Topic Editors

Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (INSA-Lyon), 20 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69100 Villeurbanne, France
Laboratoire IMS, Université de Bordeaux, UMR 5218, 33405 Talence, France
Institute of Dynamics and Vibration Research, Leibniz Universität Hannover, 30823 Garbsen, Germany
Dr. Guylaine Poulin-Vittrant
Associate Professor (CNRS Researcher), GREMAN Laboratory from CNRS, University of Tours and INSA-CVL, Tours, France

Piezoelectric Materials and Applications

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 June 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (30 September 2023)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Piezoelectric materials have been of interest for many decades now in the framework of several applications fields, ranging, for instance, from sonar, historically, to integrated sensors and actuators more recently, along with biomedical applications. Indeed, with the growing interest in high-efficient compact actuators and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), piezoelectric material elaboration along with use in innovative applications (memory, energy harvesting, actuators, etc.), such materials and devices have received increasing attention, yet there is still large room of improvement for a better understanding of processes and physical effects of such transducers, also including current socio-economic stakes such as SDGs. Thus, this Topic aims to gather cutting-edge progress or topical reviews in the field of piezoelectric materials and their application.

Potential topics may cover but are not limited to:

  • Lead-free piezoelectric materials
  • Piezoelectric polymers
  • Energy-efficient synthesis and fabrication of piezoelectric materials
  • Small and large-signal characterization
  • Analytical and numerical modeling
  • Application in actuators
  • Piezoelectric MEMS and NEMS
  • Energy harvesting
  • Energy and information storage (FRAM, etc.)

Prof. Dr. Mickaël Lallart
Dr. Hélène Debeda
Prof. Dr. Jörg Wallaschek
Dr. Guylaine Poulin-Vittrant
Topic Editors

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400
Sensors
sensors
3.9 6.8 2001 17 Days CHF 2600
Micromachines
micromachines
3.4 4.7 2010 16.1 Days CHF 2600
Actuators
actuators
2.6 3.2 2012 16.7 Days CHF 2400

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Published Papers (16 papers)

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16 pages, 7954 KiB  
Article
Low Concentrations of Gold Nanoparticles as Electric Charge Carriers in Piezoelectric Cement-Based Materials
by Daniel A. Triana-Camacho, Oscar A. Mendoza Reales and Jorge H. Quintero-Orozco
Materials 2024, 17(3), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17030615 - 27 Jan 2024
Viewed by 763
Abstract
Piezoelectric cement-based composites could serve to monitor the strain state of structural elements or act as self-powered materials in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The incorporation of piezoelectric materials as an active phase within cement matrices has presented a highly attractive avenue until [...] Read more.
Piezoelectric cement-based composites could serve to monitor the strain state of structural elements or act as self-powered materials in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The incorporation of piezoelectric materials as an active phase within cement matrices has presented a highly attractive avenue until today. However, their application is challenged by the low electrical conductivity of the hydrated cement matrix. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) possess substantial potential for elevating the free electrical charge within the matrix, increasing its electrical conductivity between the Au NPs and the cement matrix, thereby enhancing the piezoelectric response of the composite. In this sense, the objective of this study is to investigate the effects of incorporating low concentrations of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) (442 and 658 ppm) on the electrical and piezoelectric properties of cement-based composites. Additionally, this study considers the effects of such properties when the material is cured under a constant electric field. Electrical impedance spectroscopy was used to evaluate the polarization resistance and piezoresistive properties of the material. Additionally, open-circuit potential measurements were taken alongside the application of mechanical loads to assess the piezoelectric activity of the composites. The findings revealed a notable decrease in the composite’s total electrical resistance, reaching a value of 1.5 ± 0.2 kΩ, almost four times lower than the reference specimens. In the realm of piezoelectricity, the piezoelectric voltage parameter g33 exhibited a remarkable advancement, improving by a factor of 57 when compared to reference specimens. This significant enhancement can be attributed to both the concentration of Au NPs and the electrical curing process. In summary, the outcomes of this study underscore the feasibility of creating a highly electrically conductive cement-based matrix, using low concentrations of gold nanoparticles as electric charge carries, and indicate the possible piezoelectric behavior of the studied compposite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Piezoelectric Materials and Applications)
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18 pages, 5788 KiB  
Article
Push–Pull Inverter Using Amplitude Control and Frequency Tracking for Piezoelectric Transducers
by Yinghua Hu, Ming Yang, Yuanfei Zhu and Shangting Wang
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2147; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122147 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1019
Abstract
Frequency tracking and amplitude control are essential for piezoelectric transducers. Frequency tracking ensures the piezoelectric transducer operates at the resonant frequency for maximum power output, and amplitude control regulates the mechanical motion of the output. This paper presents a novel driver based on [...] Read more.
Frequency tracking and amplitude control are essential for piezoelectric transducers. Frequency tracking ensures the piezoelectric transducer operates at the resonant frequency for maximum power output, and amplitude control regulates the mechanical motion of the output. This paper presents a novel driver based on a push–pull inverter for piezoelectric transducers. The proposed driver realizes the frequency tracking and amplitude control scheme by a voltage sensing bridge in the case of transformer secondary matching, guaranteeing automatic frequency tracking and precise mechanical functions regardless of environmental and load variations. The proposed scheme is verified by the ultrasonic scalpel and the ultrasonic motor (USM). The experimental results show that this scheme reduces the build-up time from 10 ms to 3 ms and loaded frequency variations from 250 Hz to 200 Hz. In addition, the amplitude control performance was further observed on USM for various loads. The overshoot is less than 5.4% under different load torques. Therefore, the proposed scheme improves the load adaptability and stability of piezoelectric transducers and promotes the application of piezoelectric transducers under various conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Piezoelectric Materials and Applications)
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13 pages, 7166 KiB  
Article
Electric-Force Conversion Performance of Si-Based LiNbO3 Devices Based on Four Cantilever Beams
by Huiyi Zhang, Xiaojun Qiao, Huifen Wei, Xiaohuang Li, Xiaohui Wu, Nanxin Yu, Hao Lu, Tao Guo, Xiujian Chou and Wenping Geng
Micromachines 2023, 14(11), 1988; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14111988 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1102
Abstract
In micron or nano smart sensing systems, piezoelectric cantilever beams are distributed as major components in microsensors, actuators, and energy harvesters. This paper investigates the performance of four cantilever beam devices with “electric-force” conversion based on the inverse piezoelectric effect of lithium niobate [...] Read more.
In micron or nano smart sensing systems, piezoelectric cantilever beams are distributed as major components in microsensors, actuators, and energy harvesters. This paper investigates the performance of four cantilever beam devices with “electric-force” conversion based on the inverse piezoelectric effect of lithium niobate (LiNbO3, LN) single-crystal materials. A new compact piezoelectric smart device model is proposed, designed as a single mass block connected by four beams, where devices exhibit smaller lateral errors (0.39–0.41%). The relationship between the displacement characteristics of cantilever beams and driving voltage was researched by applying excitation signals. The results show that the device has the maximum displacement at a first-order intrinsic frequency (fosc = 11.338 kHz), while the displacement shows a good linear relationship (R2 = 0.998) with driving voltage. The square wave signals of the same amplitude have greater “electrical-force” conversion efficiency. The output displacement can reach 12 nm, which is much higher than the output displacement with sinusoidal excitation. In addition, the relative displacement deviation of devices can be maintained within ±1% under multiple cycles of electrical signal loading. The small size, high reliability, and ultra-stability of Si–LN ferroelectric single-crystal cantilever beam devices with lower vibration amplitudes are promising for nanopositioning techniques in microscopy, diagnostics, and high-precision manufacturing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Piezoelectric Materials and Applications)
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14 pages, 5685 KiB  
Article
A Highly Flexible Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Sensor for Wearable Bone Density Testing
by Zhiqiang Song, Bozhi Wang, Zhuo Zhang, Yirong Yu and Dabin Lin
Micromachines 2023, 14(9), 1798; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14091798 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1412
Abstract
Driven by the loss of bone calcium, the elderly are prone to osteoporosis, and regular routine checks on bone status are necessary, which mainly rely on bone testing equipment. Therefore, wearable real-time healthcare devices have become a research hotspot. Herein, we designed a [...] Read more.
Driven by the loss of bone calcium, the elderly are prone to osteoporosis, and regular routine checks on bone status are necessary, which mainly rely on bone testing equipment. Therefore, wearable real-time healthcare devices have become a research hotspot. Herein, we designed a high-performance flexible ultrasonic bone testing system using axial transmission technology based on quantitative ultrasound theory. First, a new rare-earth-element-doped PMN-PZT piezoelectric ceramic was synthesized using a solid-state reaction, and characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM. Both a high piezoelectric coefficient d33 = 525 pC/N and electromechanical coupling factors of k33 = 0.77, kt = 0.58 and kp = 0.63 were achieved in 1%La/Sm-doped 0.17 PMN-0.47 PZ-0.36 PT ceramics. Combining a flexible PDMS substrate with an ultrasonic array, a flexible hardware circuit was designed which includes a pulse excitation module, ultrasound array module, amplification module, filter module, digital-to-analog conversion module and wireless transmission module, showing high power transfer efficiency and power intensity with values of 35% and 55.4 mW/cm2, respectively. Finally, the humerus, femur and fibula were examined by the flexible device attached to the skin, and the bone condition was displayed in real time on the mobile client, which indicates the potential clinical application of this device in the field of wearable healthcare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Piezoelectric Materials and Applications)
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11 pages, 17963 KiB  
Article
Piezoelectric and Dielectric Properties in Bi0.5(Na,K)0.5TiO3-x Ag2O Lead-Free Piezoceramics
by Xiaoming Chen and Yunwen Liao
Materials 2023, 16(15), 5342; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16155342 - 29 Jul 2023
Viewed by 819
Abstract
Lead-free piezoceramics of Bi0.5(Na0.825K0.175)0.5TiO3 with varying concentrations of x mol% Ag2O (x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, denoted as BNKT-xA) were fabricated using the solid-state technique. An extensive investigation was [...] Read more.
Lead-free piezoceramics of Bi0.5(Na0.825K0.175)0.5TiO3 with varying concentrations of x mol% Ag2O (x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, denoted as BNKT-xA) were fabricated using the solid-state technique. An extensive investigation was undertaken to analyze the structural, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of these piezoceramics in the presence of Ag ions. There is no evidence of any secondary solid solution in the BNKT-xA piezoceramics. The ceramics with x mol% Ag2O in BNKT still demonstrate the presence of both rhombohedral (R) and tetragonal (T) phases. The addition of Ag+ is helpful to increase the relative density of the BNKT-xA piezoceramics. It is noteworthy that the BNKT-0.3 mol% A piezoceramics show remarkable improvements in their properties (d33 = 147 pC/N, kp = 29.6%, ε = 1199, tanδ = 0.063). These improvements may be ascribed to the denser microstructure and the preservation of morphotropic phase boundaries between R and T phases caused by the appropriate addition of Ag cations. The addition of Ag+ results in the relaxor behavior of the BNKT-xA ceramics, characterized by disorder among A-site cations. With the increase in temperature, the d33 value of BNKT-xA ceramics does not vary significantly in the range of 25 to 125 °C, ranging from 127 to 147 pC/N (with a change of d33 ≤ 13.6%). This finding shows that piezoelectric ceramics have a reliable performance over a certain operating temperature range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Piezoelectric Materials and Applications)
(This article belongs to the Section Electronic Materials)
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10 pages, 2622 KiB  
Article
Mitigation of Thermal Instability for Electrical Properties in CaZrO3-Modified (Na, K, Li) NbO3 Lead-Free Piezoceramics
by Xiaoming Chen, Caoyuan Ai, Zhenghuai Yang, Yuanxian Ni, Xiaodong Yin, Jiankui You and Guorong Li
Materials 2023, 16(10), 3720; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16103720 - 14 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1024
Abstract
Lead-free ceramics 0.96(Na0.52K0.48)0.95Li0.05NbO3-0.04CaZrO3 (NKLN-CZ) are prepared by using the solid-state procedure and two-step synthesis technique. The crystal structure and thermal stability of NKLN-CZ ceramics sintered at 1140–1180 °C are investigated. All the [...] Read more.
Lead-free ceramics 0.96(Na0.52K0.48)0.95Li0.05NbO3-0.04CaZrO3 (NKLN-CZ) are prepared by using the solid-state procedure and two-step synthesis technique. The crystal structure and thermal stability of NKLN-CZ ceramics sintered at 1140–1180 °C are investigated. All the NKLN-CZ ceramics are ABO3-type perovskite phases without impure phases. With the increase in sintering temperature, a phase transition occurs in NKLN-CZ ceramics from the orthorhombic (O) phase to the concomitance of O-tetragonal (T) phases. Meanwhile, ceramics become dense because of the presence of liquid phases. In the vicinity of ambient temperature, an O-T phase boundary is obtained above 1160 °C, which triggers the improvement of electrical properties for the samples. The NKLN-CZ ceramics sintered at 1180 °C exhibit optimum electrical performances (d33 = 180 pC/N, kp = 0.31, dS/dE = 299 pm/V, εr = 920.03, tanδ = 0.0452, Pr = 18 μC/cm2, Tc = 384 °C, Ec = 14 kV/cm). The relaxor behavior of NKLN-CZ ceramics was induced by the introduction of CaZrO3, which may lead to A-site cation disorder and show diffuse phase transition characteristics. Hence, it broadens the temperature range of phase transformation and mitigates thermal instability for piezoelectric properties in NKLN-CZ ceramics. The value of kp for NKLN-CZ ceramics is held at 27.7–31% (variance of kp < 9%) in the range from −25 to 125 °C. The results indicate that lead-free ceramics NKLN-CZ is one of the hopeful temperature-stable piezoceramics for practical application in electronic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Piezoelectric Materials and Applications)
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16 pages, 6735 KiB  
Article
Low-Temperature Sintering of Bi(Ni0.5Ti0.5)O3-BiFeO3-Pb(Zr0.5Ti0.5)O3 Ceramics and Their Performance
by Wuyang Wang, Shihao Wang, Jun Sun, Qiushi Wang and Bijun Fang
Materials 2023, 16(9), 3459; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16093459 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 965
Abstract
A low-temperature sintering strategy was realized for preparing 0.21Bi(Ni0.5Ti0.5)O3-0.05BiFeO3-0.74Pb(Zr0.5Ti0.5)O3 (0.21BNT-0.05BF-0.74PZT) ceramics by conventional ceramic processing by adding low melting point BiFeO3 and additional sintering aid LiBO2. Pure [...] Read more.
A low-temperature sintering strategy was realized for preparing 0.21Bi(Ni0.5Ti0.5)O3-0.05BiFeO3-0.74Pb(Zr0.5Ti0.5)O3 (0.21BNT-0.05BF-0.74PZT) ceramics by conventional ceramic processing by adding low melting point BiFeO3 and additional sintering aid LiBO2. Pure perovskite 0.21BNT-0.05BF-0.74PZT ceramics are prepared at relatively low sintering temperatures, and their structure presents tetragonal distortion that is affected slightly by the sintering temperature. The 1030 °C sintered samples have high densification accompanied by relatively large grains. All ceramics have excellent dielectric performance with a relatively high temperature of dielectric constant maximum, and present an apparent relaxation characteristic. A narrow sintering temperature range exists in the 0.21BNT-0.05BF-0.74PZT system, and the 1030 °C sintered 0.21BNT-0.05BF-0.74PZT ceramics exhibit overall excellent electrical performance. The high-temperature conductivity can be attributed to the oxygen vacancies’ conduction produced by the evaporation of Pb and Bi during sintering revealed by energy dispersive X-ray measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Piezoelectric Materials and Applications)
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14 pages, 2390 KiB  
Article
Stability Compensation Design and Analysis of a Piezoelectric Ceramic Driver with an Emitter Follower Stage
by Xueliang Wang, Nan Zheng, Fenglong Wei, Yue Zhou and Huaijiang Yang
Micromachines 2023, 14(5), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14050914 - 23 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
Piezoelectric ceramic has been widely applied in many fields because of its characteristics, and the performance of piezoelectric ceramic is determined strongly by its driver. In this study, an approach to analyzing the stability of a piezoelectric ceramic driver with an emitter follower [...] Read more.
Piezoelectric ceramic has been widely applied in many fields because of its characteristics, and the performance of piezoelectric ceramic is determined strongly by its driver. In this study, an approach to analyzing the stability of a piezoelectric ceramic driver with an emitter follower stage was presented, and a compensation was proposed. First of all, using the method of modified nodal analysis and loop gain analysis, the transfer function for the feedback network was analytically deduced, and the cause of the instability of the driver was found to be the pole composed of the effective capacitance from the piezoelectric ceramic and the transconductance from the emitter follower. Then, a compensation involving a novel delta topology composed of an isolation resistor and a second feedback path was proposed, and its function principle was discussed. Simulations showed a correspondence between the analysis and the effectiveness of the compensation. Finally, an experiment was set up with two prototypes, one with compensation, and the other without compensation. Measurements showed the elimination of oscillation in the compensated driver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Piezoelectric Materials and Applications)
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14 pages, 4239 KiB  
Article
Piezoelectricity and Thermophysical Properties of Ba0.90Ca0.10Ti0.96Zr0.04O3 Ceramics Modified with Amphoteric Nd3+ and Y3+ Dopants
by Yongshang Tian, Mingyang Ma, Shuiyun Li, Junli Dong, Xiang Ji, Haitao Wu, Jinshuang Wang and Qiangshan Jing
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2369; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062369 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1499
Abstract
Lead-free barium calcium titanate zirconate (BCTZ) ceramics doped with a single rare-earth element generally exhibit excellent piezoelectric properties. However, their electrical properties deteriorate at an excessive dopant content, limiting their application. In this study, amphoteric neodymium (Nd3+) and yttrium (Y3+ [...] Read more.
Lead-free barium calcium titanate zirconate (BCTZ) ceramics doped with a single rare-earth element generally exhibit excellent piezoelectric properties. However, their electrical properties deteriorate at an excessive dopant content, limiting their application. In this study, amphoteric neodymium (Nd3+) and yttrium (Y3+)-codoped BCTZ-NYx ceramics were synthesized via a solid-state reaction at 1240 °C. The influences of the Y3+ content (x) on the structural features, electrical properties, mechanical properties, and thermophysical properties were investigated. At a small x (<0.18 mol%), Y3+ could enhance the fracture strength and electrical properties by eliminating oxygen vacancies, defect dipoles, and/or structural defects. However, the outstanding performance deteriorated with excessive x. Additionally, the mechanism of the defect chemistry at different x was deduced. At an yttrium content of 0.18 mol%, the ceramic exhibited high piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity with low domain-switching activation energy (Ea = 0.401 eV), indicating that it could replace commercial lead-based piezoelectric ceramics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Piezoelectric Materials and Applications)
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11 pages, 2808 KiB  
Article
Improved Crystallinity of Annealed 0002 AlN Films on Sapphire Substrate
by Bruno Comis Bersch, Tomàs Caminal Ros, Vegard Tollefsen, Erik Andrew Johannessen and Agne Johannessen
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2319; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062319 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
AlN is a piezoelectric material used in telecommunication applications due to its high surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity, stability, and mechanical strength. Its performance is linked to film quality, and one method to achieve high-quality films goes through the process of annealing. Consequently, [...] Read more.
AlN is a piezoelectric material used in telecommunication applications due to its high surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity, stability, and mechanical strength. Its performance is linked to film quality, and one method to achieve high-quality films goes through the process of annealing. Consequently, c-orientated AlN film with a thickness of 1.1 μm deposited on sapphire was annealed at temperatures of 1100 °C and 1150 °C in a N2 controlled atmosphere. This was compared to annealing at 1100 °C, 1450 °C, and 1700 °C with N2 flow in an open atmosphere environment. Sample rotation studies revealed a significant impact on the ⍵-2θ X-ray rocking curve. A slight variation in the film crystallinity across the wafer was observed. After the annealing, it was found that the lattice parameter c was increased by up to 2%, whereas the screw dislocation density dropped from 3.31 × 1010 to 0.478 × 1010 cm−2, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of reflection (0002) was reduced from 1.16° to 0.41° at 1450 °C. It was shown that annealing in a N2-controlled atmosphere plays a major role in reducing the oxidation of the AlN film, which is important for acoustic wave devices where the electrodes are placed directly on the piezoelectric substrate. The face-to-face arrangement of the samples could further reduce this oxidation effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Piezoelectric Materials and Applications)
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12 pages, 3457 KiB  
Article
The Use of a PVDF Array to Measure the Stress Field Inside an Elastic Material
by Ming Jin, David Matthews, Ning Wang and Jie Pan
Sensors 2023, 23(4), 2144; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23042144 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1451
Abstract
This paper reports a series of experimental and modeling investigations on two piezoelectric arrays made of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films. They were embedded inside rubber cylinders and used to directly measure the internal stresses generated by various external excitations applied to the top [...] Read more.
This paper reports a series of experimental and modeling investigations on two piezoelectric arrays made of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films. They were embedded inside rubber cylinders and used to directly measure the internal stresses generated by various external excitations applied to the top surface of the cylinder. Corresponding finite element (FE) models were established to reveal the relationship between the PVDF output and the stress field applied to it. This research improves the understanding of the output mechanism of the embedded PVDF and provides useful information for the design of PVDF sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Piezoelectric Materials and Applications)
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12 pages, 3724 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Ferroelectric and Dielectric Properties of Niobium-Doped Lead-Free Piezoceramics
by Faysal Naeem, Mohsin Saleem, Hamid Jabbar, Gulraiz Tanvir, Fiza Asif, Abrar H. Baluch, Muhammad Irfan, Abdul Ghaffar, Adnan Maqbool and Tayyab Rafiq
Materials 2023, 16(2), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16020477 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1718
Abstract
Lead-free ceramics are promising candidates for replacing lead-based piezoelectric materials such as lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) if they can compete in dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics. In this work, for lead-free piezoelectric ceramic, 0.74(Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3)-0.26(SrTiO3) (BNT-ST26) and niobium-substituted (Nb-BNT–ST26) [...] Read more.
Lead-free ceramics are promising candidates for replacing lead-based piezoelectric materials such as lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) if they can compete in dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics. In this work, for lead-free piezoelectric ceramic, 0.74(Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3)-0.26(SrTiO3) (BNT-ST26) and niobium-substituted (Nb-BNT–ST26) ceramics were synthesized by solid-state reactions. The evolution of niobium substitution to the perovskite phase structure of BNT-ST26 ceramics was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and Raman spectra. Electromechanical properties of Nb-BNT-ST26 ceramics initially increased with the addition of niobium up to 0.5% and decreased with a further increase in Nb content. Temperature-dependent dielectric curves showed that the depolarization temperature (Td) decreased below room temperature because of Nb substitution. The composition with 0.5% Nb yielded a maximum bipolar strain (Smax) of 0.265% and normalized strain of d33* ~ 576 pm/V under an electric field of 4.6 kV/mm at room temperature. At this critical concentration of 0.5% Nb, maximum saturation polarization of 26 μC/cm2 was achieved. The dielectric constant with temperature peaks became more diffused and the depolarization temperature decreased with the increasing Nb content. The study concludes that Nb-doped BNT-ST26 is an excellent material for high-temperature, stable, frequency-dependent, lead-free piezoelectric devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Piezoelectric Materials and Applications)
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31 pages, 5970 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Thermoelasticity Analysis of Viscoelastic FGM Plate Embedded in Piezoelectric Layers under Thermal Load
by Maziyar Feri, Michael Krommer and Akbar Alibeigloo
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010353 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Due to the high importance of viscoelastic materials in modern industrial applications, besides the intensive popularity of piezoelectric smart structures, analyzing their thermoelastic response in extreme temperature conditions inevitably becomes very important. Accordingly, this research explores the thermoviscoelastic response of sandwich plates made [...] Read more.
Due to the high importance of viscoelastic materials in modern industrial applications, besides the intensive popularity of piezoelectric smart structures, analyzing their thermoelastic response in extreme temperature conditions inevitably becomes very important. Accordingly, this research explores the thermoviscoelastic response of sandwich plates made of a functionally-graded Boltzmann viscoelastic core and two surrounding piezoelectric face-layers subjected to electrothermal load in the platform of three-dimensional elasticity theory. The relaxation modulus of the FG viscoelastic layer across the thickness follows the power law model. the plate’s governing equations are expressed in the Laplace domain to handle mathematical complications corresponding to the sandwich plate with a viscoelastic core. Then, the state-space method, combined with Fourier expansion, is utilized to extract the plate response precisely. Finally, the obtained solution is converted to the time domain using the inverse Laplace technique. Verification of the present formulation is compared with those reported in the published papers. Finally, the influences of plate dimension, temperature gradient, and relaxation time constant on the bending response of the above-mentioned sandwich plate are examined. As an interesting finding, it is revealed that increasing the length-to-thickness ratio leads to a decrease in deflections and an increase in stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Piezoelectric Materials and Applications)
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15 pages, 5511 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Structural Integrated Piezoceramics, Piezoelectric Patches and Strain Gauges for Condition Monitoring
by Jonas Maximilian Werner, Max Engelmann, Marek Schmidt, Christian Titsch, Martin Dix and Welf-Guntram Drossel
Sensors 2022, 22(22), 8847; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22228847 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2022
Abstract
This paper presents a new approach to the structural integration of piezoceramics into thin-walled steel components for condition-monitoring applications. The procedure for integrating the sensors into metal components is described, and their functionality is experimentally examined with a 2 mm-thick steel sheet. The [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new approach to the structural integration of piezoceramics into thin-walled steel components for condition-monitoring applications. The procedure for integrating the sensors into metal components is described, and their functionality is experimentally examined with a 2 mm-thick steel sheet. The signal quality of the produced sensors is investigated in a frequency range from 100 Hz to 50,000 Hz and is compared with the results of piezo patches and strain gauges under the same conditions. The results show that due to a higher signal-to-noise ratio and a better coherence, the structurally integrated piezoceramics and the piezo patches are more qualified sensors for vibration measurement in the examined frequency range than the strain gauges. The measurements also indicate that the patches provide higher amplitudes for the frequency range up to 20 kHz. Beyond that, up to 40 kHz, the integrated sensors supplied higher amplitudes. The better signal quality in different frequency ranges as well as the different manufacturing and application methods can be interpreted as an advantage or disadvantage depending on the boundary conditions of the condition-monitoring system. In summary, structural integrated piezoceramics extend the options of monitoring technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Piezoelectric Materials and Applications)
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25 pages, 11765 KiB  
Article
Research on Fast and Precise Positioning Strategy of an Ultrasonic Motor Based on the Ultrasonic Friction Reduction Theory
by Weijun Zeng, Song Pan, Lei Chen, Weihao Ren, Yongjie Huan and Yongjin Liang
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1542; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091542 - 17 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1511
Abstract
To address the problems of the large positioning error and long positioning time of the traditional positioning strategy, namely, the two-phase simultaneous power-off method (TPSPM), a new positioning strategy, called the first single-phase then two-phase power-off method (FSPTTPPM), based on the ultrasonic friction [...] Read more.
To address the problems of the large positioning error and long positioning time of the traditional positioning strategy, namely, the two-phase simultaneous power-off method (TPSPM), a new positioning strategy, called the first single-phase then two-phase power-off method (FSPTTPPM), based on the ultrasonic friction reduction theory, has been proposed in this work. This method realizes zero sliding displacement between the friction material and the stator during the torsional oscillation of the shaft by controlling the driving circle frequency and the duration of the single-phase power-off period, which reduces the deviation of the displacement reservation value. In order to verify the correctness of the driving mechanism, a test platform has been built, and two positioning strategies have been used for experimental verification. The following experimental results have been obtained: compared to TPSPM, FSPTTPPM has the advantages of higher positioning accuracy and short positioning time. In terms of the positioning accuracy, the relative errors of the displacement reservation values of FSPTTPPM and TPSPM vary with the initial angular velocity (0.24 to 1.18 rad/s) in the range of −0.4 to 0.1 and −0.8 to 0.8, respectively. In addition, the relative error of the displacement reservation value is closer to zero than that of TPSPM at the same initial angular velocity. In terms of the positioning time, when the initial angular velocity is greater than 0.7 rad/s, the positioning time of the FSPTTPPM is approximately 10 ms smaller than that of the TPSPM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Piezoelectric Materials and Applications)
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11 pages, 2919 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Spherical Powder of Lead-Free BCZT Piezoceramics and Binder Jetting Additive Manufacturing of Triply Periodic Minimum Surface Lattice Structures
by Vadim Sufiiarov, Artem Kantyukov, Anatoliy Popovich and Anton Sotov
Materials 2022, 15(18), 6289; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15186289 - 9 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1556
Abstract
The article presents the results of the synthesis of lead-free piezoceramic materials (Ba0.9Ca0.1)(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O3 (BCZT system) in spherical powder form and their subsequent application in the binder jetting additive manufacturing process. Green models were manufactured [...] Read more.
The article presents the results of the synthesis of lead-free piezoceramic materials (Ba0.9Ca0.1)(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O3 (BCZT system) in spherical powder form and their subsequent application in the binder jetting additive manufacturing process. Green models were manufactured using this powder material with binder jetting, different sintering modes were investigated, and the functional piezoelectric properties were measured. Lattice structures with triply periodic minimum surface topologies, such as Gyroid and Schwarz, were designed and manufactured. It is shown that the functional properties of lattice structures depend on the parameters of the cells and the chosen topology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Piezoelectric Materials and Applications)
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