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Molecules, Volume 24, Issue 20 (October-2 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Widely Targeted Metabolomics Analysis Reveals the Effect of Flooding Stress on the Synthesis of Flavonoids in Chrysanthemum morifolium
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3695; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203695 (registering DOI) - 14 Oct 2019
Abstract
Chrysanthemum morifolium. cv “Hangju” is an important medicinal material with many functions in China. Flavonoids as the main secondary metabolites are a major class of medicinal components in “Hangju” and its composition and content can change significantly after flooding. This study mimicked [...] Read more.
Chrysanthemum morifolium. cv “Hangju” is an important medicinal material with many functions in China. Flavonoids as the main secondary metabolites are a major class of medicinal components in “Hangju” and its composition and content can change significantly after flooding. This study mimicked the flooding stress of “Hangju” during flower bud differentiation and detected its metabolites in different growth stages. From widely targeted metabolomics data, 661 metabolites were detected, of which 46 differential metabolites exist simultaneously in the different growth stages of “Hangju”. The top three types of the 46 differential metabolites were flavone C-glycosides, flavonol and flavone. Our results demonstrated that the accumulation of flavonoids in different growth stages of “Hangju” was different; however, quercetin, eriodictyol and most of the flavone C-glycosides were significantly enhanced in the two stages after flooding stress. The expression of key enzyme genes in the flavonoid synthesis pathway were determined using RT-qPCR, which verified the consistency of the expression levels of CHI, F3H, DFR and ANS with the content of the corresponding flavonoids. A regulatory network of flavonoid biosynthesis was established to illustrate that flooding stress can change the accumulation of flavonoids by affecting the expression of the corresponding key enzymes in the flavonoid synthesis pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview
Manipulating Enzymes Properties with DNA Nanostructures
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3694; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203694 (registering DOI) - 14 Oct 2019
Abstract
Nucleic acids and proteins are two major classes of biopolymers in living systems. Whereas nucleic acids are characterized by robust molecular recognition properties, essential for the reliable storage and transmission of the genetic information, the variability of structures displayed by proteins and their [...] Read more.
Nucleic acids and proteins are two major classes of biopolymers in living systems. Whereas nucleic acids are characterized by robust molecular recognition properties, essential for the reliable storage and transmission of the genetic information, the variability of structures displayed by proteins and their adaptability to the environment make them ideal functional materials. One of the major goals of DNA nanotechnology—and indeed its initial motivation—is to bridge these two worlds in a rational fashion. Combining the predictable base-pairing rule of DNA with chemical conjugation strategies and modern protein engineering methods has enabled the realization of complex DNA-protein architectures with programmable structural features and intriguing functionalities. In this review, we will focus on a special class of biohybrid structures, characterized by one or many enzyme molecules linked to a DNA scaffold with nanometer-scale precision. After an initial survey of the most important methods for coupling DNA oligomers to proteins, we will report the strategies adopted until now for organizing these conjugates in a predictable spatial arrangement. The major focus of this review will be on the consequences of such manipulations on the binding and kinetic properties of single enzymes and enzyme complexes: an interesting aspect of artificial DNA-enzyme hybrids, often reported in the literature, however, not yet entirely understood and whose full comprehension may open the way to new opportunities in protein science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Trend in DNA Nanotechnology)
Open AccessReview
Metabolism, Transport and Drug–Drug Interactions of Silymarin
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3693; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203693 (registering DOI) - 14 Oct 2019
Abstract
Silymarin, the extract of milk thistle, and its major active flavonolignan silybin, are common products widely used in the phytotherapy of liver diseases. They also have promising effects in protecting the pancreas, kidney, myocardium, and the central nervous system. However, inconsistent results are [...] Read more.
Silymarin, the extract of milk thistle, and its major active flavonolignan silybin, are common products widely used in the phytotherapy of liver diseases. They also have promising effects in protecting the pancreas, kidney, myocardium, and the central nervous system. However, inconsistent results are noted in the different clinical studies due to the low bioavailability of silymarin. Extensive studies were conducted to explore the metabolism and transport of silymarin/silybin as well as the impact of its consumption on the pharmacokinetics of other clinical drugs. Here, we aimed to summarize and highlight the current knowledge of the metabolism and transport of silymarin. It was concluded that the major efflux transporters of silybin are multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) based on results from the transporter-overexpressing cell lines and MRP2-deficient (TR-) rats. Nevertheless, compounds that inhibit the efflux transporters MRP2 and BCRP can enhance the absorption and activity of silybin. Although silymarin does inhibit certain drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters, such effects are unlikely to manifest in clinical settings. Overall, silymarin is a safe and well-tolerated phytomedicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silymarin and Derivatives: From Biosynthesis to Health Benefits)
Open AccessArticle
Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Three Monosaccharide Monomyristate Derivatives
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3692; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203692 (registering DOI) - 14 Oct 2019
Abstract
Microbial infections remains a serious challenge in food industries due to their resistance to some of the well-known antibacterial and antifungal agents. In this work, a novel monomyristoyl ester (fructosyl monomyristate) and two other derivatives (i.e., glucosyl and galactosyl monomyristates) were successfully synthesized [...] Read more.
Microbial infections remains a serious challenge in food industries due to their resistance to some of the well-known antibacterial and antifungal agents. In this work, a novel monomyristoyl ester (fructosyl monomyristate) and two other derivatives (i.e., glucosyl and galactosyl monomyristates) were successfully synthesized from myristic acid and monosaccharides in two-step reactions. First, the myristic acid was converted to myristoyl chloride, and then the myristoyl chloride was reacted with fructose, glucose and galactose separately to produce the corresponding monosaccharide monomyristate derivatives. The structures of the synthesized products were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (1H- and 13C-NMR), and mass spectral (MS) data. The monomyristates esters were obtained in reaction yields of 45.80%–79.49%. The esters were then evaluated for their antimicrobial activity using the disc diffusion test. It was found that the esters exhibited a medium antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria; however, they showed a weak antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria. Amongst the esters, galactosyl myristate yielded the highest antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, while glucosyl monomyristate exhibited the highest antibacterial activity only against Escherichia coli. Additionally, all products showed remarkable antifungal activity against Candida albicans. These findings demonstrate that monosaccharide monomyristate derivatives are promising for use as biocompatible antimicrobial agents in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Organic Synthesis to Bioactive Compounds)
Open AccessArticle
Detection of Several Homologous MicroRNAs by a Single Smart Probe System Consisting of Linear Nucleic Acid Blockers
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3691; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203691 (registering DOI) - 14 Oct 2019
Abstract
We report a universal smart probe (SP) that is capable of detecting several homologous let-7 microRNAs (miRNAs). While the SP is complementary to let-7a, and therefore, strongly binds to this target, due to sequence homology, the SP also has equal propensity to non-specifically [...] Read more.
We report a universal smart probe (SP) that is capable of detecting several homologous let-7 microRNAs (miRNAs). While the SP is complementary to let-7a, and therefore, strongly binds to this target, due to sequence homology, the SP also has equal propensity to non-specifically hybridize with let-7b and let-7c, which are homologous to let-7a. The fluorescence signal of the SP was switched off in the absence of any homologous member target, but the signal was switched on when any of the three homologous members was present. With the assistance of nucleic acid blockers (NABs), this SP system can discriminate between homologous miRNAs. We show that the SP can discriminate between let-7a and the other two sequences by using linear NABs (LNABs) to block non-specific interactions between the SP and these sequences. We also found that LNABs used do not cross-react with the let-7a target due to the low LNABs:SP molar ratio of 6:1 used. Overall, this SP represents a universal probe for the recognition of a homologous miRNA family. The assay is sensitive, providing a detection limit of 6 fmol. The approach is simple, fast, usable at room temperature, and represents a general platform for the in vitro detection of homologous microRNAs by a single fluorescent hairpin probe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Probes for Protein and Nucleic Acid Detection)
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Open AccessArticle
Study of the Intrinsic Fluorescence of a Highly Branched Cationic Dendrimer, Poly(Ethyleneimine) (PEI)
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3690; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203690 (registering DOI) - 14 Oct 2019
Abstract
Poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) is a weakly basic, synthetic, polycationic polymer, due to the presence of primary, secondary, and tertiary amino groups. The amino groups are responsible for the variety of applications of PEI (e.g., transfection, bioimaging, solar cell, etc.). Our study presents some new [...] Read more.
Poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) is a weakly basic, synthetic, polycationic polymer, due to the presence of primary, secondary, and tertiary amino groups. The amino groups are responsible for the variety of applications of PEI (e.g., transfection, bioimaging, solar cell, etc.). Our study presents some new and reproducible methods for the quantification of molecular or mass concentration of highly branched PEI of different molecular weights (800–2000–25,000–750,000 MW PEI). In the course of the direct method, spectrophotometry and fluorometry were applied to determine the absorption and fluorescence of PEI dilution series. An increase in the MW at the same concentration produces a higher count number because of the higher number of amino groups in PEI molecules. The character of increment in fluorescence intensity is essentially different in the case of mass concentrations and molar concentrations. The increment of the fluorescence intensity related to the molar concentration is non-linear. In the case of mass concentration, the slope is linear. Moreover, their fluorescence is enhanced with the decrease in pH values. The spectrophotometry is a reliable method for measuring the quantity of PEI molecules in solution. Our data help in recognizing the detailed properties of PEI in dendrimer research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Green Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Ellagic Acid Recovery by Solid State Fermentation of Pomegranate Wastes by Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A Comparison
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3689; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203689 (registering DOI) - 14 Oct 2019
Abstract
Fermentation in solid state culture (SSC) has been the focus of increasing interest because of its potential for industrial applications. In previous studies SSC of pomegranate wastes by Aspergillus niger has been extensively developed and optimized for the recovery of ellagic acid (EA), [...] Read more.
Fermentation in solid state culture (SSC) has been the focus of increasing interest because of its potential for industrial applications. In previous studies SSC of pomegranate wastes by Aspergillus niger has been extensively developed and optimized for the recovery of ellagic acid (EA), a high value bioactive. In this study we comparatively investigated the SSC of powdered pomegranate husks by A. niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and evaluated the recovery yields of EA by an ultrasound and microwave-assisted 7:3 water/ethanol extraction. Surprisingly enough, the yields obtained by S. cerevisiae fermentation (4% w/w) were found 5-fold higher than those of the A. niger fermented material, with a 10-fold increase with respect to the unfermented material. The EA origin was traced by HPLC analysis that showed a significant decrease in the levels of punicalagin isomers and granatin B and formation of punicalin following fermentation. Other extraction conditions that could warrant a complete solubilization of EA were evaluated. Using a 1:100 solid to solvent ratio and DMSO as the solvent, EA was obtained in 4% yields from S. cerevisiae fermented husks at a high purity degree. Hydrolytic treatment of S. cerevisiae fermented pomegranate husks afforded a material freed of the polysaccharides components that gave recovery yields of EA up to 12% w/w. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives from Bioprocessing: Sources and Production)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Advances in the Interpretation of Frequency-Dependent Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements from Porous Material
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3688; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203688 - 14 Oct 2019
Abstract
Fast-field-cycling nuclear magnetic resonance (FFC-NMR) is a powerful technique for non-destructively probing the properties of fluids contained within the pores of porous materials. FFC-NMR measures the spin–lattice relaxation rate R1(f) as a function of NMR frequency f over the [...] Read more.
Fast-field-cycling nuclear magnetic resonance (FFC-NMR) is a powerful technique for non-destructively probing the properties of fluids contained within the pores of porous materials. FFC-NMR measures the spin–lattice relaxation rate R 1 ( f ) as a function of NMR frequency f over the kHz to MHz range. The shape and magnitude of the R 1 ( f ) dispersion curve is exquisitely sensitive to the relative motion of pairs of spins over time scales of picoseconds to microseconds. To extract information on the nano-scale dynamics of spins, it is necessary to identify a model that describes the relative motion of pairs of spins, to translate the model dynamics to a prediction of R 1 ( f ) and then to fit to the experimental dispersion. The principles underpinning one such model, the 3 τ model, are described here. We present a new fitting package using the 3 τ model, called 3TM, that allows users to achieve excellent fits to experimental relaxation rates over the full frequency range to yield five material properties and much additional derived information. 3TM is demonstrated on historic data for mortar and plaster paste samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Porous Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Role of Charge Transfer in the Formation of Type I Deep Eutectic Solvent-Analogous Ionic Liquid Mixtures
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3687; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203687 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 92
Abstract
It was recently shown that tetramethylammonium chloride presented negative deviations to ideality when mixed with tetraethylammonium chloride or tetrapropylammonium chloride, leading to a strong decrease of the melting points of these salt mixtures, in a behavior akin to that observed in the formation [...] Read more.
It was recently shown that tetramethylammonium chloride presented negative deviations to ideality when mixed with tetraethylammonium chloride or tetrapropylammonium chloride, leading to a strong decrease of the melting points of these salt mixtures, in a behavior akin to that observed in the formation of deep eutectic solvents. To better rationalize this unexpected melting point depression between two structurally similar compounds devoid of dominant hydrogen bonding capability, new solid–liquid equilibria data for tetramethylammonium-based systems were measured and analyzed in this work. Molecular dynamics was used to show that the strong negative deviations from ideality presented by these systems arise from a synergetic share of the chloride ions. A transfer of chloride ions seems to occur from the bigger cation in the mixture (which possesses a more disperse charge) to the smaller cation (tetramethylammonium), resembling the formation of metal–chloride complexes in type I deep eutectic solvents. This rearrangement of the charged species leads to an energetic stabilization of both components in the mixture, inducing the negative deviations to the ideality observed. The conclusions presented herein emphasize the often-neglected contribution of charge delocalization in deep eutectic solvents formation and its applicability toward the design of new ionic liquid mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Eutectic Solvents)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation on the Antifungal Ingredients of Saccharothrix Yanglingensis Hhs.015, an Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycete Isolated from Cucumber Plant
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3686; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203686 - 13 Oct 2019
Viewed by 151
Abstract
Abstract: Apple tree canker infected by Valsa mali var. mali is a serious and widely distributed disease in China. Saccharothrix yanglingensis Hhs.015 is an endophytic actinomycete isolated from cucumber roots, and it has been proven that this strain is a promising [...] Read more.
Abstract: Apple tree canker infected by Valsa mali var. mali is a serious and widely distributed disease in China. Saccharothrix yanglingensis Hhs.015 is an endophytic actinomycete isolated from cucumber roots, and it has been proven that this strain is a promising biocontrol agent on apple tree canker in previous studies. The aim of this study was to elucidate the active ingredients in its metabolites. Two pentaene macrolides, WH01 and WH02, were isolated from strain Hhs.015, and their structures were elucidated based on the extensive spectroscopic analysis. WH01 and WH02 were identified as fungichromin and 1′-deoxyfungichromin, among which WH02 is a novel compound. These two compounds showed strong in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity against V. mali. By comparison of the structures of hyphae cells treated by pure compound and fermentation broth, it has been proven that pentaene macrolides are the main active ingredients in the metabolites of strain Hhs.015. This is the first report on the antifungal activity of fungichromin and its analogs on V. mali, and the 28-member pentaene macrolides were also firstly isolated from the genus of Saccharothrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
Open AccessArticle
Adsorption of Azo Dye Methyl Orange from Aqueous Solutions Using Alkali-Activated Polypyrrole-Based Graphene Oxide
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3685; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203685 - 13 Oct 2019
Viewed by 143
Abstract
The adsorption of methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solutions onto a KOH-activated polypyrrole-based adsorbent (PACK) was investigated using batch and fixed-bed column techniques. The structural, thermal, and morphological properties of the PACK, analyzed by various methods, support its applicability as an adsorbent. An [...] Read more.
The adsorption of methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solutions onto a KOH-activated polypyrrole-based adsorbent (PACK) was investigated using batch and fixed-bed column techniques. The structural, thermal, and morphological properties of the PACK, analyzed by various methods, support its applicability as an adsorbent. An adsorption kinetic study revealed a preferably pseudo-second-order (R2 = 0.9996) and rate-limiting step controlled by both film and intra-particle diffusions. The thermodynamic adsorption tests resulted in negative ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS° values, which decreased as the temperature and concentration increased, indicating the spontaneous and exothermic adsorption over 25–45 °C. The adsorption isotherms fit the experimental data in the order of Langmuir ≈ Freundlich > Temkin, with evidence of adsorption operating well via the monolayer physical adsorption process, and maximum monolayer adsorption ranging from 520.8 to 497.5 mg/g. The breakthrough curve of the fixed-bed column experiment was modeled using the Thomas, Yoon–Nelson, and Hill models, resulting in an equilibrium capacity of 57.21 mg/g. A 73% MO recovery was achieved, indicating the possibility of column regeneration. Compared to other adsorbents reported, PACK had comparable or even superior capacity toward MO. For cost-effectiveness, similar nitrogen-containing polymeric wastes could be exploited to obtain such excellent materials for various applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quality Evaluation of Mahonia bealei (Fort.) Carr. Using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography with Chemical Pattern Recognition
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3684; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203684 - 13 Oct 2019
Viewed by 166
Abstract
Mahonia bealei (Fort.) Carr. (M. bealei) plays an important role in the treatment of many diseases. In the present study, a comprehensive method combining supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) fingerprints and chemical pattern recognition (CPR) for quality evaluation of M. bealei was [...] Read more.
Mahonia bealei (Fort.) Carr. (M. bealei) plays an important role in the treatment of many diseases. In the present study, a comprehensive method combining supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) fingerprints and chemical pattern recognition (CPR) for quality evaluation of M. bealei was developed. Similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to classify and evaluate the samples of wild M. bealei, cultivated M. bealei and its substitutes according to the peak area of 11 components but an accurate classification could not be achieved. PLS-DA was then adopted to select the characteristic variables based on variable importance in projection (VIP) values that responsible for accurate classification. Six characteristics peaks with higher VIP values (≥1) were selected for building the CPR model. Based on the six variables, three types of samples were accurately classified into three related clusters. The model was further validated by a testing set samples and predication set samples. The results indicated the model was successfully established and predictive ability was also verified satisfactory. The established model demonstrated that the developed SFC coupled with PLS-DA method showed a great potential application for quality assessment of M. bealei. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
5-Fluorouracil—Complete Insight into Its Neutral and Ionised Forms
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3683; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203683 - 13 Oct 2019
Viewed by 147
Abstract
5-Fluorouracil (5FU), a common anti-cancer drug, occurs in four tautomeric forms and possesses two potential sites of both protonation and deprotonation. Tautomeric and resonance structures of the ionized forms of 5FU create the systems of connected equilibriums. Since there are contradictory reports on [...] Read more.
5-Fluorouracil (5FU), a common anti-cancer drug, occurs in four tautomeric forms and possesses two potential sites of both protonation and deprotonation. Tautomeric and resonance structures of the ionized forms of 5FU create the systems of connected equilibriums. Since there are contradictory reports on the ionized forms of 5FU in the literature, complex theoretical studies on neutral, protonated and deprotonated forms of 5FU, based on the broad spectrum of DFT methods, are presented. These indicate that the O4 oxygen is more willingly protonated than the O2 oxygen and the N1 nitrogen is more willingly deprotonated than the N3 nitrogen in a gas phase. Such preferences are due to advantageous charge delocalization of the respective ions, which is demonstrated by the NBO and ESP analyses. In an aqueous phase, stability differences between respective protonated and deprotonated forms of 5FU are significantly diminished due to the competition between the mesomeric effect and solvation. The calculated pKa values of the protonated, neutral and singly deprotonated 5FU indicate that 5FU does not exist in the protonated and double-deprotonated forms in the pH range of 0–14. The neutral form dominates below pH 8 and the N1 deprotonated form dominates above pH 8. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computational and Theoretical Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Proinflammatory Effects of IL-1β Combined with IL-17A Promoted Cartilage Degradation and Suppressed Genes Associated with Cartilage Matrix Synthesis In Vitro
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3682; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203682 - 13 Oct 2019
Viewed by 189
Abstract
Combinations of IL-1β and other proinflammatory cytokines reportedly promote the severity of arthritis. We aimed to investigate the effects of IL-1β combined with IL-17A on cartilage degradation and synthesis in in vitro models. Cartilage explant degradation was determined using sulfated glycosaminoglycans (S-GAGs) levels, [...] Read more.
Combinations of IL-1β and other proinflammatory cytokines reportedly promote the severity of arthritis. We aimed to investigate the effects of IL-1β combined with IL-17A on cartilage degradation and synthesis in in vitro models. Cartilage explant degradation was determined using sulfated glycosaminoglycans (S-GAGs) levels, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP13) gene expression, uronic acid, and collagen contents. Cell morphology and accumulation of proteoglycans were evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin and safranin O staining, respectively. In the pellet culture model, expressions of cartilage-specific anabolic and catabolic genes were evaluated using real-time qRT-PCR. Early induction of MMP13 gene expression was found concomitantly with significant S-GAGs release. During the prolonged period, S-GAGs release was significantly elevated, while MMP-13 enzyme levels were persistently increased together with the reduction of the cartilaginous matrix molecules. The pellet culture showed anabolic gene downregulation, while expression of the proinflammatory cytokines, mediators, and MMP13 genes were elevated. After cytokine removal, these effects were restored to nearly basal levels. This study provides evidence that IL-1β combined with IL-17A promoted chronic inflammatory arthritis by activating the catabolic processes accompanied with the suppression of cartilage anabolism. These suggest that further applications, which suppress inflammatory enhancers, especially IL-17A, should be considered as a target for arthritis research and therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Molecular Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Relationship between the S1 Domain and Its Molecular Functions Derived from Studies of the Tertiary Structure
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3681; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203681 - 13 Oct 2019
Viewed by 166
Abstract
S1 domain, a structural variant of one of the “oldest” OB-folds (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding fold), is widespread in various proteins in three domains of life: Bacteria, Eukaryotes, and Archaea. In this study, it was shown that S1 domains of bacterial, eukaryotic, and archaeal proteins have [...] Read more.
S1 domain, a structural variant of one of the “oldest” OB-folds (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding fold), is widespread in various proteins in three domains of life: Bacteria, Eukaryotes, and Archaea. In this study, it was shown that S1 domains of bacterial, eukaryotic, and archaeal proteins have a low percentage of identity, which indicates the uniqueness of the scaffold and is associated with protein functions. Assessment of the predisposition of tertiary flexibility of S1 domains using computational and statistical tools showed similar structural features and revealed functional flexible regions that are potentially involved in the interaction of natural binding partners. In addition, we analyzed the relative number and distribution of S1 domains in all domains of life and established specific features based on sequences and structures associated with molecular functions. The results correlate with the presence of repeats of the S1 domain in proteins containing the S1 domain in the range from one (bacterial and archaeal) to 15 (eukaryotic) and, apparently, are associated with the need for individual proteins to increase the affinity and specificity of protein binding to ligands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Domains: Structures and Molecular Functions)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative In Vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial and Osteogenic Activity of Polysaccharide and Flavonoid Fractions Isolated from the leaves of Saussurea controversa
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3680; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203680 - 12 Oct 2019
Viewed by 137
Abstract
The osteogenic, cytotoxic, and antibacterial activities of polysaccharide (PS-SC) and flavonoid (F-SC) fractions isolated from the leaves extract of Saussurea controversa were studied in vitro. F-SC consists of the five quercetin glycosides in the ratio 2:8:10:1:4, which were isolated from the leaves extract [...] Read more.
The osteogenic, cytotoxic, and antibacterial activities of polysaccharide (PS-SC) and flavonoid (F-SC) fractions isolated from the leaves extract of Saussurea controversa were studied in vitro. F-SC consists of the five quercetin glycosides in the ratio 2:8:10:1:4, which were isolated from the leaves extract of S. controversa and have been characterized previously. PS-SC was first isolated from the leaves extract of S. controversa and has been described. PS-SC consists in 30 compounds is characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity with a heterogeneity index of 19.74. The Mw and Mn of PS-SC were 108.6 and 5.5 kDa, respectively. Structural fragments are represented by galactose, arabinose, xylose, glucose, uronic acids, mannose, and rhamnose in a 10.1:3.3:2.2:2.1:1.7:0.9:0.5 molar ratio. F-SC as compared with PS-SC showed in vitro microbicidal (50 g/L) and better bacteriostatic (6.25 g/L versus 25 g/L of PS-SC) effects against the 24-h growth of Staphylococcus aureus strain 209 P and a 21-day absence of cytotoxicity on human adipose-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMMSCs). Both fractions (PS-SC>F-SC) at doses of 10–50 mg/L stimulated differentiation of hAMMSCs into secreting osteoblasts accompanied by local mineralization of extracellular matrix. These fractions of S. controversa and especially F-SC, might be promising peroral drugs in the complex treatment of bone fractures and for prophylaxis of their infectious complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Herbal Medicine Research)
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Open AccessReview
Limonin: A Review of Its Pharmacology, Toxicity, and Pharmacokinetics
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3679; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203679 - 12 Oct 2019
Viewed by 121
Abstract
Limonin is a natural tetracyclic triterpenoid compound, which widely exists in Euodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth., Phellodendron chinense Schneid., and Coptis chinensis Franch. Its extensive pharmacological effects have attracted considerable attention in recent years. However, there is no systematic review focusing on the pharmacology, [...] Read more.
Limonin is a natural tetracyclic triterpenoid compound, which widely exists in Euodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth., Phellodendron chinense Schneid., and Coptis chinensis Franch. Its extensive pharmacological effects have attracted considerable attention in recent years. However, there is no systematic review focusing on the pharmacology, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics of limonin. Therefore, this review aimed to provide the latest information on the pharmacology, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics of limonin, exploring the therapeutic potential of this compound and looking for ways to improve efficacy and bioavailability. Limonin has a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, anti-bacterial and anti-virus, anti-oxidation, liver protection properties. However, limonin has also been shown to lead to hepatotoxicity, renal toxicity, and genetic damage. Moreover, limonin also has complex impacts on hepatic metabolic enzyme. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that limonin has poor bioavailability, and the reduction, hydrolysis, and methylation are the main metabolic pathways of limonin. We also found that the position and group of the substituents of limonin are key in affecting pharmacological activity and bioavailability. However, some issues still exist, such as the mechanism of antioxidant activity of limonin not being clear. In addition, there are few studies on the toxicity mechanism of limonin, and the effects of limonin concentration on pharmacological effects and toxicity are not clear, and no researchers have reported any ways in which to reduce the toxicity of limonin. Therefore, future research directions include the mechanism of antioxidant activity of limonin, how the concentration of limonin affects pharmacological effects and toxicity, finding ways to reduce the toxicity of limonin, and structural modification of limonin—one of the key methods necessary to enhance pharmacological activity and bioavailability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Biology)
Open AccessArticle
Cu(II)-Catalyzed Homocouplings of (Hetero)Arylboronic Acids with the Assistance of 2-O-Methyl-d-Glucopyranose
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3678; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203678 - 12 Oct 2019
Viewed by 111
Abstract
This is the first report of a natural ligand improving the copper-catalyzed homocouplings of (hetero)arylboronic acids. Various important synthetic biaryl intermediates in organic synthesis could be assembled via this method. To gain insight into this reaction, in situ React IR technology was used [...] Read more.
This is the first report of a natural ligand improving the copper-catalyzed homocouplings of (hetero)arylboronic acids. Various important synthetic biaryl intermediates in organic synthesis could be assembled via this method. To gain insight into this reaction, in situ React IR technology was used to confirm the effectivity of this catalyst system. This protocol could provide important biaryl compounds in high yields within a short time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Nitrogen-Doped Hierarchical Meso/Microporous Carbon from Bamboo Fungus for Symmetric Supercapacitor Applications
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3677; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203677 - 12 Oct 2019
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Abstract
We report the synthesis of nitrogen-doped hierarchical meso/microporous carbon using renewable biomass bamboo fungus as precursor via two-step pyrolysis processes. It is found that the developed porous carbon (NHPC-800) features honeycomb-like cellular framework with well-developed porosity, huge specific surface area (1708 m2 [...] Read more.
We report the synthesis of nitrogen-doped hierarchical meso/microporous carbon using renewable biomass bamboo fungus as precursor via two-step pyrolysis processes. It is found that the developed porous carbon (NHPC-800) features honeycomb-like cellular framework with well-developed porosity, huge specific surface area (1708 m2 g−1), appropriate nitrogen-doping level (3.2 at.%) and high mesopore percentage (25.5%), which are responsible for its remarkable supercapacitive performances. Electrochemical tests suggest that the NHPC-800 electrode offers the largest specific capacitance of 228 F g−1, asplendid rate capability and stable electrochemical behaviors in a traditional three-electrode system. Additionally, asymmetric supercapacitor device is built based on this product as well. An individual as-assembled supercapacitor of NHPC-800//NHPC-800 delivers the maximum energy density of 4.3 Wh kg−1; retains the majority of capacitanceat large current densities; and shows terrific cycling durability with negligible capacitance drop after long-term charge/discharge for beyond 10,000 cycles even at a high current density of 10 A g−1. These excellent supercapacitive properties of NHPC-800 in both three- and two-electrode setups outperform those of lots of biomass-derived porous carbons and thus make it a perspective candidate for producing cost-effective and high-performance supercapacitors Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Carbon Materials and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Evaluation of Pyrimidine Steroids as Antiproliferative Agents
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3676; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203676 - 12 Oct 2019
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Abstract
A small and focused library of steroidal non-fused and fused pyrimidines was prepared from pregnenolone acetate and diosgenin, respectively. The key step was the cycloaddition reaction of nitrogen-containing 1,3-binucleophiles with the steroidal α,β-unsaturated ketone. Urea, thiourea and guanidine reacted in a similar manner [...] Read more.
A small and focused library of steroidal non-fused and fused pyrimidines was prepared from pregnenolone acetate and diosgenin, respectively. The key step was the cycloaddition reaction of nitrogen-containing 1,3-binucleophiles with the steroidal α,β-unsaturated ketone. Urea, thiourea and guanidine reacted in a similar manner and afforded the steroidal pyrimidines in good yields. The antiproliferative tests against human tumor cell lines gave GI50 values in the micromolar range and had no effect on healthy fibroblasts. Additional experiments indicated that the compounds did not act as P-glycoprotein substrates, thus avoiding the rise of drug resistance. The fused steroidal pyrimidinethione was selected as drug lead for further testing due to its strong antiproliferative activities within the low micromolar range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Discovery of Novel Integrase Inhibitors Acting outside the Active Site Through High-Throughput Screening
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3675; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203675 - 12 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Currently, an increasing number of drugs are becoming available to clinics for the treatment of HIV infection. Even if this targeted therapy is highly effective at suppressing viral replication, caregivers are facing growing therapeutic failures in patients, due to resistance with or without [...] Read more.
Currently, an increasing number of drugs are becoming available to clinics for the treatment of HIV infection. Even if this targeted therapy is highly effective at suppressing viral replication, caregivers are facing growing therapeutic failures in patients, due to resistance with or without treatment adherence concerns. Accordingly, it is important to continue to discover small molecules that have a novel mechanism of inhibition. In this work, HIV integrase inhibitors were selected by high-throughput screening. Chemical structure comparisons enabled the identification of stilbene disulfonic acids as a potential new chemotype. Biochemical characterization of the lead compound stilbenavir (NSC34931) and a few derivatives was performed. Stilbene disulfonic acid derivatives exhibit low to sub-micromolar antiviral activity, and they inhibit integrase through DNA-binding inhibition. They probably bind to the C-terminal domain of integrase, in the cavity normally occupied by the noncleaved strand of the viral DNA substrate. Because of this original mode of action compared to active site strand transfer inhibitors, they do not exhibit cross-resistance to the three main resistance pathways to integrase inhibitors (G140S-Q148H, N155H, and Y143R). Further structure–activity optimization should enable the development of more active and less toxic derivatives with potential clinical relevance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in the Development of Enzyme Inhibitors)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Addition of Soluble Dietary Fiber and Green Tea Polyphenols on Acrylamide Formation and In Vitro Starch Digestibility in Baked Starchy Matrices
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3674; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203674 - 12 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Starch digestibility may be affected by food microstructural changes, as well as by specific interactions with some biomolecules, such as soluble dietary fibers (SDFs). It is well-known that acrylamide (AA) is a toxic and potentially carcinogenic compound formed in starchy food products processed [...] Read more.
Starch digestibility may be affected by food microstructural changes, as well as by specific interactions with some biomolecules, such as soluble dietary fibers (SDFs). It is well-known that acrylamide (AA) is a toxic and potentially carcinogenic compound formed in starchy food products processed at temperatures above 120 °C. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the addition of SDF and green tea polyphenols (GTP) on AA formation and in vitro starch digestibility in baked starchy matrices. The formulations were prepared using gluten and wheat starch, ensuring ~40 ± 2% (wet basis, w.b.) moisture in the doughs. In some samples, 7.5% (dry basis, d.b.) of starch was replaced with inulin (IN), polydextrose (PD) or partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG), and/or with GTP at 1% (d.b). Acrylamide was determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and the in vitro starch digestibility using the Englyst method. The GTP was able to reduce AA content by ~48%, and a combination of IN-GTP allowed it to be reduced by up to ~64%, revealing the lowest rapidly available glucose content (~17 mg/g glucose). While a PD-GTP mixture reduced the AA content by around ~57% and gave the highest unavailable glucose fraction (~74 mg/g glucose) compared to the control. This study showed how functional ingredients could be used to develop successfully healthier starchy bakery foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch in Food Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Cinnamil- and Quinoxaline-Derivative Indicator Dyes for Detecting Volatile Amines in Fish Spoilage
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3673; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203673 - 12 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Colorimetric indicators are versatile for applications such as intelligent packaging. By interacting with food, package headspace, and/or the ambient environment, color change in these indicators can be useful for reflecting the actual quality and/or monitoring distribution history (e.g., time and temperature) of food [...] Read more.
Colorimetric indicators are versatile for applications such as intelligent packaging. By interacting with food, package headspace, and/or the ambient environment, color change in these indicators can be useful for reflecting the actual quality and/or monitoring distribution history (e.g., time and temperature) of food products. In this study, indicator dyes based on cinnamil and quinoxaline derivatives were synthesized using aroma compounds commonly present in food: diacetyl, benzaldehyde, p-tolualdehyde and p-anisaldehyde. The identities of cinnamil and quinoxaline derivatives were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT–IR) spectroscopy, mass spectrometry (MS), 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 13C NMR analyses. Photophysical evaluation showed that the orange-colored cinnamil derivatives in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) turned to dark brownish coloration when exposed to strong alkalis. The cinnamil and acid-doped quinoxaline derivatives were sensitive to volatile amines commonly present during the spoilage in seafood. Quinoxaline derivatives doped by strong organic acid were effective as pH indicators for volatile amine detection, with lower detection limits than cinnamil. However, cinnamil exhibited more diverse color profiles than the quinoxaline indicators when exposed to ammonia, trimethylamine, triethylamine, dimethylamine, piperidine and hydrazine. Preliminary tests of acid-doped quinoxaline derivatives on fresh fish demonstrated their potential as freshness indicators in intelligent packaging applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Analytical Chemistry–Advance Instrumental Methods and Sensors)
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Open AccessReview
Cannabinoid Receptor Interacting Protein 1a (CRIP1a): Function and Structure
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3672; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203672 - 12 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Cannabinoid receptor interacting protein 1a (CRIP1a) is an important CB1 cannabinoid receptor-associated protein, first identified from a yeast two-hybrid screen to modulate CB1-mediated N-type Ca2+ currents. In this paper we review studies of CRIP1a function and structure based upon [...] Read more.
Cannabinoid receptor interacting protein 1a (CRIP1a) is an important CB1 cannabinoid receptor-associated protein, first identified from a yeast two-hybrid screen to modulate CB1-mediated N-type Ca2+ currents. In this paper we review studies of CRIP1a function and structure based upon in vitro experiments and computational chemistry, which elucidate the specific mechanisms for the interaction of CRIP1a with CB1 receptors. N18TG2 neuronal cells overexpressing or silencing CRIP1a highlighted the ability of CRIP1 to regulate cyclic adenosine 3′,5′monophosphate (cAMP) production and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. These studies indicated that CRIP1a attenuates the G protein signaling cascade through modulating which Gi/o subtypes interact with the CB1 receptor. CRIP1a also attenuates CB1 receptor internalization via β-arrestin, suggesting that CRIP1a competes for β-arrestin binding to the CB1 receptor. Predictions of CRIP1a secondary structure suggest that residues 34-110 are minimally necessary for association with key amino acids within the distal C-terminus of the CB1 receptor, as well as the mGlu8a metabotropic glutamate receptor. These interactions are disrupted through phosphorylation of serines and threonines in these regions. Through investigations of the function and structure of CRIP1a, new pharmacotherapies based upon the CRIP-CB1 receptor interaction can be designed to treat diseases such as epilepsy, motor dysfunctions and schizophrenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cannabinoids)
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Open AccessArticle
Sesquiterpenoids from Artemisia vestita and Their Antifeedant and Antifungal Activities
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3671; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203671 - 11 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Four new sesquiterpenoids, named artemivestinolide D–G (14) and three known sesquiterpenoids (57), were isolated from Artemisia vestita. The structures of these new compounds were determined based on extensive spectroscopic data analyses. Furthermore, the electronic circular [...] Read more.
Four new sesquiterpenoids, named artemivestinolide D–G (14) and three known sesquiterpenoids (57), were isolated from Artemisia vestita. The structures of these new compounds were determined based on extensive spectroscopic data analyses. Furthermore, the electronic circular dichroism data determined the absolute configurations of the new compounds. The antifeedant and antifungal activities of the isolates were evaluated against third-instar larvae of Plutella xylostella and three plant pathogenic fungi. Compounds 17 showed moderate antifeedant activities and compounds 14 and 67 exhibited antifungal activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Variations in Multiple Bioactive Constituents under Salt Stress Provide Insight into Quality Formation of Licorice
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3670; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203670 - 11 Oct 2019
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Abstract
The demand for licorice and its natural product derivatives in domestic and foreign market is considerably huge. The core production areas of licorice are covered with salinity and drought land in northwestern China. Studies have shown that suitable environmental stress can promote the [...] Read more.
The demand for licorice and its natural product derivatives in domestic and foreign market is considerably huge. The core production areas of licorice are covered with salinity and drought land in northwestern China. Studies have shown that suitable environmental stress can promote the accumulation of glycyrrhizin and liquiritin to improve its quality as medicinal materials. However, there are few reports on other bioactive constituents of licorice, not to mention their dynamic accumulation under stressed conditions. To explore the quality formation of licorice from the perspective of salt influence, a reliable method based on ultra-fast liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC–MS/MS) was established for simultaneous determination of sixteen bioactive constituents, including triterpenoids, flavonoids, chalcones and their glycosides. Physiological experiments were performed to investigate salt tolerance of licorice under different salinity treatments. The expressions of crucial genes (bAS and CHS), key enzymes of triterpenoid and flavonoid synthesis, were also tested by qRT-PCR. Our study found that 50 mM NaCl treatment (low stress) was the most favorable to promote the accumulation of bioactive constituents in the long term, without harming the plants. Flavonoid accumulation of non-stressed and low-stressed groups became different in the initial synthesis stage, and glycosyltransferases may have great influence on their downstream synthesis. Furthermore, bAS and CHS also showed higher levels in low-stressed licorice at harvest time. This work provides valuable information on dynamic variations in multiple bioactive constituents in licorice treated by salt and insight into its quality formation under stressed conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Food and Natural Product Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Formulation of a Mixture of Plant Extracts for Attenuating Postprandial Glycemia and Diet-Induced Disorders in Rats
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3669; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203669 - 11 Oct 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to design a mixture consisting of plant-derived preparations containing inhibitors of carbohydrate digestion and/or glucose absorption that could lower postprandial glycemia and attenuate dietary-induced disorders. The following standardized preparations were tested: white mulberry leaf extract, green coffee [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to design a mixture consisting of plant-derived preparations containing inhibitors of carbohydrate digestion and/or glucose absorption that could lower postprandial glycemia and attenuate dietary-induced disorders. The following standardized preparations were tested: white mulberry leaf extract, green coffee bean extract, white kidney bean extract, pomelo fruit extract, bitter melon fruit extract, and purified l-arabinose. The study design was composed of oral sucrose and starch tolerance tests in Wistar rats preceded by a single ingestion of the preparations or their mixtures. Then, a 20 week-long experiment was conducted on rats that were fed a high-fat diet and supplemented with the most effective mixture. Based on the results of the oral sucrose and starch tolerance tests, the mulberry leaf extract, l-arabinose, kidney bean extract, and coffee bean extract were selected for composing three mixtures. The most effective inhibition of postprandial glycemia in the oral tolerance tests was observed after the ingestion of a mixture of mulberry leaf, kidney bean, and coffee bean extract. The glucose-lowering effect of the mixture and its effective dosage was confirmed in the feeding experiment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Drug Side-Effect Prediction Via Random Walk on the Signed Heterogeneous Drug Network
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3668; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203668 - 11 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Drug side-effects have become a major public health concern as they are the underlying cause of over a million serious injuries and deaths each year. Therefore, it is of critical importance to detect side-effects as early as possible. Existing computational methods mainly utilize [...] Read more.
Drug side-effects have become a major public health concern as they are the underlying cause of over a million serious injuries and deaths each year. Therefore, it is of critical importance to detect side-effects as early as possible. Existing computational methods mainly utilize the drug chemical profile and the drug biological profile to predict the side-effects of a drug. In the utilized drug biological profile information, they only focus on drug–target interactions and neglect the modes of action of drugs on target proteins. In this paper, we develop a new method for predicting potential side-effects of drugs based on more comprehensive drug information in which the modes of action of drugs on target proteins are integrated. Drug information of multiple types is modeled as a signed heterogeneous information network. We propose a signed heterogeneous information network embedding framework for learning drug embeddings and predicting side-effects of drugs. We use two bias random walk procedures to obtain drug sequences and train a Skip-gram model to learn drug embeddings. We experimentally demonstrate the performance of the proposed method by comparison with state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, the results of a case study support our hypothesis that modes of action of drugs on target proteins are meaningful in side-effect prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Computing and Bioinformatics II)
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Open AccessArticle
Elucidation of the Interaction between Flavan-3-ols and Bovine Serum Albumin and Its Effect on Their In-Vitro Cytotoxicity
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3667; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203667 - 11 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Flavan-3-ols (FLs), specifically catechin and its oligomer B-type procyanidins, are suggested to potently bind to bovine serum albumin (BSA). We examined the interaction between BSA and FLs by fluorescence quenching and found the following order of binding activities to BSA: cinnamtannin A2 (A2; [...] Read more.
Flavan-3-ols (FLs), specifically catechin and its oligomer B-type procyanidins, are suggested to potently bind to bovine serum albumin (BSA). We examined the interaction between BSA and FLs by fluorescence quenching and found the following order of binding activities to BSA: cinnamtannin A2 (A2; tetramer) > procyanidin C1 (C1; trimer) ≈ procyanidin B2 (B2, dimer) > (−)epicatechin (EC, monomer). Docking simulations between BSA and each compound at the binding site showed that the calculated binding energies were consistent with the results of our experimental assay. FLs exerted cytotoxicity at 1000 μg/mL in F11 cell culture with fetal bovine serum containing BSA. In culture containing serum-free medium, FLs exhibited significant cell proliferation at 10−4 μg/mL and cytotoxicity was observed at concentrations greater than 10 μg/mL. Results of this study suggest that interactions between polyphenols and BSA should be taken into account when evaluating procyanidin in an in vitro cell culture system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Raman Spectroscopy for the Competition of Hydrogen Bonds in Ternary (H2O–THF–DMSO) Aqueous Solutions
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3666; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203666 - 11 Oct 2019
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Abstract
The effects of hydrogen bonds on the molecular structure of water-tetrahydrofuran (H2O–THF), water-dimethyl sulfoxide (H2O–DMSO), and water-tetrahydrofuran-dimethyl sulfoxide (H2O–THF–DMSO) in binary aqueous solutions and ternary aqueous solutions were studied using Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that in [...] Read more.
The effects of hydrogen bonds on the molecular structure of water-tetrahydrofuran (H2O–THF), water-dimethyl sulfoxide (H2O–DMSO), and water-tetrahydrofuran-dimethyl sulfoxide (H2O–THF–DMSO) in binary aqueous solutions and ternary aqueous solutions were studied using Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that in the binary aqueous solution, the addition of THF and DMSO will generate hydrogen bonds with water molecules, resulting in changes in the peak positions of S=O bonds and C–O bonds. Compared with the binary aqueous solutions, the hydrogen bonds between DMSO and THF, and the hydrogen bonds between DMSO and H2O in the ternary aqueous solutions are competitive, and the hydrogen bond competition is susceptible to water content. In addition, the formation of hydrogen bonds will destroy the fully hydrogen-bonded water and make it change to the partially hydrogen-bonded water. By fitting the spectra into the three Gaussian components assigned to water molecules with different hydrogen bonding (HB) environments, these spectral features are interpreted by a mechanism that H2O in different solution systems has equal types of water molecules with similar HB degrees-fully hydrogen-bonded H2O (FHW) and partially hydrogen-bonded H2O (PHW). The ratio of the intensity transition from FHW to PHW is determined based on Gaussian fitting. Therefore, the variation of hydrogen bond competition can be supplemented by the intensity ratio of PHW/FHW ((IC2 + IC3)/IC1). This study provides an experimental basis for enriching the hydrogen bonding theory of multivariate aqueous solution systems. Full article
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