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Open AccessArticle

Ivalin Induces Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis Associated with the NF-κB Activation in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma SMMC-7721 Cells

1
Marine college, Shandong University, Weihai 264209, China
2
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this study.
Academic Editor: Kyoko Nakagawa-Goto
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3809; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203809
Received: 6 September 2019 / Revised: 13 October 2019 / Accepted: 22 October 2019 / Published: 22 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antitumor and Anti-HIV Agents from Natural Products)
Ivalin, a natural compound isolated from Carpesium divaricatum, showed excellent microtubule depolymerization activities among human hepatocellular carcinoma in our previous work. Here, we investigated its functions on mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells. DAPI (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining, annexin V-fluorexcein isothiocyanate (FITC) apoptosis detection, and western blotting were applied to explore the apoptotic effect of Ivalin. Next, the induction effect of Ivalin on the mitochondrial pathway was also confirmed via a series of phenomena including the damage of mitochondria membrane potential, mitochondria cytochrome c escape, cleaved caspase-3 induction, and the reactive oxygen species generation. In this connection, we understood that Ivalin induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway and the overload of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, we found that the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and subsequent p53 induction were associated with the apoptotic effect of Ivalin. These data confirmed that Ivalin might be a promising pro-apoptotic compound that can be utilized as a potential drug for clinical treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ivalin; Carpesium divaricatum; hepatocellular carcinoma; mitochondria-mediated apoptosis; NF-κB Ivalin; Carpesium divaricatum; hepatocellular carcinoma; mitochondria-mediated apoptosis; NF-κB
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MDPI and ACS Style

Han, Z.; Liu, F.-y.; Lin, S.-q.; Zhang, C.-y.; Ma, J.-h.; Guo, C.; Jia, F.-j.; Zhang, Q.; Xie, W.-d.; Li, X. Ivalin Induces Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis Associated with the NF-κB Activation in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma SMMC-7721 Cells. Molecules 2019, 24, 3809. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203809

AMA Style

Han Z, Liu F-y, Lin S-q, Zhang C-y, Ma J-h, Guo C, Jia F-j, Zhang Q, Xie W-d, Li X. Ivalin Induces Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis Associated with the NF-κB Activation in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma SMMC-7721 Cells. Molecules. 2019; 24(20):3809. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203809

Chicago/Turabian Style

Han, Zhuo; Liu, Fang-yuan; Lin, Shi-qi; Zhang, Cai-yun; Ma, Jia-hui; Guo, Chao; Jia, Fu-juan; Zhang, Qian; Xie, Wei-dong; Li, Xia. 2019. "Ivalin Induces Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis Associated with the NF-κB Activation in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma SMMC-7721 Cells" Molecules 24, no. 20: 3809. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203809

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