Topic Editors

Prof. Dr. Yosoon Choi
Department of Energy Resources Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Korea
Dr. Sung-Min Kim
Department of Energy and Mineral Resources Engineering, Kangwon National University, Samcheok 25913, Korea

Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 December 2021)
Manuscript submission deadline
31 May 2022
Viewed by
19608

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The concept of sustainability is increasingly being incorporated into the mining industry because mining is an activity that predominantly involves consuming the Earth’s limited resources. The economic, environmental, and social impacts of mining on our society continue to increase and are important issues for both present and future generations. To identify, discuss and solve these issues, a multidisciplinary approach is required to integrate the technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of mining into decisions for sustainable development.

In this context, this Topic offers a framework for integrating interdisciplinary studies for sustainable mining. Topics of interest could include, but are not limited to:

  • Technical aspects for sustainable mining;
  • Sustainable management of mining operations;
  • Environmental impacts of mining;
  • Reforestation to restore mining areas;
  • Sustainable uses of land, energy, water and forest resources in mining areas;
  • Climate change and mining;
  • Emissions and carbon neutrality in the mining industry;
  • Recycling of mineral resources;
  • Economic aspects of mining;
  • Occupational health and safety;
  • Training and education;
  • Social aspects of mining on community life;
  • Corporate governance for sustainable mining;
  • Integrative models and frameworks for sustainable mining;
  • The Fourth Industrial Revolution and sustainable mining;
  • Future mining challenges.

Prof. Dr. Yosoon Choi
Dr. Sung-Min Kim
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • sustainability
  • sustainable mining
  • responsible mining
  • smart mining
  • renewables in mining
  • mine closures
  • mine reclamation
  • life cycle
  • carbon neutrality
  • climate change
  • community
  • economy
  • environment
  • safety
  • health
  • energy
  • water
  • The Fourth Industrial Revolution

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.679 3.0 2011 17.7 Days 2300 CHF Submit
Mining
mining
- - 2021 15.0 days * 1000 CHF Submit
Energies
energies
3.004 4.7 2008 17.8 Days 2200 CHF Submit
Forests
forests
2.634 3.3 2010 19.9 Days 2000 CHF Submit
Safety
safety
- 2.2 2015 42.1 Days 1600 CHF Submit

* Median value for all MDPI journals in the second half of 2021.

Published Papers (27 papers)

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Article
D-P-Transformer: A Distilling and Probsparse Self-Attention Rockburst Prediction Method
Energies 2022, 15(11), 3959; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15113959 - 27 May 2022
Abstract
Rockburst may cause damage to engineering equipment, disrupt construction progress, and endanger human life. To this day, the occurrence of rockburst remains complex and difficult to predict. This study proposes the D-P-Transformer algorithm to address this issue by improving the embedding structure of [...] Read more.
Rockburst may cause damage to engineering equipment, disrupt construction progress, and endanger human life. To this day, the occurrence of rockburst remains complex and difficult to predict. This study proposes the D-P-Transformer algorithm to address this issue by improving the embedding structure of the Transformer for specific applications to rockburst data. To reduce the computational requirement, sparse self-attention is adopted to replace self-attention. A distilling operation and multiple layer replicas are simultaneously used to enhance the robustness and speed up the algorithm’s process. Taking all relevant rockburst factors into consideration, multiple experiments are conducted on seven large-scale rockburst datasets with different training ratios to verify the reliability of the proposed D-P-Transformer rockburst prediction algorithm. As compared to the original algorithm, the proposed algorithm shows average reductions of 24.45%, 46.56%, 17.32%, and 48.11% in the mean absolute error (MAE), mean square error (MSE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), respectively. The results indicate that the novel D-P-Transformer rockburst prediction algorithm is superior to the Transformer prediction algorithm, and could be used for coal mine rockburst prediction analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
Multi-Parameter Analysis of Gas Losses Occurring during the Determination of Methane-Bearing Capacity in Hard Coal Beds
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3239; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093239 - 28 Apr 2022
Abstract
The content of natural methane in hard coal seams, called methane-bearing capacity, is the basic parameter that enables the level of methane hazard to be determined in hard coal mines. This parameter is also used to determine the potential quantities of methane that [...] Read more.
The content of natural methane in hard coal seams, called methane-bearing capacity, is the basic parameter that enables the level of methane hazard to be determined in hard coal mines. This parameter is also used to determine the potential quantities of methane that can be collected and used for energy purposes and the amount of its harmful emission to the atmosphere. Direct methods are most often used to determine methane-bearing capacity. An important aspect that has a great influence on the final result of the research is the gas losses generated at the stage of sampling. Under the conditions of the Polish mining industry, the direct drill cuttings method is used to determine the methane-bearing capacity. Gas losses are compensated for in this method with the use of the coefficient 1.12, by which the obtained result is multiplied. In this paper, a multi-parameter analysis of gas loss in the determination of methane-bearing capacity in hard coal seams has been carried out. Several experiments were performed to identify the most important aspects to be taken into account to obtain a correct result. A methane-bearing capacity test was conducted using two direct methods: the direct drill cuttings method, otherwise known as the single-phase vacuum degassing method, and a method based on the United States Bureau of Mines standards. Sorption studies, such as methane sorption kinetics tests, were also conducted in which sorption properties, such as sorption capacity, effective diffusion coefficient, and half sorption time, were determined. Methane sorption isotherms were also determined, and pore structure was analysed. Based on the obtained test results, an analysis was carried out which made it possible to present appropriate conclusions concerning the gas losses during the methane-bearing capacity test, generated at the stage of sampling. The final result of the work was the proposal of a new gas loss coefficient for the direct drill cuttings method of methane-bearing capacity determination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
Estimation of the Turkish Boron Exportation to Europe
Mining 2022, 2(2), 155-169; https://doi.org/10.3390/mining2020009 - 23 Mar 2022
Abstract
Borate is an essential material to numerous industries and even to individual countries’ economies, defense, and politics. Almost all industries need borates for production, and almost everybody needs their products. Borate is a compound that contains or supplies boric oxide (B2O [...] Read more.
Borate is an essential material to numerous industries and even to individual countries’ economies, defense, and politics. Almost all industries need borates for production, and almost everybody needs their products. Borate is a compound that contains or supplies boric oxide (B2O3). Among the minerals that contain boric oxide, there are only four minerals significant from an economic standpoint, namely borax (tincal), colemanite, ulexite, and kernite. Turkey has almost 70% of all known reserves in the world. Therefore, borates and their products could be one of the main topics for sustainable development in the whole world. The recent development and pursuit of new boron-consuming technologies and alternative products to existing borate-consuming products introduce additional uncertainty to the sustainability of boron minerals. Therefore, the European Union (EU) Commission also declared borate one of the 30 critical raw materials. Turkey is a prosperous country in terms of boron reserves, and it exports almost 96% of borates’ production. In order to better understand the relation between borate minerals and borate products, a material flow analysis (MFA) study has been carried out within the content of this work in order to update the data about the current status of boron. For this purpose, a system has been established that shows the flow of boron material. The extraction, enrichment, and refining processes of boron products are drawn. The results indicate that about 41% of extracted colemanite ore is converted into refined borate, about 31% of tincal ore is converted to refined borate, and 4% of tincal ore is converted to end-usage products, such as detergent. The correctness of the data and the sensitivity of the processes are all estimated values. The results can help in the development of boron sustainability and boron production strategies. The MFA study on tincal and colemanite ore may be an example of boron studies in different countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
A Sensing Mechanism and the Application of a Surface-Bonded FBG Dynamometry Bolt
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 3225; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12073225 - 22 Mar 2022
Abstract
In the present paper, a new type of surface-bonded fiber Bragg grating (FBG) dynamometry bolt is designed. It is assumed that the adhesive layer is a linear viscoelastic material and its creep mechanical behavior is expressed by the standard linear solid model. The [...] Read more.
In the present paper, a new type of surface-bonded fiber Bragg grating (FBG) dynamometry bolt is designed. It is assumed that the adhesive layer is a linear viscoelastic material and its creep mechanical behavior is expressed by the standard linear solid model. The shear strain transfer model of the surface-bonded FBG sensor is established. Additionally, the instantaneous and quasistatic strain transfer functions of the surface-bonded FBG sensor are obtained. The functions are validated by a uniaxial tensile test and a long-term constant-load tensile test. The test results show that the strain measured by the FBG sensor has a proportional relationship with the strain measured by the resistance strain gauge. Furthermore, under the fixed load for a long period of time, the strain of the FBG sensor has a tendency to drift and the strain reduction rate is about 40.5%. Finally, the field application is carried out in a mining area. It has been proved that the ground pressure online monitoring system based on the FBG sensing technology can successfully monitor the stress of the rock bolt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
Integrated Artificial Neural Network and Discrete Event Simulation Framework for Regional Development of Refractory Gold Systems
Mining 2022, 2(1), 123-154; https://doi.org/10.3390/mining2010008 - 08 Mar 2022
Abstract
Mining trends in the gold sector indicate a growing imbalance in global supply and demand chains, especially in light of accelerated efforts towards industrial electrification and automation. As such, it is important that research and development continue to focus on processing options for [...] Read more.
Mining trends in the gold sector indicate a growing imbalance in global supply and demand chains, especially in light of accelerated efforts towards industrial electrification and automation. As such, it is important that research and development continue to focus on processing options for more complex and refractory ores. Unlike conventional (i.e., free-milling) ore feeds, refractory gold is not amenable to standard cyanidation, and requires additional pretreatment prior to leaching and recovery. With recent technological advancements, such as sensor-based ore sorting, there is opportunity to advance the development of smaller untapped refractory resources with marginal economics, particularly those in proximity to processing infrastructure within major gold districts. However, it will be critical that the necessary tools are developed to capture the potential system-wide effects caused by varied ore feeds and improve related decision-making processes earlier in the value chain. Discrete event simulation (DES) is a powerful computational technique that can be used to monitor the interactions between important processes and parameters in response to random natural variations; the approach is thus suitable for the modelling of complex mining systems that deal with significant geological uncertainty. This work implements an integrated artificial neural network (ANN) and DES framework for the regional coordination of conventional and preconcentrated refractory gold ores to be processed at a centralized plant. Sample calculations are presented that are based on a generated dataset reflective of sediment-hosted refractory gold systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
Ecological Restoration of a Loess Open-Cast Mining Area in China: Perspective from an Ecological Security Pattern
Forests 2022, 13(2), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13020269 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 3
Abstract
Open-cast coal mining in China has developed rapidly due to its obvious advantages over underground mining. However, it may have negative ecological effects, such as biodiversity loss, water shortage, and soil erosion. Identifying and protecting the key areas with high importance for ecological [...] Read more.
Open-cast coal mining in China has developed rapidly due to its obvious advantages over underground mining. However, it may have negative ecological effects, such as biodiversity loss, water shortage, and soil erosion. Identifying and protecting the key areas with high importance for ecological sustainability are great challenges. The construction of an ecological security pattern (ESP) can improve landscape connectivity and reduce the fragmentation of ecological patches. Thus, it can be seen as an effective measure to protect regional ecological sustainability. In this study, taking the Pingshuo open-cast mining area as a case study area, ecological sources are identified through ecosystem structure and function, and corridors are extracted by constructing an ecological resistance surface, thus forming a valid ecological network. The results show that in 2018, the ESP in the study area included 11 sources with an area of 147.74 km2 and 17 corridors with a length of 92.11 km. Specifically, the ecological sources are mainly distributed in Taocun Township, Jingping Township, and Xiangyangbao Township. Among these 11 sources, sources 7 and 8 are reclaimed waste dump land, meaning that the land reclamation work in Pingshuo greatly promotes connectivity. Furthermore, dump 1 can be restored in the future by constructing three new corridors, which will greatly improve the landscape connectivity of Yuling Township. Overall, this study not only provides an effective framework for constructing and optimizing ESPs in ecologically fragile coal mining areas, but it also adds new insights to the concept of land reclamation in these areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
Analysis of the Influence of Coal Petrography on the Proper Application of the Unipore and Bidisperse Models of Methane Diffusion
Energies 2021, 14(24), 8495; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14248495 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
The analysis of phenomena related to gas transport in hard coal is important with regard to the energetic use of coal bed methane (CBM), the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere (CO2) and the prevention of natural hazards such [...] Read more.
The analysis of phenomena related to gas transport in hard coal is important with regard to the energetic use of coal bed methane (CBM), the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere (CO2) and the prevention of natural hazards such as methane hazards and gas and rock outbursts. This article presents issues concerning the feasibility and scope of applying the unipore and bidisperse diffusion models to obtain knowledge concerning the kinetics of methane sorption and its diffusion in the carbon structure, depending on its petrography. Laboratory tests were carried out on coal samples which varied in terms of petrography. Quantitative point analyses were carried out, based on which content of groups of macerals was determined. The degree of coalification of coal samples was also determined based on measurements of vitrinite reflectivity R0 and the volatile matter content Vdaf. Sorption kinetics were also investigated, and attempts were made to adjust the unipore and bidisperse models to the real sorption kinetic courses. This allowed the identification of appropriate coefficients controlling the course of sorption in mathematical models. An attempt was also made to assess the possibility of applying a given model to properly describe the phenomenon of methane sorption on hard coal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
Product Development of a Rock Reinforcing Bolt for Underground Hard Rock Mining
Mining 2021, 1(3), 364-390; https://doi.org/10.3390/mining1030023 - 15 Dec 2021
Abstract
The demand for mineral resources has dramatically increased over the past few decades; this increase directly correlates to an increase in underground mining activity. There are different mining methods for different minerals, and each have their risks. In hard rock mining activities such [...] Read more.
The demand for mineral resources has dramatically increased over the past few decades; this increase directly correlates to an increase in underground mining activity. There are different mining methods for different minerals, and each have their risks. In hard rock mining activities such as mining for gold, rockfalls are the most significant deterrent to obtaining mineral resources. This paper focuses on rock reinforcement systems to prevent fatal rockfalls in underground excavations. Presently, there is a global steel shortage and an increase in prices that has impacted the productivity of the mining operations that support most national economies. The paper’s main objective is to present the improvement of a rock bolt design used to support the roof in underground mining activities and keep working personnel and equipment safe from rockfalls. This study presents two rock bolt designs: a preliminary design and an improved model of the rock bolt. The paper discusses the operation of the rock bolt and provides laboratory test results on the bolt in operation. The principle of operation of the yield bolt is based on the science of radial expansion of hollow tubes in tension, to provide integrity to underground excavations. This functional design of the rock bolt requires less steel and has the same performance as the current rock reinforcement elongates. The research methodology involved interviewing rock mining engineers to determine their desired rock reinforcement device that would adequately meet the unpredictable dynamic and static behavior of underground rocks. The methodology also included experimental tests of a rock bolt design that was aimed at meeting the desired and acceptable performance determined from the interviews. The experimental results were obtained from a 60-ton hydraulic press that simulated seismic activity underground. The experimental results showed several modes of failure for the bolt; however, the improved rock bolt yielded at an average of 200 kN, as designed. During testing of the preliminary bolt design, there were failures that resulted from the manufacturing process of the bolt, such as splitting of the tube due to the welded end components. After a dynamic test, the preliminary bolt tube bent, creating huge forces on the tube which may cause fracture. The coefficient of friction during dynamic testing was lower than during static testing, leading to undesirable results for the preliminary bolt. The optimized bolt design addressed the failures and the low yield tonnage of the preliminary bolt design. It successfully yielded at 20 tons, even during the dynamic event. The bolt had similar alignment issues which caused failure during testing, as can be seen from the results. A guide tube was implemented in the design and the manufacturing process changed; these changes resulted in the bolt having a more reliable performance that met the requirements throughout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
The Economics of Coking Coal Mining: A Fossil Fuel Still Needed for Steel Production
Energies 2021, 14(22), 7682; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14227682 - 17 Nov 2021
Abstract
Coking coal has been on the European list of critical raw materials since 2014 due to its high economic importance and high supply risk. In 2017, coking coal narrowly missed passing the threshold of economic importance. However, out of caution, it remained on [...] Read more.
Coking coal has been on the European list of critical raw materials since 2014 due to its high economic importance and high supply risk. In 2017, coking coal narrowly missed passing the threshold of economic importance. However, out of caution, it remained on the list of critical raw materials, as the steel industry still needs it. It is likely to be phased out of the list below when it does not fully meet the required criteria. As there are no significant alternatives for this energy intensive industry and neither electrification nor material or energy efficiency improvements are yet available at a sufficient level of technological readiness, the European Union remains dependent on coking coal imports. Therefore, any coking coal mining project in Europe is of great importance and an important alternative to solving the problems of providing this raw material. In this study, the Dębieńsko coking coal project in Poland is analyzed using a scientifically proven methodology based on world-class analysis of coking coal projects submitted for financing to financial institutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
MLP-Based Model for Estimation of Methane Seam Pressure
Energies 2021, 14(22), 7661; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14227661 - 16 Nov 2021
Abstract
One of the principal indicators of the methane hazard in coal mines is gas pressure. This parameter directly affects the methane content in the seam as well as the rate of its release resulting from mining operations. Because of limitations in the existing [...] Read more.
One of the principal indicators of the methane hazard in coal mines is gas pressure. This parameter directly affects the methane content in the seam as well as the rate of its release resulting from mining operations. Because of limitations in the existing methods for methane seam pressure measuring, primarily technical difficulties associated with direct measurement and the time-consuming nature of indirect measurement, this parameter is often disregarded in the coal and gas outburst forecasts. To overcome the above-mentioned difficulties, an attempt was made to estimate the methane seam pressure with the use of artificial neural networks. Two MLP-based models were developed to estimate the average and maximum methane seam pressure values, respectively. The analyses demonstrated high correlation between the values indicated by the neural models and the reference values determined on the basis of sorption isotherms. According to the adopted fit criterion, the prediction errors for the best fit were 2.59% and 3.04% for the average and maximum seam pressure values, respectively. The obtained determination coefficients (exceeding the value of 0.99) confirmed the very good predictive abilities of the models. These results imply a great potential for practical application of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
Travel Dynamics Analysis and Intelligent Path Rectification Planning of a Roadheader on a Roadway
Energies 2021, 14(21), 7201; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217201 - 02 Nov 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
The tunneling work belongs to the group operation of semi-closed space, and the work is difficult with a high risk coefficient. It is an urgent requirement of coal mining to achieve unmanned and intelligent tunneling work. The path rectification planning of roadheaders is [...] Read more.
The tunneling work belongs to the group operation of semi-closed space, and the work is difficult with a high risk coefficient. It is an urgent requirement of coal mining to achieve unmanned and intelligent tunneling work. The path rectification planning of roadheaders is a necessary step before roadway cutting. In the traditional dynamic modeling analysis of roadhead tracks, problems such as compaction resistance, bulldozing resistance, steering resistance, tunnel dip angle, ditching, and obstacle-crossing capacity are not considered. In order to approximate the kinematic and dynamic parameters of a roadheader’s deviation correction under actual working conditions, this paper establishes kinematic and dynamic models of a roadheader’s path rectification at low speeds and under complex working conditions, and calculates the obstacle-crossing ability of roadheaders in the course of path rectification by modes based on roadway conditions, crawler resistance, and driving performance of the roadheader. Field experiments were carried out to verify the effectiveness of the dynamic model. The dynamic roadheader model was used in combination with actual working conditions of roadways in order to establish a roadway grid model. The grid model was simplified using rectifying influence degree and distance cost. The roadheader dynamic model and grid model were then used to propose a path rectification planning and tracking algorithm based on particle swarm optimization of the actual roadway conditions and roadheader driving performance. Finally, the effectiveness and superiority of the algorithm were verified using MATLAB simulation. The algorithm can provide strong technical guarantee for the intelligence of roadheader and unmanned mining. The results presented here can provide theoretical and technical support for the structural optimization and intelligent travel control of roadheaders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
The Effects of Internal Erosion on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Tailings under Heavy Rainfall Infiltration
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(20), 9496; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11209496 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
The stability of tailings dam will be affected by the internal erosion under unsteady seepage caused by heavy rainfall infiltration which changes the physical and mechanical properties of tailings. In this paper, the hydraulic sedimentary model was established to investigate the effects of [...] Read more.
The stability of tailings dam will be affected by the internal erosion under unsteady seepage caused by heavy rainfall infiltration which changes the physical and mechanical properties of tailings. In this paper, the hydraulic sedimentary model was established to investigate the effects of dry beach slope on the sedimentary characteristics of tailings in upstream tailings dam, and the results indicated that the dry beach with a larger slope has a more obvious stratification of tailings. Additionally, the sand column model was built to investigate the effects of internal erosion on the physical and mechanical properties of sedimentary tailings under unsteady seepage, and the results indicated that the migration of fine-grained tailings was caused by internal erosion increases the permeability and reduces the shear strength of the tailings. After internal erosion of tailings under heavy rainfall in 50 years return period for 24 h, the average particle size of downstream tailings (sample DT), midstream tailings (sample MT), and upstream tailings (sample UT) increased by 6.4%, 12.0%, and 2.4%, respectively, the hydraulic conductivity of the samples DT, MT, and UT increased by 27.2%, 17.9%, and 15.3%, respectively, and the shear strength of each samples decreased by 20.9%, 15.1%, and 12.4%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
A Fast Calculation Method for Improving the Steering Arm of Mining Trucks with Macpherson Suspension
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8614; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188614 - 16 Sep 2021
Abstract
The steering arm has recently been frequently broken in a kind of mining truck with Macpherson suspension. To accelerate replacing the broken parts and minimize the economic cost, a fast calculation method for improving the steering arm is proposed in this paper. In [...] Read more.
The steering arm has recently been frequently broken in a kind of mining truck with Macpherson suspension. To accelerate replacing the broken parts and minimize the economic cost, a fast calculation method for improving the steering arm is proposed in this paper. In this method, the forces on the steering arm are calculated by quasi-static analysis under a low vehicle velocity. Dynamic characteristics of the tire and road are partly included by considering the ranges of the rolling resistance coefficient and friction coefficient from the empirical values, which determines the torque on the steering arm under extreme conditions. The rigid–flexible coupling model for the left steering mechanism in ANSYS Workbench is established and solved to obtain the distribution stress on the steering arm under extreme conditions. Then, the reliability of the simulation results based on this fast calculation method is verified by the experiment. After determining an improvement scheme considering the economic and time cost, the satisfactory strength is obtained. The results illustrate that the strength of the improved steering arm has nearly doubled. Finally, the effectiveness of the improved steering arm is demonstrated by the users’ feedback after it is manufactured, installed, and used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
Biomonitoring Studies and Preventing the Formation of Biogenic H2S in the Wierzchowice Underground Gas Storage Facility
Energies 2021, 14(17), 5463; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14175463 - 02 Sep 2021
Abstract
The article discusses the results of biomonitoring research at the Underground Gas Storage (UGS). Hydrogen sulphide, as one of the products of microbiological reaction and transformation, as well as a product of chemical reactions in rocks, is a subject of interest for global [...] Read more.
The article discusses the results of biomonitoring research at the Underground Gas Storage (UGS). Hydrogen sulphide, as one of the products of microbiological reaction and transformation, as well as a product of chemical reactions in rocks, is a subject of interest for global petroleum companies. The materials used in this research work were formation waters and stored natural gas. The biomonitoring of reservoir waters and cyclical analyses of the composition of gas stored at UGS Wierzchowice enabled the assessment of the microbiological condition of the reservoir environment and individual storage wells in subsequent years of operation. Investigations of the formation water from individual wells of the UGS Wierzchowice showed the presence of sulphate reducing bacteria bacteria (SRB), such as Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum genera and bacteria that oxidize sulphur compounds. In the last cycles of UGS Wierzchowice, the content of hydrogen sulphide and sulphides in the reservoir waters ranged from 1.22 to 15.5 mg/dm3. The monitoring of natural gas received from UGS production wells and observation wells, which was carried out in terms of the determination of hydrogen sulphide and organic sulphur compounds, made it possible to observe changes in their content in natural gas in individual storage cycles. In the last cycles of UGS Wierzchowice, the content of hydrogen sulphide in natural gas from production wells ranged from 0.69 to 2.89 mg/dm3, and the content of organic sulphur compounds converted to elemental sulphur ranged from 0.055 to 0.130 mg Sel./Nm3. A higher hydrogen sulphide content was recorded in natural gas from observation wells in the range of 2.02–25.15 mg/Nm3. In order to explain the causes of hydrogen sulphide formation at UGS Wierzchowice, isotopic analyses were performed to determine the isotope composition of δ34SH2S, δ34SSO4, δ18OSO4 in natural gas samples (production and observation wells) and in the deep sample of reservoir water. The results of isotope tests in connection with microbiological tests, chromatographic analyses of sulphur compounds in natural gas collected from UGS Wierzchowice and an analysis of the geological structure of the Wierzchowice deposit allow us to conclude that the dominant processes responsible for the formation of hydrogen sulphide at UGS Wierzchowice are microbiological, consisting of microbial sulphate reduction (MSR). The presented tests allow for the control and maintenance of hydrogen sulphide at a low level in the natural gas received from the Wierzchowice Underground Gas Storage facility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
Feasibility Study of Low Mass and Low Energy Consumption Drilling Devices for Future Space (Mining Surveying) Missions
Energies 2021, 14(16), 5005; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14165005 - 15 Aug 2021
Abstract
The global climate crisis forces the search for new ecological sources of energy and mining methods. Space mining can solve those problems, but, first, wide geological surveying space missions using drilling methods are necessary. Additionally, drilling methods will be important in geological, life [...] Read more.
The global climate crisis forces the search for new ecological sources of energy and mining methods. Space mining can solve those problems, but, first, wide geological surveying space missions using drilling methods are necessary. Additionally, drilling methods will be important in geological, life searching, geoengineering, and many other studies of extraterrestrial objects. Space is becoming a new area of possible drilling applications. Designing future space drilling missions requires adapting drilling technologies, not only to the conditions of the space environment, but also to the economic and technological realities of the space industry. The possibility of constructing low mass coring devices with energy consumption below 100 W was investigated in this paper. Minimization of energy consumption and mass of a coring is essential for the device to be used in space missions, when lander instruments supplied by low power electric battery are expected to work reliably and the launch cost (depending of mass) at an economically acceptable level. Some similar devices investigated for the future space missions are known from papers listed in the references. To answer whether or not it is possible to build such devices, the authors performed initial drillability tests. The obtained results are presented in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
Numerical Study on Damage Zones Induced by Excavation and Ventilation in a High-Temperature Tunnel at Depth
Energies 2021, 14(16), 4773; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14164773 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Geothermal power is being regarded as depending on techniques derived from hydrocarbon production in worldwide current strategy. However, it has artificially been developed far less than its natural potentials due to technical restrictions. This paper introduces the Enhanced Geothermal System based on Excavation [...] Read more.
Geothermal power is being regarded as depending on techniques derived from hydrocarbon production in worldwide current strategy. However, it has artificially been developed far less than its natural potentials due to technical restrictions. This paper introduces the Enhanced Geothermal System based on Excavation (EGS-E), which is an innovative scheme of geothermal energy extraction. Then, based on cohesion-weakening-friction-strengthening model (CWFS) and literature investigation of granite test at high temperature, the initiation, propagation of excavation damaged zones (EDZs) under unloading and the EDZs scale in EGS-E closed to hydrostatic pressure state is studied. Finally, we have a discussion about the further evolution of surrounding rock stress and EDZs during ventilation is studied by thermal-mechanical coupling. The results show that the influence of high temperature damage on the mechanical parameters of granite should be considered; Lateral pressure coefficient affects the fracture morphology and scale of tunnel surrounding rock, and EDZs area is larger when the lateral pressure coefficient is 1.0 or 1.2; Ventilation of high temperature and high in-situ stress tunnel have a significant effect on the EDZs scale; Additional tensile stress is generated in the shallow of tunnel surrounding rock, and the compressive stress concentration transfers to the deep. EDZs experiences three expansion stages of slow, rapid and deceleration with cooling time, and the thermal insulation layer prolongs the slow growth stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
The Setting of Strength Parameters in Stability Analysis of Open-Pit Slope Using the Random Set Method in the Bełchatów Lignite Mine, Central Poland
Energies 2021, 14(15), 4609; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154609 - 29 Jul 2021
Abstract
The slopes of open-pit mines are often at risk of failure. To identify this hazard, stability analyses are performed. An important element of these stability analyses is the reliable selection of input parameter values for the calculations. This selection is difficult because the [...] Read more.
The slopes of open-pit mines are often at risk of failure. To identify this hazard, stability analyses are performed. An important element of these stability analyses is the reliable selection of input parameter values for the calculations. This selection is difficult because the slopes of the open pit are disturbed by mining activities. In such conditions, rheological processes, intensified by weathering, develop in open-pit slopes. This study is aimed at setting the strength parameters for the stability analysis of open-pit slopes with a developed slide process, using the random set method. The study was performed on the example of the open pit of the Bełchatów lignite mine, central Poland. A four-stage methodology, according to the random set method, was proposed. The methodology covered the following: site investigation, sensitivity analyses, shear strength reduction (SSR) analyses using numerical calculations, and probability analyses of the factor of safety (FoS) calculation results. The setting of the input parameters took into account the peak and residual strength parameters for each lithological unit in the physical model of the open-pit slope. Samples for laboratory tests were taken from the cores of nine test boreholes. The sensitivity analysis included all peak and residual strength parameters for each lithological unit in the body. As a result of the sensitivity analysis, specific strength parameters were adopted that would have a great impact upon the results of the calculations. Selected sets of parameter values were then used for the FoS calculations. The resultant FoS values revealed the probable slide planes. The positions of the slide planes were consistent with the interpreted slide surfaces based on the control boreholes and terrain observations. Knowledge of the slide planes positions and the values of the strength parameters enabled the designing of a securing approach for this landslide, and the taking of preventive measures to reduce this risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
Gravity Analysis for Subsurface Characterization and Depth Estimation of Muda River Basin, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(14), 6363; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11146363 - 09 Jul 2021
Abstract
Gravity survey is one of the passive geophysical techniques commonly used to delineate geological formations, especially in determining basement rock and the overlying deposit. Geologically, the study area is made up of thick quaternary alluvium deposited on top of the older basement rock. [...] Read more.
Gravity survey is one of the passive geophysical techniques commonly used to delineate geological formations, especially in determining basement rock and the overlying deposit. Geologically, the study area is made up of thick quaternary alluvium deposited on top of the older basement rock. The Muda River basin constitutes, approximately, of more than 300 m of thick quaternary alluvium overlying the unknown basement rock type. Previous studies, including drilling and geo-electrical resistivity surveys, were conducted in the area but none of them managed to conclusively determine the basement rock type and depth precisely. Hence, a regional gravity survey was conducted to determine the thickness of the quaternary sediments prior to assessing the sustainability of the Muda River basin. Gravity readings were made at 347 gravity stations spaced at 3–5 km intervals using Scintrex CG-3 covering an area and a perimeter of 9000 km2 and 730 km, respectively. The gravity data were then conventionally reduced for drift, free air, latitude, Bouguer, and terrain corrections. These data were then consequently analyzed to generate Bouguer, regional and total horizontal derivative (THD) anomaly maps for qualitative and quantitative interpretations. The Bouguer gravity anomaly map shows low gravity values in the north-eastern part of the study area interpreted as representing the Main Range granitic body, while relatively higher gravity values observed in the south-western part are interpreted as representing sedimentary rocks of Semanggol and Mahang formations. Patterns observed in the THD anomaly and Euler deconvolution maps closely resembled the presence of structural features such as fault lineaments dominantly trending along NW-SE and NE-SW like the trends of topographic lineaments in the study area. Based on power spectral analysis of the gravity data, the average depth of shallow body, representing alluvium, and deep body, representing underlying rock formations, are 0.5 km and 1.2 km, respectively. The thickness of Quaternary sediment and the depth of sedimentary formation can be more precisely estimated by other geophysical techniques such as the seismic reflection survey. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
The Impact of High-Energy Mining-Induced Tremor in a Fault Zone on Damage to Buildings
Energies 2021, 14(14), 4112; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144112 - 07 Jul 2021
Abstract
Seismic energy propagation from the hypocentre of mining-induced tremors usually causes an uneven distribution of the peak ground velocity PGVHmax in tectonically complicated structures, and consequently, an uneven distribution of damage to buildings located on the ground surface. This study aimed to [...] Read more.
Seismic energy propagation from the hypocentre of mining-induced tremors usually causes an uneven distribution of the peak ground velocity PGVHmax in tectonically complicated structures, and consequently, an uneven distribution of damage to buildings located on the ground surface. This study aimed to estimate the impact of high-energy mining-induced tremors in fault zones on damage to buildings. In the study, we describe a case of one of the highest-energy mining-induced tremors E = 4.0 · 108 J (local magnitude ML = 3.6) that occurred in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB), Poland. The hypocentre of the tremor was most probably located in the Barbara fault zone, one of the larger faults in that western part of the USCB. Numerous damaged buildings on the terrain surface were registered, both in the epicentral zone and at a greater distance from the epicentre, mostly from the southern side of the Barbara fault zone. We calculated that the tremor was characterised by a normal slip mechanism associated with the same kind of fault as the Barbara fault. The azimuth of the nodal planes was similar to the west-east direction, which is consistent with the azimuth of the Barbara fault. From the focal mechanism, the greatest propagation of seismic energy occurred in south and west-east directions from the tremor hypocentre towards the surface. It was found that from the northern side of the hanging wall of the Barbara fault, there were 14 instances of damage (19%), and in the southern part of a hanging wall, there were 58 (81%). Therefore, the directionality of seismic energy propagation is aligned with the focal mechanism acting in the Barbara fault. It has also been concluded that a width of the zone of up to about 1200 m along the Barbara fault is the most threatening on the basis of registered building damage in the geological conditions of USCB. The study has shown that in assessing the impact of mining-induced tremors on buildings and the environment, the disturbance of seismic energy propagation by larger faults should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
Characteristics of Kaolinitic Raw Materials from the Lokoundje River (Kribi, Cameroon) for Ceramic Applications
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 6118; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11136118 - 01 Jul 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Eight kaolinitic materials from the Lokoundje River at Kribi were sampled and investigated for their physical, chemical, mineralogical and thermal characteristics in order to evaluate their potential suitability as raw materials in ceramics. The Lokoundje kaolinitic materials are clayey to silty clayey and [...] Read more.
Eight kaolinitic materials from the Lokoundje River at Kribi were sampled and investigated for their physical, chemical, mineralogical and thermal characteristics in order to evaluate their potential suitability as raw materials in ceramics. The Lokoundje kaolinitic materials are clayey to silty clayey and are predominantly composed of kaolinite and quartz. The alkali (Na2O + K2O) content ranges between 1 and 2.5 wt.%; these low values do not favor vitrification of the ceramics but may be improved through flux amendment. The presence of goethite in some samples limits their utilization in white ceramics. The minerals content, color, metallic sound, cohesion, linear shrinkage, flexural strength, bulk density, water absorption and microstructure were determined. The XRD data reveal that kaolinite and goethite were transformed, respectively, into mullite and hematite. The colors of the fired products are characteristic of their mineral assemblage. The metallic sound is indicative of low vitrification which is confirmed by the presence of cracks due to low flux contents. The cohesion is good to very good, due to the abundance of kaolinite. The physicomechanical properties increase with temperature as well as densification. The geochemical data show that the Lokoundje alluvial clays are suitable for the manufacture of white stoneware tiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
Using the Forestry Reclamation Approach for Reclaimed Surface Mineland in the Western Gulf: Effects on Pinus taeda Seedling Growth and Survival
Forests 2021, 12(7), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12070845 - 26 Jun 2021
Abstract
While land reclamation efforts of surface mines have considerably increased soil stability since the implementation of SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act), research suggests that resulting soil compaction hinders the productivity of forests post-mining. The Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) was developed to [...] Read more.
While land reclamation efforts of surface mines have considerably increased soil stability since the implementation of SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act), research suggests that resulting soil compaction hinders the productivity of forests post-mining. The Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) was developed to improve forest health in the Appalachian region through a five-step process that minimizes soil compaction and establishes a productive forest. The FRA has not yet been tested in the western Gulf Coastal Plain (GCP). The higher clay content of some GCP soils and the dearth of coarse fragments (e.g., cobbles, stones and boulders) may affect reclamation practices and the ability of these methods to create productive forests. Compaction caused by conventional reclamation methods in the GCP has not been studied in great detail. Thus, this study attempts to provide a comparison of two reclamation methods, FRA low-compaction method used in the Appalachian region with that of conventional scraper-pan (scraper) methods in the GCP. This study used the FRA with common silvicultural practices of the western Gulf. The two hectare study site was installed with a randomized complete block design with three replicates comparing conventional scraper reclamation used in the region with that of an unmined control and the FRA-style low compaction treatment. Following soil reclamation, containerized loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings of a western Gulf provenance were hand-planted. Soil chemical and physical parameters were assessed on each treatment to determine the effect the FRA and scraper method had on resulting tree seedling growth and survival. After three growing seasons, seedlings in the FRA plots had significantly greater tree volumes than both the scraper (p = 0.0139) and the control (p = 0.0247) treatments. The FRA plots also had a 97% survival rate, while scraper plots had a survival of 86%. The FRA plots had significantly lower soil bulk densities than scraper (p = 0.0353) and control (p < 0.0001) plots which likely influenced growth and survival trends. Soil nutrients were increasingly available on the FRA and scraper plots, likely due to mixing of the soil profile when compared to the unmined control. Leaf-level water potential and gas exchange were not correlated to growth and survival and did not differ among treatments. These results suggest reclamation practices modeled after FRA methods may benefit tree growth and survival in the Western Gulf. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
Design and Application of Simulating Cutting Experiment System for Drum Shearer
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 5917; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11135917 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
When the shearer cuts coal or rock with different hardness, it will produce corresponding cutting state information. This paper develops a simulation cutting experiment system for the drum shearer based on similarity theory. It took the spiral cutting drum of a shearer as [...] Read more.
When the shearer cuts coal or rock with different hardness, it will produce corresponding cutting state information. This paper develops a simulation cutting experiment system for the drum shearer based on similarity theory. It took the spiral cutting drum of a shearer as the research target and derived the principal similarity coefficients through the dimensional analysis method. Meanwhile, this paper designed the structure of the cutting power system and hydraulic system. Then, it chose a certain amount of coal powder as an aggregate, cement 325# as cementing material, sand, and water as auxiliary materials to prepare simulated coal samples. The paper adopted the orthogonal experiment method and used a proportion of cement, sand, and water as the influencing factors in designing a simulated coal sample preparation plan. In addition, it utilized the range analysis method to research the influence of various factors on the density and compressive strength of simulated coal samples. Finally, it conducted simulated coal sample cutting tests. The results show that the density of the simulated coal samples is between 1192.59 Kg/m3–1483.51 Kg/m3, and the compressive strength range reaches 0.16 MPa–3.94 MPa. The density of the simulated coal sample is related to the mass proportion of cement and sand. When the ratio gradually increases, the influence of sand increases. Furthermore, the compressive strength is linearly proportional to the proportion of cement. The self-designed simulation cutting experiment system could effectively carry out the relevant experiments and obtain the corresponding cutting condition signals through the sensors. There are differences in vibration signals generated by cutting different strength materials. Extracting the kurtosis value as the characteristic value can distinguish various cutting modes, which can provide a reliable experimental solution for the research of coal-rock identification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
Plant Community Structure within a Reclamation Field Trial and Forested Reference Sites in a Post-Mine Environment
Forests 2021, 12(6), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12060776 - 12 Jun 2021
Abstract
Early successional plant community assemblage within a reclamation field trial at the Detour Lake Mine in northeastern Ontario is assessed, and compared with reference forested and historically reclaimed sites. The reclamation field trial examines eight amendment treatment combinations that include treatments with a [...] Read more.
Early successional plant community assemblage within a reclamation field trial at the Detour Lake Mine in northeastern Ontario is assessed, and compared with reference forested and historically reclaimed sites. The reclamation field trial examines eight amendment treatment combinations that include treatments with a winter kill cover crop of oats, fertilizer, biosolids, peat, and combinations thereof. The objectives of this study are to: (1) Investigate how soil amendments influence plant functional group establishment and growth in mine overburden; and (2) Explore the amendment properties that best support the establishment and growth of a plant community that resembles the baseline reference sites. Currently, the presence of non-native species and a dominant woody plant community explains the largest proportion of variance between the forested upland and lowland reference sites and all reclaimed sites. Similar to non-native species, graminoids were absent from the upland forested reference sites. The difference in the graminoid community explains much of the variance between the forested reference sites and all reclaimed sites. The cumulative additions of fertilizer and peat increased alpha diversity of non-native and graminoid plants within the amendment treatments, which had greater alpha diversity of these plant functional groups than the forested reference sites. Within the amendment treatments, non-native and graminoid alpha diversity was initially greater in the nutrient treatments, but by 2019 there was no significant difference in non-native or graminoid alpha diversity between amendment treatments. The results indicate that applications of nutrients through fertilizer or biosolids may increase graminoid alpha diversity and abundance within reclamation units in year 1. The results also confirm that the vascular plant community composition present within the historically reclaimed sites and amendment treatments does not resemble the forested reference sites. The plant community present within the amendment treatment sites is best described as early successional, with the presence of non-native herbaceous legumes dominating the historically reclaimed sites. Despite this, the results indicate that fertilizer and biosolids-based treatments have developed a vascular plant community, excluding woody species that is more similar to the forested reference sites than the peat-based treatments. Further research and long-term monitoring are needed to determine which amendment treatment will best support a plant community that resembles the forested reference sites. In addition, future studies of this nature might consider including wildfire affected and post-harvested forest stands as additional reference sites, to better capture possible plant community trajectories of a severely disturbed environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
Multi-Criteria Analysis for the Selection of the Optimal Mining Design Solution—A Case Study on Quarry “Tambura”
Energies 2021, 14(11), 3200; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113200 - 30 May 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Mining design is usually evaluated with different multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods when it comes to large open pit or underground ore mines, but it is not used on quarry sites. Since Croatia is mostly mining stone, the implementation of such methods in decision [...] Read more.
Mining design is usually evaluated with different multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods when it comes to large open pit or underground ore mines, but it is not used on quarry sites. Since Croatia is mostly mining stone, the implementation of such methods in decision making of the quarry mine design is imperative but left out. In this paper, the PROMETHEE II and AHP decision-making methods are implemented on the quarry site to find out the best final quarry design contour. By implementing the MCDM methods, the best quarry model was chosen based on 22 different criteria parameters out of three final quarry designs. The chosen model is not only financially sound but also has the least environmental impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
Development of a High-Flux Solar Simulator for Experimental Testing of High-Temperature Applications
Energies 2021, 14(11), 3124; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113124 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
In the last few years, several studies have been carried out on concentrating solar thermal and thermochemical applications. These studies can be further enhanced by means of high-flux solar simulators (HFSS), since they allow the development of experimental tests under controlled irradiance conditions, [...] Read more.
In the last few years, several studies have been carried out on concentrating solar thermal and thermochemical applications. These studies can be further enhanced by means of high-flux solar simulators (HFSS), since they allow the development of experimental tests under controlled irradiance conditions, regardless of sunshine. In this work, a new high-flux solar simulator, capable of reaching levels of irradiance higher than 100 W/cm2 (1000 suns), has been designed, built and characterized. This simulator is composed of 8 ellipsoidal specular reflectors, arranged face-down on a horizontal plane, in order to irradiate from the upper side any system requiring the simulation of concentrated solar radiation; differently from the HFSSs described in the scientific literature, this configuration allows the avoidance of any distortion of fluid-dynamic or convective phenomena within the system under investigation. As a first step, a numerical analysis of the HFSS has been carried out, simulating each real light source (Xe-arc), having a length of 6.5 mm, as a line of 5 sub-sources. Therefore, the HFSS has been built and characterized, measuring a maximum irradiance of 120 W/cm2 and a maximum temperature of 1007 °C; these values will be enough to develop experimental tests on lab-scale thermal and thermochemical solar applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
Evaluation Method of Production Pressure Differential in Deep Carbonate Reservoirs: A Case Study in Tarim Basin, Northwest China
Energies 2021, 14(9), 2721; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092721 - 10 May 2021
Abstract
Deep and even ultra-deep petroleum resources play a gradually increasing and important role with the worldwide continuous advancement of oil and gas exploration and development. In China, the deep carbonate reservoirs in the Tarim Basin are regarded as the key development areas due [...] Read more.
Deep and even ultra-deep petroleum resources play a gradually increasing and important role with the worldwide continuous advancement of oil and gas exploration and development. In China, the deep carbonate reservoirs in the Tarim Basin are regarded as the key development areas due to their huge reserves. However, due to the unreasonable design of production pressure differential, some production wells suffered from severe borehole collapse and tubing blockage. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to optimize a more practical method for predicting the critical production pressure differential. The commonly used analytical methods with different failure criteria for predicting production pressure differential were summarized. Furthermore, their advantages and disadvantages were analyzed. A new numerical model is established based on the finite element theory in order to make the prediction of production pressure differential more accurate. Additionally, both analytical and numerical methods were applied to evaluating the production pressure differential of deep carbonate reservoirs in the Tarim Basin, and the results were discussed compared with field data. In addition, a series of laboratory tests, including porosity and permeability measurements, electron microscope scanning, XRD for mineral analysis, uniaxial and triaxial compressive strength test, etc., were carried out by using the collected carbonate cores from formations deeper than 7000 m to obtain the input parameters of the simulation such as the rock properties. The experimental results showed that the carbonate rocks exhibited a remarkable brittleness and post-peak strain softening. The calculation results revealed that the Mogi-Coulomb criterion is slightly conservative; however, it is more suitable than other criteria to evaluate pressure differential. Furthermore, it has been confirmed by the field data that the finite element numerical method can not only reveal the instability mechanism of the wellbore but also predict the critical production pressure differential accurately. Unfortunately, the on-site operators sometimes require a more convenient way, such as an analytical method, to figure out the pressure differential, even though the evaluation of the numerical method is more accurate. Therefore, the discussion in this paper can provide a basis for the operators to determine the production pressure differential flexibly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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Article
Classification Performance of Thresholding Methods in the Mahalanobis–Taguchi System
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 3906; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093906 - 26 Apr 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
The Mahalanobis–Taguchi System (MTS) is a pattern recognition tool employing Mahalanobis Distance (MD) and Taguchi Robust Engineering philosophy to explore and exploit data in multidimensional systems. The MD metric provides a measurement scale to classify classes of samples (Abnormal vs. Normal) and gives [...] Read more.
The Mahalanobis–Taguchi System (MTS) is a pattern recognition tool employing Mahalanobis Distance (MD) and Taguchi Robust Engineering philosophy to explore and exploit data in multidimensional systems. The MD metric provides a measurement scale to classify classes of samples (Abnormal vs. Normal) and gives an approach to measuring the level of severity between classes. An accurate classification result depends on a threshold value or a cut-off MD value that can effectively separate the two classes. Obtaining a reliable threshold value is very crucial. An inaccurate threshold value could lead to misclassification and eventually resulting in a misjudgment decision which in some cases caused fatal consequences. Thus, this paper compares the performance of the four most common thresholding methods reported in the literature in minimizing the misclassification problem of the MTS namely the Type I–Type II error method, the Probabilistic thresholding method, Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve method and the Box–Cox transformation method. The motivation of this work is to find the most appropriate thresholding method to be utilized in MTS methodology among the four common methods. The traditional way to obtain a threshold value in MTS is using Taguchi’s Quadratic Loss Function in which the threshold is obtained by minimizing the costs associated with misclassification decision. However, obtaining cost-related data is not easy since monetary related information is considered confidential in many cases. In this study, a total of 20 different datasets were used to evaluate the classification performances of the four different thresholding methods based on classification accuracy. The result indicates that none of the four thresholding methods outperformed one over the others in (if it is not for all) most of the datasets. Nevertheless, the study recommends the use of the Type I–Type II error method due to its less computational complexity as compared to the other three thresholding methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Interdisciplinary Studies for Sustainable Mining)
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