The current study aimed to explore the role of intensive smartphone use in the relationship between workaholism and the sleep-wake cycle. Two serial multiple mediation models were tested on a sample of 418 employees, who filled self-report questionnaires measuring workaholism, use of smartphones, sleep quality and daytime sleepiness, using conditional process analysis for testing direct and indirect effects. Results supported our hypotheses regarding two serial multiple mediation models—that intensive smartphone use and poor sleep quality mediated the relationship between workaholism and daytime sleepiness, and that smartphone use and daytime sleepiness mediated the relationship between workaholism and poor quality of sleep. Although the use of a cross-sectional design and the snowball technique for collecting data can be considered as possible limitations, the current study is one of the first to document the potential detrimental role of the intensive smartphone use on the workaholism-sleep disorders relationship. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Emotional Effects of the Duration, Efficiency, and Subjective Quality of Sleep in Healthcare Personnel
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3512; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193512 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Considering that both sleep quality and duration are linked to psychological variables, this study analyzed the relationships between sleep components and emotional intelligence and the effects that sleep duration has on stress management and mood in a sample of nurses. The sample was [...] Read more.
Considering that both sleep quality and duration are linked to psychological variables, this study analyzed the relationships between sleep components and emotional intelligence and the effects that sleep duration has on stress management and mood in a sample of nurses. The sample was made up of 1073 professionals. Data were collected by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory for Senior Citizens. The results showed that the components of sleep quality were negatively related to stress management and mood. Furthermore, nurses who had short sleep patterns also had low moods and high stress levels. This study emphasizes the importance of subjective sleep quality as a necessary resource for professionals to manage stressful situations and mood and improve their relations with their patients and with each other. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The JDCS Model and Blue-Collar Bullying: Decent Working Conditions for a Healthy Environment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3411; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183411 - 14 Sep 2019
Abstract
Violence in the workplace and its health consequences still represent one of the main obstacles to obtaining decent working conditions. In particular, blue-collar workers run a greater risk of experiencing episodes of violence, also because of a lack of autonomy and fewer social [...] Read more.
Violence in the workplace and its health consequences still represent one of the main obstacles to obtaining decent working conditions. In particular, blue-collar workers run a greater risk of experiencing episodes of violence, also because of a lack of autonomy and fewer social interactions. According to the work environment hypothesis, factors such as high workload, lack of social support and lack of job control represent the antecedents of workplace bullying. Following the job demand-control-support model (JDCS), violence can be the symptom of a high-strain environment. Moreover, it is still unclear if workplace bullying can mediate the effects of work-related stress on workers’ health outcomes. The aim of the present study is to analyse the relationship between the components of the JDCS and the health of the workers considering workplace bullying as a mediating variable. By a cross sectional study design, we tested the following theoretical hypotheses: first, JDCS components (conceptualized as stress) are supposed to significantly predict the level of workers’ health. Second, workplace bullying is supposed to mediate the relationship between the JDCS components and the level of health. The sample consists of 400 blue-collars from three different Italian companies. Work-related stress, health outcomes and workplace bullying were measured by specific self-administered questionnaires and the relationships between the variables of interest were tested through a structural equation model (SEM) analysis. The results showed that while the direct relationship between the components of the JDCS and the level of psychological health is weaker (standardized path coefficients SPC = 0.21), the partial mediation hypothesis shows that workplace bullying mediate the relationship between JDCS components and health outcomes (χ2/df ratio = 2.70; path from stress to workplace bullying SPC = 0.78; path from workplace bullying to general health SPC = 0.51; p = 0.01). The JDCS components (workload, lack of control, lack of support) are useful predictors for workplace bullying. On the other hand, bullying plays a mediating role between the stress experienced and the health consequences. The present study adds new insights into the relationship between violence seen as a form of social behavioural strain and the psychological health of workers. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Future research on blue-collars could use longitudinal designs in order to analyse the relationship between social environment, job design and strain reactions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Transactive Memory System on Individual Career Resilience: The Role of Taking Charge and Self-Promotion
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3390; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183390 - 12 Sep 2019
Abstract
The transactive memory system is known as an effective group cognitive system as well as a knowledge-sharing structure for organizations to keep competitive advantages in today’s dynamic and knowledge-based business environment. However, its influence at the individual level remains vague. The purpose of [...] Read more.
The transactive memory system is known as an effective group cognitive system as well as a knowledge-sharing structure for organizations to keep competitive advantages in today’s dynamic and knowledge-based business environment. However, its influence at the individual level remains vague. The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of a transactive memory system (TMS) on individual career resilience through the theoretical perspective of conservation of resources theory (COR). This research proposes and examines a moderated mediation model that elaborates how a transactive memory system affects individual career resilience. A two-stage empirical study was conducted among 328 employees from companies in China. The findings suggest that a transactive memory system significantly influences individual career resilience positively, and employee taking-charge behavior plays a mediating role in that relationship. Furthermore, the results supported our moderated mediation model, which indicates that individuals with high self-promotion motives are more likely to engage in taking-charge behavior than those with low self-promotion motives, and the former reported higher career resilience than the latter eventually. Theoretical and practical implications are also provided in the discussion section. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
When Employees are Emotionally Exhausted Due to Abusive Supervision. A Conservation-of-Resources Perspective
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3300; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183300 - 08 Sep 2019
Abstract
This study represents an important step towards understanding why supervisors behave abusively towards their subordinates. Building on the conservation of resources theory, this study investigates the impact of abusive supervision on counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) from a stress perspective. Furthermore, job demands play [...] Read more.
This study represents an important step towards understanding why supervisors behave abusively towards their subordinates. Building on the conservation of resources theory, this study investigates the impact of abusive supervision on counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) from a stress perspective. Furthermore, job demands play a significant moderating effect, and emotional exhaustion has a mediating effect on the relationship between abusive supervision and CWBs. A time-lagged design was utilized to collect the data and a total of 350 supervisors-subordinates’ dyads are collected from Chinese manufacturing firms. The findings indicate that subordinates’ emotional exhaustion mediates the relationship between abusive supervision and CWBs only when subordinates are involved in a high frequency of job demands. Additionally, emotional exhaustion and abusive supervision were significantly moderated by job demands. However, the extant literature has provided that abusive supervision has detrimental effects on employees work behavior. The findings of this study provide new empirical and theoretical insights into the stress perspectives. Finally, implications for managers and related theories are discussed, along with the boundaries and future opportunities of this study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Safeguarding Health at the Workplace: A Study of Work Engagement, Authenticity and Subjective Wellbeing among Religious Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3016; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173016 - 21 Aug 2019
Abstract
Research in work and organizational psychology has paid little attention to religious workers, something certainly surprising as faith-based organizations play a key role in the welfare state of many countries. This research shows that religious workers in a Catholic order present a high [...] Read more.
Research in work and organizational psychology has paid little attention to religious workers, something certainly surprising as faith-based organizations play a key role in the welfare state of many countries. This research shows that religious workers in a Catholic order present a high degree of subjective wellbeing, both in terms of flourishing and satisfaction with life in general, and a positive balance of positive and negative feelings. More specifically, this study examines the relationship between authenticity and wellbeing amongst religious workers. Survey responses from 142 religious workers in Spain were analyzed using partial least squares path modelling. The results reveal that subjective wellbeing at work is positively related to authenticity. In addition, this relationship is mediated by their level of work engagement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
My Mind is Working Overtime—Towards an Integrative Perspective of Psychological Detachment, Work-Related Rumination, and Work Reflection
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2987; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162987 - 20 Aug 2019
Abstract
In the literature on occupational stress and recovery from work, several facets of thinking about work during off-job time have been conceptualized. However, research on the focal concepts is currently rather diffuse. In this study we take a closer look at the five [...] Read more.
In the literature on occupational stress and recovery from work, several facets of thinking about work during off-job time have been conceptualized. However, research on the focal concepts is currently rather diffuse. In this study we take a closer look at the five most well-established concepts: (1) psychological detachment, (2) affective rumination, (3) problem-solving pondering, (4) positive work reflection, and (5) negative work reflection. More specifically, we scrutinized (1) whether the five facets of work-related rumination are empirically distinct, (2) whether they yield differential associations with different facets of employee well-being (burnout, work engagement, thriving, satisfaction with life, and flourishing), and (3) to what extent the five facets can be distinguished from and relate to conceptually similar constructs, such as irritation, worry, and neuroticism. We applied structural equation modeling techniques to cross-sectional survey data from 474 employees. Our results provide evidence for (1) five correlated, yet empirically distinct facets of work-related rumination. (2) Each facet yields a unique pattern of association with the eight aspects of employee well-being. For instance, detachment is strongly linked to satisfaction with life and flourishing. Affective rumination is linked particularly to burnout. Problem-solving pondering and positive work reflection yield the strongest links to work engagement. (3) The five facets of work-related rumination are distinct from related concepts, although there is a high overlap between (lower levels of) psychological detachment and cognitive irritation. Our study contributes to clarifying the structure of work-related rumination and extends the nomological network around different types of thinking about work during off-job time and employee well-being. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Validation of an Interdisciplinary Worker’s Health Approach Instrument (IWHAI)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2803; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152803 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The present study aimed to develop and validate an Interdisciplinary Worker’s Health Approach Instrument (IWHAI). The development stage comprised a group of 10 professionals, including physicians, nurses, nutritionists, dentists and physical educators, as well as a judges’ committee, composed by 19 recognized experts [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to develop and validate an Interdisciplinary Worker’s Health Approach Instrument (IWHAI). The development stage comprised a group of 10 professionals, including physicians, nurses, nutritionists, dentists and physical educators, as well as a judges’ committee, composed by 19 recognized experts in the area of worker’s health (WH). For the validation of the IWHAI, the Spearman’s correlation coefficient (rs) was calculated, the factor analysis to the instrument was applied, and the Cronbach’s alpha (α) and the Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. The IWHAI was structured in five dimensions, integrating 43 health indicators, on a scale of 0–4, totalling 215 sub-indices with closed response coding. The instrument was validated with a Kappa coefficient (KAPPA) (k), with excellent agreement for all attributes, i.e., k = 0.88 for applicability, k = 0.80 for clarity and k = 0.82 for relevance. p > 0.05 results reveal moderate to strong positive correlations between some variables, i.e., pests, vectors and air quality/drinking water quality (rs = 0.69). A total of 14 components of the factor analysis, explaining 62.6% of the data variance, were extracted. α value is considered moderate to high, α = 0.61, the ICC value also being considered moderate to high, with ICC = 0.61. The IWHAI is considered validated, constituting a technological innovation for an interdisciplinary approach in the field of WH, enabling the prevention and integral promotion of health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Negative Influences of the 4th Industrial Revolution on the Workplace: Towards a Theoretical Model of Entropic Citizen Behavior in Toxic Organizations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2670; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152670 - 25 Jul 2019
Abstract
The 4th industrial revolution, referred to as a ‘second coming’ of the ‘digital era,’ has introduced both positive and negative effects on the workplace. While digitalization and automation have taken the drudgery out of work for some and released them to enjoy qualitative [...] Read more.
The 4th industrial revolution, referred to as a ‘second coming’ of the ‘digital era,’ has introduced both positive and negative effects on the workplace. While digitalization and automation have taken the drudgery out of work for some and released them to enjoy qualitative improvements at work and higher salaries, others have been thrust into low-paying work and unemployment with negative effects on their well-being and mental health. In many cases stress and threats of job loss created by digital era automation have generated negative workplace behavior and workplace outcomes. The 4th industrial revolution and its burgeoning information technology have presented widespread access to information to stakeholders and the general public about organizational business and environmental performance. This open access to information has driven toxic business leaders to maintain company profitability and environmental sustainability by pressuring employees to find solutions to difficult organizational problems with short timelines attached. Employees often are required to ‘go the extra mile’ to achieve organizational goals through forms of organizational citizenship behavior. Additionally, although organizational citizenship behavior can generate significant benefits for a company, toxic and entropic workplace outcomes can also occur from its more extreme manifestations arising from the stressful circumstances digitalization and automation of work have created. The methodological approach adopted in this paper is a secondary data analysis which uses reliable and valid sources of report documentation to corroborate a theoretical model of organizational citizenship behavior entropy. The theoretical model suggests that extreme forms of organizational citizenship behavior associated with the digital era can create toxic leaders and business organizations that lead to organizational entropy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Entrepreneurial Leadership and Turnover Intention of Employees: The Role of Affective Commitment and Person-job Fit
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2380; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132380 - 04 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to explore the causal system between entrepreneurial leadership and turnover intention of employees by examining the mediating effect of affective commitment and the moderating effect of person-job fit in start-ups. A quantitative approach was used to test [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to explore the causal system between entrepreneurial leadership and turnover intention of employees by examining the mediating effect of affective commitment and the moderating effect of person-job fit in start-ups. A quantitative approach was used to test the hypotheses and data were collected through the internet questionnaire tool. The authors selected employees from ventures newly established within the past five years and finally collected 427 questionnaires. The authors then used the hierarchical regression analysis method of Baron and Kenny for test mediating effect and the Hayes bootstrapping method for the test moderating effect by using Hayes’ SPSS PROCESS macro. The results demonstrated that affective commitment functions as a mediator and person-job fit functions as a moderator. This paper provides implications for start-up leaders that entrepreneurial leadership is an effective style of leadership and plays a crucial role which accompanies the development of venture. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Environmental Performance on Employment: Evidence from China’s Manufacturing Industries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2232; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122232 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This research aims to explore the interaction between environmental performance and employment China’s manufacturing industries. Based on the environmental performance of 32 industries in China’s manufacturing industry during 2006–2015, a panel vector autoregressive model was constructed to study the interaction between industry output [...] Read more.
This research aims to explore the interaction between environmental performance and employment China’s manufacturing industries. Based on the environmental performance of 32 industries in China’s manufacturing industry during 2006–2015, a panel vector autoregressive model was constructed to study the interaction between industry output and employment in clean industries and dirty industries. The dynamic impact and internal transmission mechanism between environmental performance is analyzed. The study found that in the early stage, due to the reduction of production scale, there was a weak and short-term negative correlation effect on employment, and the mutual promotion relationship between economic benefits and employment was unsustainable. In return, employment affects environmental performance, but the effect differs due to the different forms of environmental performance. For dirty industries, the impact of environmental performance on employment through technical effects is more significant and, thus, a win–win situation of ecological environment and employment stability will be achieved. This research has practical significance regarding how to scientifically and effectively carry out environmental regulation and green management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Supervision for Certification in the Field of Applied Behaviour Analysis: Characteristics and Relationship with Job Satisfaction, Burnout, Work Demands, and Support
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2098; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122098 - 13 Jun 2019
Abstract
Background: Supervision of behavior analysts seeking certification and supervision of service delivery are key processes in the provision of quality behaviour analytic services to individuals with developmental disabilities. Our study is the first to examine international supervisory practices within the field of [...] Read more.
Background: Supervision of behavior analysts seeking certification and supervision of service delivery are key processes in the provision of quality behaviour analytic services to individuals with developmental disabilities. Our study is the first to examine international supervisory practices within the field of applied behaviour analysis. Method: An online survey was distributed to 92 professionals internationally, assessing supervisory practice, supervisor support, work demands, job satisfaction, and burnout. Results: Findings indicate high satisfaction with the supervisor and supervisory experience. Excessive work demands positively correlate with high burnout and low job satisfaction. Half of all professionals only worked with one or two clients before certification. Supervisor and collegial support seem to decrease the likelihood of suffering burnout and increase job satisfaction, although relationships were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Supervisor and collegial support warrant further research as protective factors. Implications for an evidence-based supervisory practice that produces ethical and competent supervisees are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How Does Leader Narcissism Influence Employee Voice: The Attribution of Leader Impression Management and Leader-Member Exchange
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1819; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101819 - 22 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Recently, the influence of leader’s personality traits on employee behavior has become an emerging research area. Leaders play a crucial role in any organization because team members look up to them for policy and behavioral guidelines. Based on the social exchange theory, this [...] Read more.
Recently, the influence of leader’s personality traits on employee behavior has become an emerging research area. Leaders play a crucial role in any organization because team members look up to them for policy and behavioral guidelines. Based on the social exchange theory, this study is focused on the relationship of employee-perceived leader narcissism and employee voice behavior. Through the analysis of 239 questionnaires, we find that leader narcissism has a significant influence on the motivation of leadership impression management. The narcissistic leader uses impression management that is more likely to have self- serving purpose rather than pro-social motivation. This motivation impacts leader-member exchange (LMX) quality which influences employee voice behavior. This study has significant theoretical and practical implications as it is the first study that empirically verifies the stated relationship in this under-researched area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Perceptions of Job Insecurity in Switzerland: Evidence Using Verbal and Numerical Descriptors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1785; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101785 - 20 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to examine perceptions of job insecurity among employees, applying a panel model that allows us to account for the business cycle. In addition, the data will enable the comparison of two measures of job insecurity, one with [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to examine perceptions of job insecurity among employees, applying a panel model that allows us to account for the business cycle. In addition, the data will enable the comparison of two measures of job insecurity, one with a cardinal scale, and one with an ordinal scale. First of all, this paper carries out a descriptive analysis of job insecurity, taking into consideration two empirical measures, and using a panel data set from the longitudinal Swiss Household Panel (SHP). Second, an ordered probability unit (probit) model is applied, analyzing both workers’ concerns about job loss, and their subjective job security. Controlling for differences in socio-demographic and job characteristics, estimations show that perceptions of job security affect workers heterogeneously. This study contributes to the literature by revising variables that help to explain the formation of job insecurity perceptions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Managers’ Well-Being in the Digital Era: Is it Associated with Perceived Choice Overload and Pressure from Digitalization? An Exploratory Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1746; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101746 - 17 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Due to the current digital transition, companies are under pressure to pursue digitalization and often initiate far-reaching transformation processes. As a result, managers must drive change within a company and are involved in important decision-making processes. In the present study, we focused on [...] Read more.
Due to the current digital transition, companies are under pressure to pursue digitalization and often initiate far-reaching transformation processes. As a result, managers must drive change within a company and are involved in important decision-making processes. In the present study, we focused on two cognitive job demands in managers related to change due to digital transformation: perceived choice overload and pressure from digitalization. We assumed that the extent of challenging cognitive demands at work is rising and negatively influencing managers’ psychological well-being. We conducted an online survey with a sample of 368 upper-level managers from a large ICT-company, where, at the time of the study, extensive transformation processes were taking place. Using multivariate regression analysis, potential prognostic effects on well-being were tested. Results showed that lower well-being was significantly associated with higher choice overload, but not with perceived pressure from digitalization. In our explorative study, we investigated two potential job demands in managers that, to our knowledge, have not yet been scientifically tested. Given the unsettled state of the field, it is important to try to further understand when choice overload and pressure from digitalization occur and when these may trigger negative health consequences. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High-Performance Work System, Work Well-Being, and Employee Creativity: Cross-Level Moderating Role of Transformational Leadership
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(9), 1640; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091640 - 10 May 2019
Abstract
Under the new normal, the economic development mode and growth momentum of China has brought about fundamental changes, which means that the development of enterprises has gradually shifted from being factor-and investment-driven to being innovation-and talent-driven. As the foundation of corporate innovation, employee [...] Read more.
Under the new normal, the economic development mode and growth momentum of China has brought about fundamental changes, which means that the development of enterprises has gradually shifted from being factor-and investment-driven to being innovation-and talent-driven. As the foundation of corporate innovation, employee creativity plays an important role in this process. In the field of strategic human resource management, high-performance work system is the embodiment of its core competence. Although some research has begun to try to explore the impact of high-performance work system on employee creativity, the underlying mechanism and the boundary condition is not yet fully understood. According to the Job demands-resources (JD-R) model, this study theorized and examined whether and when high-performance work system stimulate employee creativity. Using a sample of large and medium-sized enterprises in China, we collected data, which are time-lagged and multilevel, from 266 employees in 61 departments. Results of the hierarchical linear model found that (1) High-performance work system is positively related to employee creativity; (2) High-performance work system positively affects employee work well-being; (3) Work well-being positively affects employee creativity; (4) Employee work well-being partially mediates the relationship between high-performance work system and creativity; (5) Transformational leadership, which represents an important contextual variable in the workplace, moderates the relationship between work well-being and employee creativity; (6) Moreover, we have also revealed that transformational leadership can moderate the indirect effect of high-performance work system on employee creativity. We discussed the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quality of Life and Health: Influence of Preparation for Retirement Behaviors through the Serial Mediation of Losses and Gains
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(9), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091539 - 30 Apr 2019
Abstract
The dynamic theory of resources is a recent approach that provides a theoretical framework for understanding, forecasting, and examining the relationships between people’s resources and their adaptation to retirement. This article focuses on the transition to retirement in order to better understand how [...] Read more.
The dynamic theory of resources is a recent approach that provides a theoretical framework for understanding, forecasting, and examining the relationships between people’s resources and their adaptation to retirement. This article focuses on the transition to retirement in order to better understand how retirees’ perceptions of their gains and losses when they approach retirement significantly explain their well-being after retirement. Moreover, we explore the relationship between people’s preparation behaviors before retirement (T1) and their quality of life and health after retirement (T3), taking into consideration the mediating role of perceived gains and losses in retirement (T2). This study was carried out with a sample of Spanish workers (N = 244) who were employed at T1 and had retired at T2 and T3. The results support the assertion that losses explain well-being better than gains. In addition, some specific losses showed a greater explanatory power for quality of life and health than others. The implications are discussed with a view to understanding retirement and the design of interventions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Future Work and Disability: Promoting Job Motivation in Special Employment Centers in Spain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1447; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081447 - 24 Apr 2019
Abstract
The technological transition currently taking place in the labor market is having severe implications for people. One vulnerable group at risk of marketplace exclusion are employees with disabilities. This research explores their job motivation, including the moderated effect of self-efficacy. A 187 employees [...] Read more.
The technological transition currently taking place in the labor market is having severe implications for people. One vulnerable group at risk of marketplace exclusion are employees with disabilities. This research explores their job motivation, including the moderated effect of self-efficacy. A 187 employees from Special Employment Centers (SECs) in Spain with intellectual and physical disabilities completed the Internal Motivation Scale, the Psychological Critical States (PCS) and the self-efficacy sub-scale of the Psychological Processes Scale (PPS) tests. Following the International Tests Commission guidelines, the instruments were adapted to the special needs of the participants. We found differences depending on the kind of disability of employees. In employees with intellectual disabilities, their levels of self-efficacy moderated the effect of responsibility for outcomes and meaningfulness of work on motivation. In the case of employees with physical disabilities, the knowledge of results is a predictor of motivation when they had medium or high levels of self-efficacy. Additionally, in this group, responsibility for outcomes and meaningfulness of work had a direct effect on motivation, independently of their levels of self-efficacy. Employees with disabilities should be empowered to make choices and exercise control in their working lives. To do so, human resources managers should promote their wellbeing, taking into consideration the workforce diversity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Measuring Age Discrimination at Work: Spanish Adaptation and Preliminary Validation of the Nordic Age Discrimination Scale (NADS)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1431; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081431 - 22 Apr 2019
Abstract
Negative stereotypes about older workers can result in ageism and age discrimination in the workplace. The aim of this study is to carry out an adaptation to Spanish and a preliminary validation of the Nordic Age Discrimination Scale (NADS) in a sample of [...] Read more.
Negative stereotypes about older workers can result in ageism and age discrimination in the workplace. The aim of this study is to carry out an adaptation to Spanish and a preliminary validation of the Nordic Age Discrimination Scale (NADS) in a sample of Spanish workers over 55 years of age. The study involved 209 employees aged between 55 and 67 years old (155 women (74.2%) and 54 men (25.8%)) working in the health sector with different professional categories (nurses, doctors, nursing assistants, ancillaries and health technicians). The reliability index of the six dimensions of the NADS (promotion, training, development, development appraisals, wage increase and change processes) measured by Cronbach’s alpha was α = 0.83. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, with the goodness-of-fit indexes used, reflect an acceptable adjustment of the single-factor structure of the NADS. Regarding criterion and construct validity, the NADS correlated positively and negatively with the respective variables in the expected directions, except in one case. These results indicate that the Spanish version of the NADS shows adequate levels of internal consistency and criterion validity, and this instrument meets standard psychometric properties in its Spanish version. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Can Work Engagement Be a Resource for Reducing Workaholism’s Undesirable Outcomes? A Multiple Mediating Model Including Moderated Mediation Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1402; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081402 - 18 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study aimed to explore a possible process explaining the relationship between workaholism and sleep disorders, including two mediators: work–family conflict and emotional exhaustion. Moreover, since a possible buffering role of work engagement was recently proposed against the detrimental effects of workaholism, the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to explore a possible process explaining the relationship between workaholism and sleep disorders, including two mediators: work–family conflict and emotional exhaustion. Moreover, since a possible buffering role of work engagement was recently proposed against the detrimental effects of workaholism, the aim was to examine the moderating role of work engagement in the relationship between workaholism and several outcomes such as work–family conflict, emotional exhaustion, and sleep disorders. Two models were tested using conditional process analysis for testing direct and indirect effects on a sample of 395 employees: (1) a serial multiple mediation model, and (2) the same serial multiple mediation model including the moderating role of work engagement. Results showed a significant mediating effect of both work–family conflict and emotional exhaustion. Moreover, work engagement moderated the relationship between workaholism and work–family conflict and the relationship between workaholism and emotional exhaustion. This work contributes to the understanding of the process underlying the relationship between workaholism and sleep disorders and to the literature reporting the possible protective role of work engagement on the negative outcomes of workaholism. Practical implications are also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preventable Mortality in Regions of Slovakia—Quantification of Regional Disparities and Investigation of the Impact of Environmental Factors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081382 - 17 Apr 2019
Abstract
Environmental health is among the priority areas of public health, and the current professional communities are intensively engaged with it. The main objective of the study is to quantify regional disparities of preventable mortality in Slovakia and to study the extent of the [...] Read more.
Environmental health is among the priority areas of public health, and the current professional communities are intensively engaged with it. The main objective of the study is to quantify regional disparities of preventable mortality in Slovakia and to study the extent of the influence of selected environmental factors on changes in the development of its values. A cross-sectional linear regression model is used to quantify effects of environmental factors on the preventable mortality. Also, cluster analysis is used to identify regions with similar levels of air pollution. Environmental factors were selected based on the study of the World Health Organization. From the point of view of the influence of environmental factors on preventable mortality in the case of men, statistically significant connection to sewerage, SO2 production, and production of particulate matter was demonstrated. In the case of women, equally important factors showed connection to sewerage and SO2. The results of this study point to significant regional disparities in preventable mortality and a different degree of impact of environmental factors. Preventable mortality is above the Slovak average in most of the least-developed districts. Even in this group, there are significant differences. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Job Crafting as a Mediator between Work Engagement and Wellbeing Outcomes: A Time-Lagged Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081376 - 17 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This time-lagged study, using the framework of the JD-R model, tested the mediating role of job crafting measuring: at T1, work engagement, workaholism and emotional exhaustion; at T2, job crafting; and, at T3, flourishing, job performance and job satisfaction. Respondents were 443 Spanish [...] Read more.
This time-lagged study, using the framework of the JD-R model, tested the mediating role of job crafting measuring: at T1, work engagement, workaholism and emotional exhaustion; at T2, job crafting; and, at T3, flourishing, job performance and job satisfaction. Respondents were 443 Spanish employees working in different companies. Results show that job crafting mediates the relationship between work engagement and some of its outcomes (job performance and flourishing). In particular, the job crafting component ‘increasing structural job resources’ mediates the positive effect of work engagement on flourishing and job performance, and the job crafting component ‘increasing challenging demands’ mediates the positive effect of work engagement on job performance. No job crafting mediation is found between work engagement and job satisfaction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quality of Life and Health among People Living in an Industrial Area of Poland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1221; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071221 - 05 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: The quality of life and health status of the population significantly depends on socio-economic factors, including working and employment conditions. Methods: This epidemiological cross-sectional study was carried out among young inhabitants aged 25–44 years living in the Silesian voivodeship in Poland. The [...] Read more.
Background: The quality of life and health status of the population significantly depends on socio-economic factors, including working and employment conditions. Methods: This epidemiological cross-sectional study was carried out among young inhabitants aged 25–44 years living in the Silesian voivodeship in Poland. The quality of life was evaluated using the short version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Results: A total of 905 respondents were examined. It was shown that the poor quality of life in all assessed domains was associated with a low job satisfaction level, low physical activity, and higher self-assessed health status. Furthermore, the worse self-assessed health status in the study group was mainly related to such factors as earlier diagnosed chronic disease, lower job satisfaction, and low physical activity. Additionally, diagnosed chronic disease among occupationally active respondents was correlated with health deterioration due to excessive stress, living in the vicinity of heavy road traffic, and was declared by women more frequently. Conclusions: The results of the presented study confirmed that the quality of life and health status in young inhabitants of the Silesian voivodeship significantly depends on the work characteristics, employment conditions and lifestyle factors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Organizational Cynicism and Its Impact on Organizational Pride in Industrial Organizations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1203; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071203 - 03 Apr 2019
Abstract
Organizational cynicism has been a topic of discussion and debate among employees and top management. The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between organizational cynicism and organizational pride. Precisely, the objectives are to identify and measure organizational cynicism among [...] Read more.
Organizational cynicism has been a topic of discussion and debate among employees and top management. The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between organizational cynicism and organizational pride. Precisely, the objectives are to identify and measure organizational cynicism among employees in industrial organizations; to determine and measure the degree of organizational pride among employees in industrial organizations and to study the effect of organizational cynicism on the organizational pride of employees in industrial organizations. In this empirical research, the study population was employees of industrial organizations of Oman. Using a purposive sampling technique, nine industrial organizations from Oman were picked. With the help of structured questionnaire, data from 350 respondents was obtained. Structural equation modeling was used through Amos version 25.0 for data analysis. The results reveal that the two dimensions of organizational cynicism (affective cynicism and behavioral cynicism) have a significant and negative impact on emotional pride, while cognitive cynicism does not significantly effect emotional pride. The study results indicate that the one dimension of organizational cynicism (affective cynicism) has a significant impact on attitudinal pride, while the rest of the other dimensions (cognitive cynicism, behavioral cynicism) do not have a significant effect on attitudinal pride. The limitations and implications of the research are also discussed. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
“Why Can’t I Become a Manager?”—A Systematic Review of Gender Stereotypes and Organizational Discrimination
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1813; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101813 - 22 May 2019
Abstract
Women continue to lag behind for accessing managerial positions, partially due to discrimination at work. One of the main roots of such discrimination is gender stereotyping, so we aim to comprehend those biased procedures. First, we have analyzed those highlighted gender lawsuit cases [...] Read more.
Women continue to lag behind for accessing managerial positions, partially due to discrimination at work. One of the main roots of such discrimination is gender stereotyping, so we aim to comprehend those biased procedures. First, we have analyzed those highlighted gender lawsuit cases in the scientific literature that have dealt with stereotypes both in the American and the European work contexts. Second, meta-analytic studies regarding organizational consequences of gender stereotypes have been synthetized. Third, gender stereotypes have been grouped by means of a content analysis of the existing literature after processing 61 articles systematically retrieved from WOS, SCOPUS, and PsycINFO databases. As a result, a taxonomy of gender stereotypes has been achieved evidencing that descriptive and prescriptive stereotypes have an impact on decision-making procedures through the apparently perception of women as less suitable for managerial positions. Moreover, we offer a deep explanation of the gender discrimination phenomenon under the umbrella of psychosocial theories, and some measures for successfully overcoming management stereotyping, showing that organizational culture can be improved from both the perspective of equal employment opportunities and the organizational justice frameworks for reaching a balanced and healthier workplace. Full article
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