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Diversity, Volume 14, Issue 5 (May 2022) – 107 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In reconstructing the evolution of the extinct pig-footed bandicoots (Chaeropus), scientists have relied heavily on sequencing DNA from century-old specimens. We have developed novel criteria for detecting contaminated DNA sequences, which we find in both pig-footed bandicoot species. The sources of non-target DNA range from other bandicoots to birds. After excluding contaminated fragments, the phylogenetic position of pig-footed bandicoots was determined to fall on the lineage leading to all other bandicoots, to the exclusion of bilbies (Macrotis). This study provides evolutionary context for testing hypotheses on the ecological transition of pig-footed bandicoots from semi-fossorial omnivores towards cursorial grazers, which may involve a rare breach of deeply conserved ecospace partitioning between Australo-Papuan marsupial orders. View this paper
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Brief Report
Amphibian-Friendly Water Drainages for Agricultural Landscapes, Based on Multiple Species Surveys and Behavioural Trials for Pelophylax nigromaculatus
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050414 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 634
Abstract
Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrate group on earth, and one of the reasons for their decline is habitat loss. While some populations have persisted in agricultural wetlands such as rice paddies, the current anthropisation of landscapes is dealing a new blow to [...] Read more.
Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrate group on earth, and one of the reasons for their decline is habitat loss. While some populations have persisted in agricultural wetlands such as rice paddies, the current anthropisation of landscapes is dealing a new blow to the survival of these species. In rice paddies, the new threats are especially visible through the increased channelization of water bodies with increasingly efficient drainage ditches, which become deadly traps. We first conducted surveys over three years to determine the use of ditches by frog species for natural versus concrete ditches, and thus relate to habitat adequacy as well as the probability of becoming trapped in concrete ditches. We then set up four types of experimental arena for escape trials. Experiments were replicated for the Black-spotted pond frog (Pelophylax nigromaculatus), as a proxy for other species abundant in rice paddies in the Republic of Korea. We determined that a slope of at least 70 degrees, with engraved patterns, was the only set-up from which frogs managed to escape. We recommend the implementation of this type of device in areas where a high concentration of animals is trapped, before phasing out the ancient design and relying on amphibian-friendly drainage ditches as they also support higher amphibian biodiversity. Full article
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Article
Lignicolous Fungi Collected in Northern Italy: Identification and Morphological Description of Isolates
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050413 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 525
Abstract
In recent years, fungi, particularly lignicolous fungi, have been re-considered as a source for biotechnological and industrial applications. Lignicolous basidiomycetes are the most effective at degrading wood, particularly cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, which are among the most resistant biopolymers. This study aims to [...] Read more.
In recent years, fungi, particularly lignicolous fungi, have been re-considered as a source for biotechnological and industrial applications. Lignicolous basidiomycetes are the most effective at degrading wood, particularly cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, which are among the most resistant biopolymers. This study aims to constitute a research collection of lignicolous fungal strains that are useful for further studies and applications in different production fields. The basidiomata used to isolate the strains in a pure culture were, firstly, identified through macroscopic and microscopic characteristics integrated with ecological data. To obtain pure cultures of dikaryotic mycelia, 96 different strains of Agaricomycetes belonging to 76 different species and related to 51 genera (18 families and 5 orders) were isolated using a malt extract agar (MEA) medium enriched with hydrogen peroxide. The identity of the isolated strains was then confirmed by molecular analysis through the sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster. All the strains are currently conserved using different methods, and their vitality is periodically tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Diet Metabarcoding Reveals Extensive Dietary Overlap between Two Benthic Stream Fishes (Zingel asper and Cottus gobio) and Provides Insights into Their Coexistence
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050412 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 453
Abstract
Niche partitioning studies are essential to understand the mechanisms that allow ecologically similar species to coexist. The Rhone streber (Zingel asper) and the European bullhead (Cottus gobio) are both benthic riverine fishes that consume macroinvertebrates. Both species are protected [...] Read more.
Niche partitioning studies are essential to understand the mechanisms that allow ecologically similar species to coexist. The Rhone streber (Zingel asper) and the European bullhead (Cottus gobio) are both benthic riverine fishes that consume macroinvertebrates. Both species are protected under European legislature. We focused on trophic niche partitioning between these species, as sufficient access to trophic resources is an important requirement for long-term coexistence. We used a combination of faeces metabarcoding dietary data and prey community data to evaluate dietary overlap, trophic niche variation and dietary preferences. Sampling was performed in three sites along the Durance River (France). Both species consumed a wide range of macroinvertebrates but neither C. gobio nor Z. asper selected the most abundant taxa (chironomids and simuliids). Both species selected larger mayfly (Baetis and Ecdyonurus) and caddisfly (Hydropsyche) taxa. Dietary overlap was generally high but declined when large mayflies were rare. Contrasting secondary prey preferences and trophic niche variation may allow these species to exploit the same preferred mayflies in periods of abundance and to avoid competition during resource scarcity. We propose that dietary partitioning may support the coexistence of these two ecologically similar, benthic predators. Full article
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Article
Predictors of the Behavioral Intention to Participate in Saiga Antelope Conservation among Chinese Young Residents
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050411 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 577
Abstract
Promoting public participation is a practical move to strengthen wildlife conservation. This study focuses on saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica), an endangered species which has received international concern. Based on an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behavior and a sample [...] Read more.
Promoting public participation is a practical move to strengthen wildlife conservation. This study focuses on saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica), an endangered species which has received international concern. Based on an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behavior and a sample of 536 Chinese residents aged 16–40 collected through an online survey, we applied Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling to explore the predictors of the behavioral intention to participate in saiga antelope conservation. The results show that perceived behavioral control is the most influential predictor that contributes to the value of the behavioral intention, followed by injunctive norm, attitude to participation, knowledge of saiga antelope, experience of wildlife conservation, and attitude to saiga antelope, altogether explaining 48.4% of the variance of the behavioral intention. To promote public participation in saiga antelope conservation, strengthening science popularization and broadening the channels of participation are suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Dimension of Forest and Wildlife Protection)
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Article
Effects of Terrestrial Inputs on Mesozooplankton Community Structure in Bohai Bay, China
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050410 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 585
Abstract
Zooplankton play a pivotal role in connecting primary producers and high trophic levels, and changes in their temporal and spatial distribution may affect the entire marine ecosystem. The spatial and seasonal taxonomic composition patterns of mesozooplankton in Bohai Bay were investigated in relation [...] Read more.
Zooplankton play a pivotal role in connecting primary producers and high trophic levels, and changes in their temporal and spatial distribution may affect the entire marine ecosystem. The spatial and seasonal taxonomic composition patterns of mesozooplankton in Bohai Bay were investigated in relation to a number of water parameters. Bohai Bay is a eutrophic semi-enclosed bay with dynamic physico-chemical conditions influenced by terrestrial inputs and seawater intrusion. The results showed that under the condition of terrigenous input, the diversity of mesozooplankton species near the eutrophic Haihe River Estuary and Jiyun River Estuary was lower than that in the central Bohai Bay, with gelatinous Oikopleura dioica as the dominant species. The mesozooplankton diversity was highest in the bay mouth affected by seawater intrusion, and the dominant oceanic species, mainly copepods Corycaeus affinis, Calanus sinicus, and Oithona similis, entered the inner bay from the bay mouth. Meanwhile, the abundance of mesozooplankton in summer was significantly higher than that in autumn. Compared with historical data, the dominant species in Bohai Bay has evolved from arrow worm Sagitta crassa to copepod Paracalanus parvus, probably due to global warming, indicating the effects of human activities on the succession of mesozooplankton community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Linking Plankton Diversity with Ecosystem Functioning and Services)
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Review
A Review of Coastal Anthropogenic Impacts on Mytilid Mussel Beds: Effects on Mussels and Their Associated Assemblages
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050409 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 467
Abstract
Mussel beds are an important habitat in many coastal systems, harboring a high diversity of biota. They are threatened by anthropogenic impacts that affect mussels and their associated assemblages. Pollution, harvesting, trampling, dredging and trawling are major threats faced by these communities. Most [...] Read more.
Mussel beds are an important habitat in many coastal systems, harboring a high diversity of biota. They are threatened by anthropogenic impacts that affect mussels and their associated assemblages. Pollution, harvesting, trampling, dredging and trawling are major threats faced by these communities. Most of the studies on the effects of such impacts on the mussel beds overlook the associated fauna. Since mussels are very resilient, especially to pollution, the associated fauna can provide a better footprint of the impacts’ effects. In this review, we looked into the main remarks regarding the effects of anthropogenic impacts in mussel bed communities. Organic pollution was the best studied impact and the Atlantic region was the best studied zone. Low values of abundance, biomass, diversity, evenness and species richness were reported for all categories of impacts, with some studies describing declines in at least three of these descriptors. Among the associated fauna, some tolerant species benefited from the impacts, particularly organic enrichment, and became more abundant, but sensitive species suffered considerable declines in density, mainly in dredging and trawling impacts. Therefore, fauna associated with mussel beds is a suitable indicator of anthropogenic disturbances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2021 Feature Papers by Diversity’s Editorial Board Members)
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Article
Phylogenetic, Microbiome, and Diet Characterisation of Wall Lizards in the Columbretes Archipelago (Spain): Clues for Their Conservation
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050408 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 606
Abstract
The Columbretes archipelago consists of a group of small volcanic islets located in the western Mediterranean near the east of the Iberian Peninsula. Four of its islands are inhabited by the wall lizard Podarcis liolepis, whose populations have been considered vulnerable. The [...] Read more.
The Columbretes archipelago consists of a group of small volcanic islets located in the western Mediterranean near the east of the Iberian Peninsula. Four of its islands are inhabited by the wall lizard Podarcis liolepis, whose populations have been considered vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of genetic diversity across the archipelago and the possible evolutionary origin of the Columbretes lizard populations. Additionally, we investigated the evolutionary ecology of these populations using a DNA-based metabarcoding approach to characterise both their microbiota and trophic interactions. The genetic results reported very low genetic diversity and corroborated the conspecificity between insular populations and P. liolepis from the mainland (Peñagolosa region). The results of the metabarcoding analyses based on faecal samples were in accordance with an omnivorous ecology, suggesting that specific microbiota communities in the insular populations might be correlated with differences in host ecology and phylogeny. These results are a valuable contribution to the current understanding of the evolution of Columbretes’ lizards and provide important information for conservation management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omics and Genetics in Wildlife Conservation)
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Article
The UDP-Glycosyltransferase Gene Family in Achelura yunnanensis (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae): Identification, Phylogeny, and Diverse Expression Patterns
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050407 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 466
Abstract
The caterpillars of the Lepidoptera are important herbivores as most of them belong to serious agricultural and forestry pests. To adapt to their habitats and feeding host plants, the larvae utilize uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) to metabolize plant defensive compounds and insecticides. However, [...] Read more.
The caterpillars of the Lepidoptera are important herbivores as most of them belong to serious agricultural and forestry pests. To adapt to their habitats and feeding host plants, the larvae utilize uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) to metabolize plant defensive compounds and insecticides. However, information on the UGT gene family in Achelura yunnanensis remains scarce. Here, we characterized the UGT genes through gene identification, phylogenic analyses, and comprehensive expression profiles regarding sexes, tissues, and stages. Transcriptome analyses led to the yields of 50 transcripts encoding UGTs in A. yunnanensis, representing a comparable gene number compared to those in other lepidopteran species. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed a low amino acid identity of 28.23% among 31 full-length AyunUGTs, but some members shared relatively high conservation (>50% identities) with a phylogenetically clustered distribution. In addition, the majority of AyunUGTs possessed conserved residues involved in the catalysis and sugar-donor binding. Combining RNA sequencing and PCR approaches, a number of AyunUGTs were found to have the expression in chemosensory or detoxification tissues, possibly associated with the sensing of odorant molecules and the metabolism of toxic chemicals. More importantly, at least 27 AyunUGTs displayed detectable expression in reproductive tissues of both sexes. This study identifies candidate A. yunnanensis UGTs responsible for detoxification, olfaction, and reproduction, allowing us to address putative roles of UGTs in the adaptation of larvae to the habitats and feeding hosts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Diversity)
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Article
Detection and Quantification of Forest-Agriculture Ecotones Caused by Returning Farmland to Forest Program Using Unmanned Aircraft Imagery
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050406 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 552
Abstract
The ‘Returning Farmland to Forest Program’ (RFFP) in China has become an essential factor in land cover changes and forest transition, especially in terms of the ecological processes between two adjacent ecosystems. However, accurately delineating ecotones is still a big challenge for vegetation [...] Read more.
The ‘Returning Farmland to Forest Program’ (RFFP) in China has become an essential factor in land cover changes and forest transition, especially in terms of the ecological processes between two adjacent ecosystems. However, accurately delineating ecotones is still a big challenge for vegetation and landscape ecologists. Acquiring high spatial resolution imagery from a small, unmanned aircraft system (UAS) provides new opportunities for studying ecotones at a small scale. This study aims to extract forest-agriculture ecotones by RGB ultrahigh-resolution images from a small UAS and quantify the small biotopes in 3D space. To achieve these objectives, a canopy height model (CHM) is constructed based on a UAS-photogrammetric-derived point cloud, which is derived from the digital surface model (DSM) minus the digital terrain model (DTM). Afterward, according to the difference of plant community height between abandoned farmland ecosystem and forest ecosystem, the ecotones are delineated. A landscape pattern identified with ecotones and other small biotopes at the fine scale. Furthermore, we assess the accuracy of the ecotones’ delineation based on the transects method with the previous situ work we carried out and quantify the landscape structure using common landscape metrics to describe its spatial and geometric characteristics. Through transect-based analysis at three transects, the overall accuracy of the width of UAS-derived delineation is greater than 70%, and the detection accuracy for the occurrence location is 100%. Finally, we conclude that ecotones extraction from UAS images would also provide the possibility to gain a comprehensive understanding of the entire ecological process of agricultural abandoned land restoration through continuous investigation and monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mountain Biodiversity, Ecosystem Functioning and Services)
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Article
Filling a Gap: A Population of Eunicella verrucosa (Pallas, 1766) (Anthozoa, Alcyonacea) in the Tavolara-Punta Coda Cavallo Marine Protected Area (NE Sardinia, Italy)
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050405 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 624
Abstract
Among Mediterranean habitat-forming alcyonaceans, the sea fan Eunicella verrucosa is known to form dense forests at circalittoral depths, providing seascape complexity and sustaining a rich associated fauna. Its occurrence in the Tavolara–Punta Coda Cavallo Marine Protected Area (NE Sardinia) has never been deeply [...] Read more.
Among Mediterranean habitat-forming alcyonaceans, the sea fan Eunicella verrucosa is known to form dense forests at circalittoral depths, providing seascape complexity and sustaining a rich associated fauna. Its occurrence in the Tavolara–Punta Coda Cavallo Marine Protected Area (NE Sardinia) has never been deeply investigated despite this area being well known from a biocoenotic point of view. This study provides new information on the size of the colonies settled between 35 and 59 m depth on granitic outcrops and represents a contribution to highlighting the hotspot of megabenthic diversity enclosed in the protected area. The presence of 100 colonies was assessed by photographic samplings performed between 2015 and 2020, in a small area characterized by peculiar ecological conditions. The morphometric descriptions and age estimation showed a persistently isolated population probably derived from a stochastic event of settling of larvae presumably coming from the Tuscany Archipelago. A richly associated epibiotic community, composed of 18 species/OTUs, showed how branched bryozoans, particularly Turbicellepora avicularis, and the parasitic octocoral Alcyonium coralloides, affected the colonies’ branches, suggesting a putative anthropogenic impact related to fishing activity. This study indicates that proper protection and management strategies are mandatory for the Marine Protected Area, in order to conserve this unique population and the whole associated benthic assemblage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Coral-Associated Fauna II)
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Article
Ultrastructure Traits and Genetic Variability of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) Adults from Different Geographical Locations in Egypt
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050404 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 459
Abstract
The Red Palm Weevil (RPW) is one of the most damaging pests to palm cultivation; this invasive weevil poses a threat to the palm industry. The characterization and identification of this pest in order to determine its biological diversity is the first step [...] Read more.
The Red Palm Weevil (RPW) is one of the most damaging pests to palm cultivation; this invasive weevil poses a threat to the palm industry. The characterization and identification of this pest in order to determine its biological diversity is the first step in controlling it, which will help in developing effective control programs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the biodiversity of and characterize RPW from five different Egyptian geographical locations at morphological and genetic levels using morphometric analysis, scanning electronic microscopy and two different genetic markers. Our results revealed no significant differences between length and width of the adult body among RPW adults from different geographical locations. Different typologies of prothoracic spots were observed, indicating a degree of diversity in the RPW populations. The magnitude of the different body parts was measured among both males and females. Significant differences were exhibited between length of the antennal seta, as well as forelegs, the lengths and widths of the pronotum, and the rostrum length between both sexes. Both RAPD and ISSR used DNA markers, generating reproducible and distinct banding patterns. The polymorphic banding patterns that have resulted from all studied populations confirmed that these markers demonstrate genetic variability amongst the studied Egyptian populations of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. The recorded differences may be due to the presence of different red palm weevil genotypes. The obtained results might have potential applications in developing a new tracking and control strategy for this invasive pest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Arthropod Biodiversity: Ecological and Functional Aspects)
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Article
Potential Distribution and Medicinal Uses of the Mexican Plant Cuphea aequipetala Cav. (Lythraceae)
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050403 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 446
Abstract
Carrying out studies that lead us to obtain information on both the cultural and biological heritage of a locality, region, or country allows us to create appropriate strategies for the conservation of biocultural diversity. In this context, the objective of this study was [...] Read more.
Carrying out studies that lead us to obtain information on both the cultural and biological heritage of a locality, region, or country allows us to create appropriate strategies for the conservation of biocultural diversity. In this context, the objective of this study was to model the potential distribution of Cuphea aequipetala Cav. within the Mexican territory, to identify the main environmental variables that delimit its habitat, and to obtain information from traditional knowledge through the medicinal uses that the inhabitants of nearby communities give to the plant. Potential distribution modeling was performed with MaxEnt together with 19 bioclimatic variables of Worldclim plus three variables closely related to the habitat of the species. Data on its presence were obtained in situ within the Lagunas de Zempoala National Park and from iNaturalist. Information on the medicinal uses of the plant was obtained through semi-structured surveys with people who were in continuous contact with it. The potential range of C. equipetala Cav. was 3205.63 km2, which represents 0.16% of the Mexican territory. The altitude, precipitation in the driest period, average temperature of the warmest quarter, and average temperature of the driest quarter were the variables that had the greatest effects on the potential distribution (49%), and these factors mainly delimited the suitability of the habitat. C. aequipetala Cav. is still used in traditional medicine, mainly for conditions related to cancer, shocks, and inflammation. Finally, it was found that the potential distribution coincided with the states of the country where its medicinal use was reported. This information is important, since it constitutes the basis for performing actions targeting the conservation of this species of medicinal relevance. For example, potential distribution areas can be integrated into habitat restoration and conservation plans to prevent anthropogenic activities, such as felling, that directly affect the habitat. This information can also be used as a reference to promote the preservation of medicinal uses among the young population of the distribution areas. Full article
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Article
Species Diversity and Community Composition of Macroinvertebrates in Headwater Streams of Two Subtropical Neighboring Lowland Basins
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050402 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 545
Abstract
Determining the patterns of diversity and community composition in headwater streams is fundamental to river biodiversity conservation. Environmental selection has been assumed to be a major force driving temperate macroinvertebrate assembly. To test this assumption in the subtropics, we conducted identical surveys for [...] Read more.
Determining the patterns of diversity and community composition in headwater streams is fundamental to river biodiversity conservation. Environmental selection has been assumed to be a major force driving temperate macroinvertebrate assembly. To test this assumption in the subtropics, we conducted identical surveys for headwater streams in two neighboring basins, which are located on two sides of a north–south mountain in southern China. We sampled macroinvertebrates and measured habitat and environmental variables in headwater streams of the two basins. The two groups of headwater streams share a species pool and have similar taxa, taxa richness, and functional composition. Beta diversity accounted for a high proportion of the within-basin diversity, and was mainly attributed to the replacement differences. Highly similarity between the two basins’ species composition showed similar environmental selection in structuring macroinvertebrate communities at the regional scale. Redundancy analysis showed that basin identity is the key factor explaining the variation of communities. Environmental selection is an important factor in structuring macroinvertebrate communities within individual basins. Annual precipitation differs significantly on the two sides of the mountain shaded by the East Asia monsoon, resulting in distinctive substrate compositions in the two basins. Our study provides empirical support for the roles of environmental selection in shaping subtropical macroinvertebrate communities. Full article
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Interesting Images
Black Mantle Tissue of Endolithic Mussels (Leiosolenus spp.) Is Cloaking Borehole Orifices in Caribbean Reef Corals
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050401 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Bioerosion caused by boring mussels (Mytilidae: Lithophaginae) can negatively impact coral reef health. During biodiversity surveys of coral-associated fauna in Curaçao (southern Caribbean), morphological variation in mussel boreholes was studied. Borings were found in 22 coral species, 12 of which represented new host [...] Read more.
Bioerosion caused by boring mussels (Mytilidae: Lithophaginae) can negatively impact coral reef health. During biodiversity surveys of coral-associated fauna in Curaçao (southern Caribbean), morphological variation in mussel boreholes was studied. Borings were found in 22 coral species, 12 of which represented new host records. Dead corals usually showed twin siphon openings, for each mussel shaped like a figure of eight, which were lined with a calcareous sheath and protruded as tubes from the substrate surface. Most openings surrounded by live coral tissue were deeper and funnel-shaped, with outlines resembling dumbbells, keyholes, ovals or irregular ink blotches. The boreholes appeared to contain black siphon and mantle tissue of the mussel. Because of the black color and the hidden borehole opening in live host corals, the mantle tissue appeared to mimic dark, empty holes, while they were actually cloaking live coral tissue around the hole, which is a new discovery. By illustrating the morphological range of borehole orifices, we aim to facilitate the easy detection of boring mussels for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Coral-Associated Fauna II)
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Article
Extracting Quantitative Information from Images Taken in the Wild: A Case Study of Two Vicariants of the Ophrys aveyronensis Species Complex
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050400 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 673
Abstract
Characterising phenotypic differentiation is crucial to understand which traits are involved in population divergence and establish the evolutionary scenario underlying the speciation process. Species harbouring a disjunct spatial distribution or cryptic taxa suggest that scientists often fail to detect subtle phenotypic differentiation at [...] Read more.
Characterising phenotypic differentiation is crucial to understand which traits are involved in population divergence and establish the evolutionary scenario underlying the speciation process. Species harbouring a disjunct spatial distribution or cryptic taxa suggest that scientists often fail to detect subtle phenotypic differentiation at first sight. We used image-based analyses coupled with a simple machine learning algorithm to test whether we could distinguish two vicariant population groups of an orchid species complex known to be difficult to tease apart based on morphological criteria. To assess whether these groups can be distinguished on the basis of their phenotypes, and to highlight the traits likely to be the most informative in supporting a putative differentiation, we (i) photographed and measured a set of 109 individuals in the field, (ii) extracted morphometric, colour, and colour pattern information from pictures, and (iii) used random forest algorithms for classification. When combined, field- and image-based information provided identification accuracy of 95%. Interestingly, the variables used by random forests to discriminate the groups were different from those suggested in the literature. Our results demonstrate the interest of field-captured pictures coupled with machine learning classification approaches to improve taxon identification and highlight candidate traits for further eco-evolutionary studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biogeography and Macroecology)
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Review
Biological Aspects, Fisheries, and Aquaculture of Yesso Scallops in Russian Waters of the Sea of Japan
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050399 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 474
Abstract
Scallops are bivalve filter-feeding mollusks that can attain a large size and have great importance in terms of their ecological roles and commercial value. Overfishing has led to a decrease in scallop stocks worldwide, leading to intense development of the aquaculture industry. The [...] Read more.
Scallops are bivalve filter-feeding mollusks that can attain a large size and have great importance in terms of their ecological roles and commercial value. Overfishing has led to a decrease in scallop stocks worldwide, leading to intense development of the aquaculture industry. The latter is well-established in Asian countries in the East Sea and Sea of Japan. In this paper, we summarized information regarding the biology, stock dynamics, and fishery of yesso scallops inhabiting Russian waters of the Sea of Japan. This species has relatively rapid growth rates and reaches a marketable size of 100 mm in shell height at age 3–5 years. In Russian waters, the total commercial stock of yesso scallops in 2021 was estimated at 2784 t. Commercial fisheries have been banned since 2020 due to the depletion of natural stocks as a result of illegal fishing and overexploitation. The total allowable catch for yesso scallops has been set at 3 t for monitoring and recreational purposes. The cultivation of the scallops includes spat collection, spat intermediate culture, and final grow-out on the seafloor or in suspended cages. In the past decade, this industry has demonstrated rapid growth and currently accounts for >16,000 t per year. Environmental fluctuations and epizootics seem to be the most important challenges for the scallop aquaculture sector in the Sea of Japan. Full article
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Article
Preliminary Checklist of Malaxidinae and Liparidinae Representatives (Orchidaceae, Malaxideae) from Bali and Lombok Islands (Indonesia) with New Records
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050398 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 502
Abstract
Bali and Lombok are well known as popular touristic destinations. Both islands are accessible for potential floristic research, but surprisingly, information on their orchid flora is rather scarce and random. During our visits, among other orchid groups, we had an opportunity to observe [...] Read more.
Bali and Lombok are well known as popular touristic destinations. Both islands are accessible for potential floristic research, but surprisingly, information on their orchid flora is rather scarce and random. During our visits, among other orchid groups, we had an opportunity to observe several representatives of the tribe Malaxideae, which is considered to be one of the biggest and most interesting orchid groups with over 1700 taxa (including synonyms). In this paper, we present the first attempt at organizing the knowledge about these unique, often underestimated, orchids in Bali and Lombok, and we report several new records for both islands. For Bali, there are six from the genus Crepidium and four from Liparis sensu lato, and for Lombok, one from Crepidium and three from Liparis sensu lato. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity in 2022)
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Article
Factors Associated with the Occurrence, Potential Distribution and Conservation of Anoxia orientalis (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) at Different Spatial Scales
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050397 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 501
Abstract
Anoxia (Protanoxia) orientalis is a beetle of the family Melolonthidae for which Italy represents the western limit of its distribution. The ecology of this species is little known from the quantitative point of view. The ecological correlates of A. orientalis presence in the [...] Read more.
Anoxia (Protanoxia) orientalis is a beetle of the family Melolonthidae for which Italy represents the western limit of its distribution. The ecology of this species is little known from the quantitative point of view. The ecological correlates of A. orientalis presence in the whole European range and, more specifically, at its western border in Sicily, are analyzed in this paper to develop a potential distribution map for Sicily and to define the habitat selection of this species. There was a clear non-random habitat selection by A. orientalis at both the European and the Sicilian scales and a clear difference in the factors affecting the presence of this species in the larger spatial scale compared to Sicily. At the European scale, the bioclimatic factors were more important than landscape factors, whereas the same was not true at the Sicilian scale. In Sicily, the populations were statistically influenced by a combination of predictors that make their potential optimal distribution very narrow and mostly limited to a few coastal areas, suggesting a region-specific ecological diversification. Since A. orientalis is in strong decline in Italy due to the degradation of coastal environments, it is necessary to minimize the degradation of the dune and back dune environments in Sicily to achieve better management for the populations of this beetle species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity in 2022)
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Article
Biogeography and Diversification of the Tropical and Subtropical Asian Genus Gastrochilus (Orchidaceae, Aeridinae)
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050396 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 554
Abstract
Tropical and subtropical Asia are major orchid diversity and endemism centers. However, the evolutionary dynamics of orchids in these areas remain poorly studied. Gastrochilus D. Don, a species-rich orchid genus from tropical and subtropical Asian forests, was employed to investigate the issue. We [...] Read more.
Tropical and subtropical Asia are major orchid diversity and endemism centers. However, the evolutionary dynamics of orchids in these areas remain poorly studied. Gastrochilus D. Don, a species-rich orchid genus from tropical and subtropical Asian forests, was employed to investigate the issue. We firstly used eight DNA regions to reconstruct the phylogeny and estimate the divergence times within Gastrochilus. We inferred the ancestral ranges and conducted a diversification analysis based on empirical and simulated data. Subsequently, we assessed the ancestral niche state and tested for phylogenetic signals in the evolution of niche conditions. Our results suggested that the most recent common ancestor of Gastrochilus occurred in the subtropical area of the East Asiatic region in the late Miocene (8.13 Ma). At least eight dispersal events and four vicariant events were inferred to explain the current distribution of Gastrochilus, associated with the global cooling from the Plio-Pleistocene. The genus experienced a slowly decreasing diversification rate since its origin, and no significant correlation between current niches and phylogenetic relatedness was observed. The diversification of Gastrochilus was attributed to accumulation through time, integrated with the intensification of the Asian Monsoon system during the Plio-Pleistocene, pollination, and epiphytism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecology, Evolution and Diversity of Plants)
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Article
Effect of Aquatic Vegetation Restoration after Removal of Culture Purse Seine on Phytoplankton Community Structure in Caizi Lakes
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050395 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 506
Abstract
Many reports have demonstrated that the removal of aquaculture purse seine is conducive to the restoration of aquatic vegetation and the improvement in water quality, but less attention has been paid to the effects on phytoplankton. This paper addressed the response of phytoplankton [...] Read more.
Many reports have demonstrated that the removal of aquaculture purse seine is conducive to the restoration of aquatic vegetation and the improvement in water quality, but less attention has been paid to the effects on phytoplankton. This paper addressed the response of phytoplankton community structure to aquatic vegetation restoration after purse seine removal in Caizi Lakes. The results showed that the average dissolved oxygen (from 7.43 ± 0.25 mg/L to 9.12 ± 0.49 mg/L) and Secchi depth (from 28.40 ± 6.20 cm to 47.61 ± 14.62 cm) in the water column of the Caizi Lakes increased after the restoration of aquatic vegetation, while the average concentrations of total nitrogen (from 2.00 ± 0.16 mg/L to 1.34 ± 0.18 mg/L) and total phosphorus (from 0.15 ± 0.02 mg/L to 0.06 ± 0.01 mg/L) decreased. After the restoration of the aquatic vegetation, the cell density of phytoplankton declined from 21.04 ± 4.57 × 106 cells/L to 12.74 ± 3.63 × 106 cells/L, and the biomass fell from 18.13 ± 3.57 mg/L to 9.72 ± 2.55 mg/L. We also observed that Shannon–Wiener diversity, Margalef and Pielou indices of phytoplankton surged by 66.50%, 46.20% and 84.68%, respectively. Because this study demonstrated that aquatic vegetation could alleviate the eutrophication, it can provide guidance for the restoration and protection of the aquatic ecosystem. Full article
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Article
Molecular Insights into the Centaurea Calocephala Complex (Compositae) from the Balkans—Does Phylogeny Match Systematics?
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050394 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 507
Abstract
Groups of recent speciation are characterized by high levels of introgression and gene flow, which often confounds delimitation of species on a DNA basis. We analyzed nuclear DNA sequences (ETS spacer and the AGT1 gene) obtained from a large sample of the C. [...] Read more.
Groups of recent speciation are characterized by high levels of introgression and gene flow, which often confounds delimitation of species on a DNA basis. We analyzed nuclear DNA sequences (ETS spacer and the AGT1 gene) obtained from a large sample of the C. calocephala complex from the Balkan clade of Centaurea sect. Acrocentron (Compositae, Cardueae-Centaureinae) together with a wide representation of other species from the section. Our main goals were to verify the monophyly of the complex as currently defined and to examine the possible presence of introgression and gene flow. Within the complex, species are well-delimited from a morphological point of view and probably originated by allopatric speciation in the Balkan Peninsula. Our results confirm that the Balkan–Eurasian complex is a natural group, but the Centaurea calocephala complex shows a very complicated pattern and its phylogeny is not resolved. Our hypothesis suggests that altitudinal shifts in the transits from glacial to interglacial periods caused successive hybridization events, which are very evident from the DNA networks, between taxa not currently sympatric. As a result, confirmation of interspecific boundaries using molecular markers is extremely complicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conservation Genetics and Biogeography of Seed Plant Species II)
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Article
Early Development of the Endemic Delminichthys krbavensis (Leuciscidae, Cypriniformes) from a Karstic Field in Croatia
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050393 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 453
Abstract
This is the first report of the early development for the endemic Krbava minnow Delminichthys krbavensis from a karstic field in Croatia, and the first report of any species of the genus Delminichthys. The description is based on basic morphometric measures and [...] Read more.
This is the first report of the early development for the endemic Krbava minnow Delminichthys krbavensis from a karstic field in Croatia, and the first report of any species of the genus Delminichthys. The description is based on basic morphometric measures and meristic counts during a 48-day observation of embryos and larvae acquired from successful spawning and rearing in an aquarium. The mean total length of larvae at the time of hatching was 3.12 mm. Mouth opening and independent feeding and intestinal function were observed after day 11 post-hatching (PH) at which time the yolk sac was completely absorbed in all individuals. Flexion of the urostyle began after day 18 PH and was completed by day 23 PH. Pectoral fins developed on day 7 PH, pelvic fins begin to develop by day 44 PH and the formation of caudal, dorsal and anal fin was complete by day 48 PH, when individuals presented the full set of soft rays. Understanding its early development is particularly valuable in assessing the environmental impacts on this endangered species and is essential for its effective monitoring and conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity in Karst Landscapes)
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Article
Gene Transfer Agent g5 Gene Reveals Bipolar and Endemic Distribution of Roseobacter Clade Members in Polar Coastal Seawater
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050392 - 14 May 2022
Viewed by 554
Abstract
The Roseobacter clade represents one of the most abundant groups of marine bacteria and plays important biogeochemical roles in marine environments. Roseobacter genomes commonly contain a conserved gene transfer agent (GTA) gene cluster. A major capsid protein-encoding GTA (g5) has been [...] Read more.
The Roseobacter clade represents one of the most abundant groups of marine bacteria and plays important biogeochemical roles in marine environments. Roseobacter genomes commonly contain a conserved gene transfer agent (GTA) gene cluster. A major capsid protein-encoding GTA (g5) has been used as a genetic marker to estimate the diversity of marine roseobacters. Here, the diversity of roseobacters in the coastal seawater of Arctic Kongsfjorden and Antarctic Maxwell Bay was investigated based on g5 gene clone library analysis. Four g5 gene clone libraries were constructed from microbial assemblages representing Arctic and Antarctic regions. The genus Phaeobacter was exclusively detected in Arctic seawater, whereas the genera Jannaschia, Litoreibacter and Pacificibacter were only observed in Antarctic seawater. More diverse genera within the Roseobacter clade were observed in Antarctic clones than in Arctic clones. The genera Sulfitobacter, Loktanella and Yoonia were dominant (higher than 10% of total clones) in both Arctic and Antarctic samples, implying their roles in polar marine environments. The results not only indicated a bipolar or even global distribution of roseobacters in marine environments but also showed their endemic distribution either in the Arctic or Antarctic. Endemic phylotypes were more frequently observed in polar regions than cosmopolitan phylotypes. In addition, endemic phylotypes were more abundant in Arctic samples (84.8% of Arctic sequences) than in Antarctic samples (54.3% of Antarctic sequences). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Nearshore Biodiversity)
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Article
Effects of Bamboo Forest Type and Density on the Growth of Bletilla striata and Root Endophytic Fungi
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050391 - 14 May 2022
Viewed by 627
Abstract
Bletilla striata is a terrestrial orchid with high ornamental and medicinal values that is widely interplanted in bamboo forests. However, little is known about the effects of bamboo forest type and density on the growth of B. striata and its symbiotic relationship with [...] Read more.
Bletilla striata is a terrestrial orchid with high ornamental and medicinal values that is widely interplanted in bamboo forests. However, little is known about the effects of bamboo forest type and density on the growth of B. striata and its symbiotic relationship with root endophytic fungi. In this study, the growth state of B. striata, the community composition and diversity of its root endophytic fungal, and the fungal nutritional function were investigated in Phyllostachys edulis, P. iridescens and P. glauca forests with three densities. We found that the type and density of the bamboo forest had significant effects on the growth of B. striata, with the biomass, leaf width, root quantity and width being the highest in the low-density of the P. edulis forest. The community composition and abundance of root endophytic fungi in B. striata varied among different bamboo forests and densities, with P. edulis and P. iridescens forests dominated by Basidiomycota and Serendipita, while P. glauca prevailed by Ascomycota and Dactylonectria. The trophic modes of root endophytic fungi were also affected by forest types and densities. The abundance of symbiotroph fungi was the highest in P. edulis and P. iridescens forests and greatly varied with density gradient, and saprotrophic fungi comprised the highest proportion in the Ph. glauca forest. These results provide basic data for further research and the configuration between bamboo species and terrestrial orchids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecology, Evolution and Diversity of Plants)
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Article
Molecular Identification and Novel Mitochondrial COI Gene Haplotypes of Nesting Kemp’s Ridley Turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) in Rancho Nuevo Sanctuary, Mexico
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050390 - 14 May 2022
Viewed by 911
Abstract
One hundred new COI sequences of nesting female Kemp’s ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) were obtained in the Rancho Nuevo Sanctuary (RNS). The COI sequences were analyzed and contrasted with others retrieved from BOLD and GenBank with the aim of investigating genetic [...] Read more.
One hundred new COI sequences of nesting female Kemp’s ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) were obtained in the Rancho Nuevo Sanctuary (RNS). The COI sequences were analyzed and contrasted with others retrieved from BOLD and GenBank with the aim of investigating genetic variability, genetic divergence, and haplotypes of the nesting female population at RNS. Four new COI haplotypes for Kemp’s ridley were described; two are redundant with (LK-RN01) 97 and (LK-COI-01) 17 specimens belonging to the RNS and other localities, respectively. Nucleotide (0.00052) and haplotype (0.303) diversity showed low and conserved COI values The fixation index (FST) between these main redundant haplotypes showed a high degree of differentiation with ~1. Genetic divergence clearly demonstrated two different Kemp’s ridley nesting populations, one from RNS and a second outside Mexico. Phylogenetic COI analysis was useful to differentiate these redundant (LK-COI-01 and RNS LK-RN01) haplotypes and, therefore, these different Kemp’s ridley populations. In addition, phylogenetic COI analysis clearly separates Kemp’s ridley turtles from other sea turtle species, supporting its use as a barcode marker. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reproductive Biology and Molecular Ecology of Turtles)
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Article
Diatom Red List Species Reveal High Conservation Value and Vulnerability of Mountain Lakes
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050389 - 14 May 2022
Viewed by 570
Abstract
Mountain lakes are unique and often isolated freshwater habitats that harbour a rich biotic diversity. This high conservation value may be reflected by diatoms, a group of algae that is known for its reliability as a bioindicator, but which has not been studied [...] Read more.
Mountain lakes are unique and often isolated freshwater habitats that harbour a rich biotic diversity. This high conservation value may be reflected by diatoms, a group of algae that is known for its reliability as a bioindicator, but which has not been studied extensively in mountain lakes of the northern European Alps. In this study, the conservation value of these lakes was assessed by characterizing the number, share, and abundance of diatom Red List (RL) taxa and their relationship with environmental variables, diatom α and β diversity (assemblage uniqueness). For this purpose, linear regression models, generalized linear models, and generalized additive models were fitted and spatial descriptors were included when relevant. Of the 560 diatom taxa identified, 64% were on the RL and half of these were assigned a threat status. As hypothesized, a decreasing share of RL species in sediment and littoral samples at higher trophic levels was reflected by higher total phosphorous content and lower Secchi depth, respectively. Species-rich lakes contained a high number of RL taxa, contrasting our hypothesis of a logarithmic relationship. In turn, RL abundance increased with uniqueness, confirming our initial hypothesis. However, some of the most unique sites were degraded by fish stocking and contained low abundances of RL species. The results demonstrate the importance of oligotrophic mountain lakes as habitats for rare freshwater biota and their vulnerability in light of human impact through cattle herding, tourism, damming, and fish stocking. Additional conservation efforts are urgently needed for mountain lakes that are still underrepresented within legal conservation frameworks. Species richness and uniqueness reflect complementary aspects of RL status and thus should be applied jointly. Uniqueness can indicate both pristine and degraded habitats, so that including information on human impacts facilitates its interpretation. Full article
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Article
Bioprospecting of Plant Growth-Promoting Traits of Pseudomonas sp. Strain C3 Isolated from the Atacama Desert: Molecular and Culture-Based Analysis
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050388 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 564
Abstract
Soil microorganisms that inhabit extreme environments have unique metabolic capacities and/or physical structures that allow them to survive in oligotrophic conditions. The bioprospecting of unknown bacteria in the context of current advances in genome mining is fundamental for the discovery of natural products [...] Read more.
Soil microorganisms that inhabit extreme environments have unique metabolic capacities and/or physical structures that allow them to survive in oligotrophic conditions. The bioprospecting of unknown bacteria in the context of current advances in genome mining is fundamental for the discovery of natural products with novel properties or applications. In this study, the plant growth-promoting and biocontrol traits of a Pseudomonas isolated from soil associated with plants from the Atacama Desert were characterized by whole-genome sequencing and in vitro assays. A high-quality genome draft of Pseudomonas sp. isolate C3 was obtained. An automated biosynthetic gene cluster analysis using antiSMASH 6.0 revealed the presence of a cluster of genes for the biosynthesis, regulation, and transport of the metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, which showed a high protein sequence identity (>89%) with a validated orthologous gene cluster from another Pseudomonas. In addition, via an in vitro assay, the biocontrol activity of Pseudomonas sp. isolate C3 against Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia fructicola, Phytium sp., Alternaria sp., Geotrichum candidum, and Fusarium oxysporum was corroborated. Finally, through KofamKOALA, the presence of genes involved in different metabolic pathways of plant growth-promoting traits was identified, which was corroborated by in vitro assays. This study provides information obtained from genomic analyses and culture tools on a bacterial isolate from the Atacama Desert characterized by plant growth-promoting capacities and biocontrol activity. Full article
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Review
Invasive Alien Plant Species—Raising Awareness of a Threat to Biodiversity and Ecological Connectivity (EC) in the Adriatic-Ionian Region
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050387 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 1987
Abstract
Improving ecological connectivity (EC) within landscapes by establishing corridors and ecological networks has been proposed to counteract the negative effects of habitat fragmentation and climate change on biodiversity. To be functional, ecological networks should be kept free of opportunistic invasive species that can [...] Read more.
Improving ecological connectivity (EC) within landscapes by establishing corridors and ecological networks has been proposed to counteract the negative effects of habitat fragmentation and climate change on biodiversity. To be functional, ecological networks should be kept free of opportunistic invasive species that can disrupt EC between protected areas and cause biodiversity loss. The present study focused on perennial herbaceous species whose occurrence in the Adriatic-Ionian region has increased in the last two decades, namely common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus), Japanese knotweed (Reynoutria japonica), Bohemian knotweed (Reynoutria × bohemica), giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum), giant goldenrod (Solidago gigantea), Canadian goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), and Bermuda buttercup (Oxalis pes-caprae). All species have a high potential to spread in grasslands, abandoned agricultural fields, forest edges, and riparian areas and pose a significant threat to native plant communities and biodiversity. Restoring heavily infested sites is a major challenge because these perennial invaders are very persistent and tend to alter the soil environment in invaded habitats and prevent the recolonization of native plant communities. Therefore, early action should be taken to prevent the spread of these environmental weeds in ecological networks and protected areas with high conservation value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Ecology and Diversity)
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Article
Chaetarcturus cervicornis sp. n., a New Ross Sea Isopod of the Genus Chaetarcturus Brandt, 1990 (Crustacea, Malacostraca)
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050386 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 549
Abstract
In the framework of the PNRA (Italian National Antarctic Research Program) project CARBONANT focusing on biogenic carbonates and held in January–February 2002, several Ross Sea banks were sampled to obtain samples of biogenic carbonates. In the Mawson Bank, species belonging to the isopod [...] Read more.
In the framework of the PNRA (Italian National Antarctic Research Program) project CARBONANT focusing on biogenic carbonates and held in January–February 2002, several Ross Sea banks were sampled to obtain samples of biogenic carbonates. In the Mawson Bank, species belonging to the isopod genus Chaetarcturus Brandt, 1990 were recorded, including a specimen that did not match any described species. In this paper we describe Chaetarcturus cervicornis sp. n., which is characterized by supraocular spines and two pairs of tubercle-like protrusions on the cephalothorax. The new species is very similar to C. bovinus (Brandt & Wägele, 1988) and C. adareanus (Hodgson, 1902), but has a clearly different spine pattern. The study of the species of the genus Chaetarcturus in the Ross Sea contributes to increase our knowledge on the diversity of the Antarcturidae in the Southern Ocean. Ross Sea banks seem to hold an interesting and not-well-known fauna, deserving attention in future research. Full article
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Article
Co-Evaluation of Plant Leaf Nutrient Concentrations and Resorption in Response to Fertilization under Different Nutrient-Limited Conditions
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050385 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 506
Abstract
Plant leaf nutrient concentrations and resorption are sensitive to fertilization, yet their co-responses under different nutrient-limited conditions have not been well studied. We conducted a meta-analysis from a global dataset of 43 reports, including 130 observations of studies with plant leaf nitrogen (N) [...] Read more.
Plant leaf nutrient concentrations and resorption are sensitive to fertilization, yet their co-responses under different nutrient-limited conditions have not been well studied. We conducted a meta-analysis from a global dataset of 43 reports, including 130 observations of studies with plant leaf nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) concentrations and nitrogen resorption efficiency (NRE) or phosphorus resorption efficiency (PRE), in response to fertilization under different nutrient-limited conditions divided by the thresholds of leaf N:P ratio values of 10 and 20. The results showed that N fertilization generally increased leaf N concentration and decreased NRE, with greater magnitudes under N-limited conditions. P fertilization also generally increased leaf P concentration and decreased PRE, with greater magnitudes under P-limited conditions. N fertilization decreased leaf P concentration and increased PRE only under the N-limited condition. Under the P-limited or N and P co-limited conditions, however, N fertilization increased leaf P concentration and did not change PRE. Moreover, P fertilization did not change leaf N concentration under all nutrient-limited conditions but significantly increased NRE under the N-limited or N and P co-limited conditions. These findings suggest that plants cope with fertilization-induced N limitation vs. P limitation at the leaf level with different nutrient-use strategies. Full article
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