Topic Editors

Prof. Dr. João Carlos Correia Leitão
Department of Management and Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Beira Interior, Estrada do Sineiro, 6200 209 Covilhã, Portugal
Prof. Dr. Dina Batista Pereira
CEG-IST, Centre for Management Studies of IST, University of Lisbon, 1649-004 Lisbon, Portugal

Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 January 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (30 April 2022)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Despite the importance of the resource-based, knowledge-based, institutional networks and the complex theoretical approaches explored in the reference literature, much remains unknown regarding the role played by the dynamic competencies and behavioral profiles of entrepreneurial ventures with different spatial concentrations, financing sources, research and development intensities, sizes, and ages in determining both economic and open innovation performance. Another gap found in the literature concerns entrepreneurial and open innovative ecosystems. There has been an increase in the number of literature suggesting reasons behind the emergence of ecosystems and their performance metrics, but they fail to examine in detail the exact mechanisms behind it, namely, the role played by endogenous production factors (for example, human capital, social or relational capital, organizational capital, knowledge and technological progress), by making use of micro or macro data. This gap may be addressed by cross-fertilizing the classic approaches on clusters and industrial districts, with emergent approaches on strategic coopetition and sustainable business models. If spatial concentration fosters the matching between government, firms, higher education institutions, and citizens, then there is an increasing need to deepen the knowledge in relation to the effects of agglomeration on the cross-fertilization of distinct economic activity sectors, spurring productivity and sustainable competitive advantages of nations, regions, cities, and entrepreneurial units, following the paradigm of open innovation.

Prof. Dr. João Carlos Correia Leitão
Prof. Dr. Dina Batista Pereira
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • entrepreneurship
  • open innovation
  • ecosystems
  • growth determinants
  • dynamic competencies
  • behavioral theory of the firm

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Administrative Sciences
admsci
- 3.4 2011 19.3 Days 1400 CHF
Economies
economies
- 2.7 2013 23.7 Days 1400 CHF
Journal of Risk and Financial Management
jrfm
- - 2008 19.6 Days 1200 CHF
Sustainability
sustainability
3.889 5.0 2009 16.7 Days 2000 CHF
Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity
JOItmC
- 5.1 2015 16.1 Days 800 CHF

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Published Papers (64 papers)

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Article
A Comparative Analysis of Technical Efficiency and Profitability of Agribusiness and Non-Agribusiness Enterprises in Eastern DRC
Sustainability 2022, 14(14), 8384; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148384 - 08 Jul 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine whether agribusiness could be competitive compared to non-agribusiness employment opportunities in terms of technical efficiency and profitability. We used data collected on all seven operating cassava community processing centers (CCPCs) and 150 comparable non-agribusiness enterprises [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether agribusiness could be competitive compared to non-agribusiness employment opportunities in terms of technical efficiency and profitability. We used data collected on all seven operating cassava community processing centers (CCPCs) and 150 comparable non-agribusiness enterprises in South Kivu province. A Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), as well as cost–benefit ratios and net monthly revenue, were used to examine technical efficiency and profitability. Our results showed that agribusiness was more competitive than non-agribusiness in terms of technical efficiency and profitability. The cost–benefit ratio shows that every dollar invested in agribusiness earns investors US $2.8, while it earns investors in non-agribusiness US $2.1. Moreover, technical efficiency increases significantly with agribusiness. These results show that agribusiness can compete with other non-agribusiness activities, and it remains a solution to youth unemployment in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
The Impact of the National Economic Recovery Program and Digitalization on MSME Resilience during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Study of Bank Rakyat Indonesia
Economies 2022, 10(7), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10070160 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the impact of the National Economic Recovery Program—Pemulihan Ekonomi Nasional (PEN) and digitalization on micro, small, and medium enterprises’ (MSMEs) resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research is based on primary data from a survey of 6009 Bank [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the impact of the National Economic Recovery Program—Pemulihan Ekonomi Nasional (PEN) and digitalization on micro, small, and medium enterprises’ (MSMEs) resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research is based on primary data from a survey of 6009 Bank Rakyat Indonesia customers conducted from March–June 2021. Using the generalized ordered logistic regression technique, this study found that a combination of new loans, credit restructuring, and/or interest subsidies was the most successful PEN for enhancing MSME resilience. Meanwhile, providing new loans merely improved liquidity, not sales or profitability. However, just providing a restructuring program weakened resiliency. This research also discovered that MSMEs that have been digitalizing for more than a year are more resilient than those that have not. This study highlights the necessity of offering several interventions for MSMEs and assisting MSMEs in going digital to improve MSME resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Analysis of Factors for Korea’s Export Companies to Respond to Trade Remedies: Mediation Effect of Fairness Perception
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 7725; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137725 - 24 Jun 2022
Abstract
This study analyzes the factors that enable Korea’s export companies, governments, and associations to effectively respond to the trade remedies represented by unilateral trade negotiation strategies. For this purpose, a research model was established through a deductive theoretical extension of organizational behavior theory, [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the factors that enable Korea’s export companies, governments, and associations to effectively respond to the trade remedies represented by unilateral trade negotiation strategies. For this purpose, a research model was established through a deductive theoretical extension of organizational behavior theory, which can be applied directly by enterprises and related organizations. According to the results, factors that are both internal and external to a firm have a positive influence in reinforcing its capacity to respond to trade remedies. As a result, it was concluded that the reinforcement of response capacity leads to the qualitative and quantitative development of companies. This direct causal path confirmed the validity of the hypothesis that a manager’s fairness perception in trade remedies would represent leadership in organizational behavior theory. Thus, leadership was found to have a partial mediating effect between the two factors, thereby enhancing the causal relationship’s explanatory power and statistical significance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Competition and Heterogeneous Innovation Qualities: Evidence from a Natural Experiment
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 7562; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137562 - 21 Jun 2022
Abstract
Innovations differ substantially in their qualities, from major breakthroughs to small incremental refinements. What is the relationship between product market competition and the quality of innovations? We develop a model where competition encourages high-quality firms to innovate but discourages low-quality firms from innovating [...] Read more.
Innovations differ substantially in their qualities, from major breakthroughs to small incremental refinements. What is the relationship between product market competition and the quality of innovations? We develop a model where competition encourages high-quality firms to innovate but discourages low-quality firms from innovating and examine the impact of competition on the quality of innovations, taking the implementation of the negative list system for market access in China as a natural experiment. It is found that competition has twofold impacts on the incentives of innovation and that competition improves the overall innovation quality through the improvement of innovation resource allocation. More competition implies a higher elasticity of substitution, leading to stronger incentives for innovation. Meanwhile, competition also decreases industry profits and increases the cost of innovation, which reduces the expected return on innovation, resulting in fewer incentives for innovation. The findings suggest that while R&D subsidies increase aggregate R&D investment, they encourage the survival and expansion of low-quality firms at the expense of high-quality firms and lead to misallocation of R&D resources, resulting in the decline of overall innovation qualities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Assessment of Eco-Innovation Drivers within the Informal Sector in Ghana
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6903; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116903 - 06 Jun 2022
Abstract
Informal enterprises and their activities dominate the economy of the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, despise the increasing volume of eco-innovation research in recent years, the drivers of the eco-innovation of small medium enterprises (SMEs) in the informal sector remain largely unknown. Drawing from [...] Read more.
Informal enterprises and their activities dominate the economy of the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, despise the increasing volume of eco-innovation research in recent years, the drivers of the eco-innovation of small medium enterprises (SMEs) in the informal sector remain largely unknown. Drawing from a triple theoretical anchoring method (entrepreneurship theory, shareholder theory, and resource theory), this study tests the validity of a set of eco-innovation drivers developed around the concept among firms of the informal sector in Ghana. The conceptual framework was tested using structural equation modeling and the data were obtained using the World Bank’s Ghana Informal Enterprise Survey (GIFS) as an area-based frame to survey 285 local entrepreneurs (n = 285). The results confirmed that informal enterprises do eco-innovate (mainly incremental innovation), and that innovation activities are driven by a government’s incentive regulations, market demand, and local entrepreneurs’ characteristic of hometown identity. This research highlights the contributions of the informal sector to sustainable development and draws the attention of policymakers, non-government agencies, and researchers on the drivers leading eco-innovation activities in the informal sector. The results could be used for future policy formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Open Business Model of Eco-Innovation for Sustainability Development: Implications for the Open-Innovation Dynamics of Slovakia
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(2), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8020098 - 02 Jun 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
The paper presents the results of a survey aimed at evaluating the attitudes of Slovak respondents toward eco-innovation purchasing power supplied on the Slovak market to propose an open business model that would support such purchasing power to increase sustainability. The primary method [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of a survey aimed at evaluating the attitudes of Slovak respondents toward eco-innovation purchasing power supplied on the Slovak market to propose an open business model that would support such purchasing power to increase sustainability. The primary method applied in the research was the Kano model, by which we determined the attitudes of the respondents to the issue. Based on the findings and using the analytical-synthetic method, we subsequently processed a proposal for a business model for implementation of ecological innovation in Slovakia. This model used innovative marketing communication tools to increase interest in eco-innovation and products, and created a learning algorithm to influence customers’ shopping behaviors. As a result of the research, we assumed that the main obstacles to increasing demand for eco-innovation and products were inexperience, cost, and lack of information held by respondents, and therefore it is necessary to build and improve customer relationships, in which, in addition to traditional forms of marketing, it is inevitable to use various innovative forms of corporate social responsibility to minimize these negatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Governance of Web-Based Idea Management System Rewards: From the Perspective of Open Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(2), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8020097 - 01 Jun 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Digitisation of business processes has attracted practitioner attention across a wide range of industries as it enables enterprises to better manage their processes and improve results. The rate of digitisation has grown over the last decade and has become essential for enterprises to [...] Read more.
Digitisation of business processes has attracted practitioner attention across a wide range of industries as it enables enterprises to better manage their processes and improve results. The rate of digitisation has grown over the last decade and has become essential for enterprises to handle unforeseen disruptions and promote better management of resources. The COVID-19 pandemic is one example of a recent major disruption that caught enterprises off-guard and had a major impact on their value chains. The adoption of digitisation of business processes has significantly sped up to improve enterprise and their value chain resilience and enable enterprises to survive and potentially thrive in today’s uncertain environment. Through this movement, innovative companies have embraced idea management to develop new business models and achieve competitive advantage. One of the major digital tools that support enterprises in their idea management efforts is web-based idea management systems. This study aims to show how enterprises can manage the rewards of platforms, such as web-based idea management systems, to achieve a first-in-class quality and quantity of ideas sourced from the stakeholders involved in these platform-based ecosystems. To reach this aim, a global survey study was conducted involving over 400 responses from enterprises that use web-based idea management systems and consequent results were analysed. The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards on the results of enterprises is a well-researched area. To further verify the results, the authors have conducted ten expert interviews and a qualitative analysis of a data set sourced from a database that contained 129 company entries that utilise web-based idea management systems and was available for this research that was conducted over a two-year period. Results strongly indicate that mixed and financial reward type tasks result in a higher quantity of ideas created, however, higher idea quality—i.e., ideas selected—is higher for financial reward tasks. The research highlights that there could be differences between different web-based idea management systems application groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Research on the Effect of an Entrepreneurial Environment on College Students’ Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy: The Mediating Effect of Entrepreneurial Competence and Moderating Effect of Entrepreneurial Education
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6744; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116744 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: entrepreneurial self-efficacy is the level of confidence that entrepreneurs can complete various entrepreneurial tasks. It can significantly predict entrepreneurial effectiveness, entrepreneurial motivation and entrepreneurial ability. This study explores the mechanism of entrepreneurial environment on college students’ entrepreneurial self-efficacy and analyzes the role [...] Read more.
Background: entrepreneurial self-efficacy is the level of confidence that entrepreneurs can complete various entrepreneurial tasks. It can significantly predict entrepreneurial effectiveness, entrepreneurial motivation and entrepreneurial ability. This study explores the mechanism of entrepreneurial environment on college students’ entrepreneurial self-efficacy and analyzes the role of entrepreneurial competence and entrepreneurial education in the relationship between entrepreneurial competence and entrepreneurial education. Methods: a questionnaire survey was conducted among 1100 college students from 10 colleges and universities in Guangdong Province, and the survey results were statistically analyzed. Results: the results show that: (1) entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurship practice have a significant positive impact on college students’ self-efficacy; (2) entrepreneurial environment and entrepreneurial competence have a significant positive predictive effect on entrepreneurial self-efficacy; (3) entrepreneurial competence plays a mediating role in the influence of entrepreneurial environment on entrepreneurial self-efficacy; (4) entrepreneurial education plays a moderating role between entrepreneurial environment and entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Conclusion: present study found that entrepreneurial environment, entrepreneurial competence and entrepreneurial education play a positive role in college students’ entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Therefore, this paper suggests the promotion of an entrepreneurial education by creating a good innovative and entrepreneurial environment, establishing a talent training model based on entrepreneurial competence model, and building a high-quality entrepreneurial education system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Enabling Open Innovation in Digital Startups through the Incubation Program—A Case of Qatar
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6557; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116557 - 27 May 2022
Abstract
Researchers have studied open innovation by focusing primarily on big organizations. With digitization, the adoption of open innovation has become widespread, as there is broader access to cheaper and better information and communication technology. Private or public companies will also support individuals, or [...] Read more.
Researchers have studied open innovation by focusing primarily on big organizations. With digitization, the adoption of open innovation has become widespread, as there is broader access to cheaper and better information and communication technology. Private or public companies will also support individuals, or a group of individuals, to promote an innovative economy. Some countries also provide incubation opportunities and technical and financial support to encourage digital startups. This paper presents insights on the incubation program organized by one of the prominent centers in Qatar that incubate interested potential entrepreneurs to utilize open innovation for digital startups. The paper uses a qualitative analysis method on the data obtained from the interviews with the trainers (staff) of the center and the entrepreneurs who went through the incubation process. Four hypotheses were developed to understand various aspects of open innovation, the collaboration of startups, and the role of the incubation center. A nonparametric statistical test was used to assess the validity of the hypotheses. The results show that incubation and open innovation can contribute to digital startups. The paper concludes with suggested enhancements for incubation. This paper complements the literature by providing a study of open innovation in digital startups and introducing future research in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Innovativeness as the Key to MSMEs’ Performances
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6429; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116429 - 24 May 2022
Abstract
Research on Micro Small Medium Enterprises (MSME) has always been an exciting area of study because of its crucial role; however, it turns out that MSMEs have many problems. The problems, such as human resources and their abilities, are rarely discussed. MSMEs tend [...] Read more.
Research on Micro Small Medium Enterprises (MSME) has always been an exciting area of study because of its crucial role; however, it turns out that MSMEs have many problems. The problems, such as human resources and their abilities, are rarely discussed. MSMEs tend to be formed because of a compulsion to do so, whereas companies are created by opportunities; therefore, it is essential to include entrepreneur orientation and dynamic capability elements in making MSME performance models. This study used SEM analysis with 333 respondents spread across six provinces in Indonesia. The results showed that innovativeness, which is part of entrepreneur orientation, is critical in the formation of MSMEs’ performances. Moreover, based on the calculation of indirect effects, it revealed that innovativeness through marketing capabilities has a significant influence on the performance of MSMEs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Innovation from Spatial Spillovers of FDI and the Threshold Effect of Urbanization: Evidence from Chinese Cities
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 6266; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106266 - 20 May 2022
Abstract
The trends in the globalization and spatial agglomeration of economic activities offer new perspectives to study the determinants of innovation. To examine the spatial spillovers of foreign direct investment (FDI) in promoting regional innovation and explore the underlying mechanisms, this study employed a [...] Read more.
The trends in the globalization and spatial agglomeration of economic activities offer new perspectives to study the determinants of innovation. To examine the spatial spillovers of foreign direct investment (FDI) in promoting regional innovation and explore the underlying mechanisms, this study employed a spatial autoregressive model and a threshold regression model to analyze a panel dataset of 253 cities in China from 2003 to 2017. It was found that FDI significantly promotes regional innovation and that there are positive and significant spatial spillovers among cities. The results indicate that innovation is characterized by spatial agglomeration and that the diffusion of technology and knowledge from FDI contributes to the formation of coordinated innovation and development among neighboring cities. Furthermore, the threshold regression analysis indicates that the relationship between FDI and regional innovation depends on the urbanization level. FDI has a positive effect on regional innovation in China once above a certain threshold of urbanization, which demonstrates the heterogeneous effect of FDI spillovers on innovation in China. This study deepens the understanding of how FDI spurs innovation that leads to an increase in the sustainable competitive advantages across regions in emerging markets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
Article
The Role of Entrepreneurial Marketing in the Indonesian Agro-Based Industry Cluster to Face the ASEAN Economic Community
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 6163; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106163 - 19 May 2022
Abstract
The agro-industry plays an important role in the Indonesian economy. However, Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in this industry face various challenges to be competitive, one of which is the implementation of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) agreement. The study aims to [...] Read more.
The agro-industry plays an important role in the Indonesian economy. However, Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in this industry face various challenges to be competitive, one of which is the implementation of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) agreement. The study aims to develop a model for the agro-industry Micro-Small Medium Enterprises to face the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) using entrepreneurial marketing approaches. This research was conducted at three centers of agro-based industry clusters in Indonesia. The respondents were business actors representing the leading Micro-Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in the fruit-processing industry cluster, fish processing industry cluster and milk processing industry cluster. Primary data collection was conducted through structured interviews using close ended questionnaires. This study used Structural Equation Modelling analysis with a Partial Least Squares (PLS) approach to develop a model of enhancement for the agro-industry clusters in dealing with AEC. The findings suggest that the entrepreneurial marketing has significant impact in increasing business development and business competitiveness. The MSMEs possessing great competitiveness would be more ready to penetrate their business into other ASEAN markets. In addition, supportive government policies that encourage and improve innovativeness can significantly increase the entrepreneurial marketing ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Original Innovation through Inter-Organizational Collaboration: Empirical Evidence from University-Focused Alliance Portfolio in China
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 6162; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106162 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
A university-focused alliance portfolio is a manifestation of industry–university–research cooperation and has become an important path to realize original innovation in science and technology. Unlike traditional technological innovation, original innovation particularly emphasizes new ideas and research areas never covered before. This paper integrates [...] Read more.
A university-focused alliance portfolio is a manifestation of industry–university–research cooperation and has become an important path to realize original innovation in science and technology. Unlike traditional technological innovation, original innovation particularly emphasizes new ideas and research areas never covered before. This paper integrates resource-based theory, alliance portfolio theory, and innovation theory, and aims to scientifically establish an evaluation index system of original innovation performance from the three dimensions of initiate research, technology breakthrough, and research breakthrough. The work explores how a university can select partners to realize collaborative innovation in the context of inter-organizational scientific research cooperation with multiple innovation subjects for nationwide research institutes and universities in mainland China. The empirical results show that resource complementarity has a significant positive effect on innovation performance. Three typical universities in the “2011 project” are selected as post-interview cases for enriching empirical evidence. This study contributes to original innovation literature by introducing the concept of resource complementarity in a university-focused alliance portfolio, and further provides implications for original and science-driven innovation studies and suggests directions for university and research institutes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
How Knowledge Sharing Affects Business Model Innovation: An Empirical Study from the Perspective of Ambidextrous Organizational Learning
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 6157; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106157 - 19 May 2022
Abstract
In the era of knowledge economy and open innovation, it is especially important for organizations to learn how to store and utilize internal and external knowledge for the sustainability of business models. The ability to innovate is a necessity for sustainable development, thus [...] Read more.
In the era of knowledge economy and open innovation, it is especially important for organizations to learn how to store and utilize internal and external knowledge for the sustainability of business models. The ability to innovate is a necessity for sustainable development, thus this paper starting from the internal factors driving enterprises to realize business model innovation, from perspective of ambidextrous organizational learning, takes 257 managers in enterprises as samples to empirically study the mechanism of knowledge sharing on business model innovation. The results of regression analysis and structural equation model (SEM) path analysis show that knowledge sharing affects novel and efficient business model innovation through ambidextrous organizational learning, and ambidextrous organizational learning plays a complete mediating role. Both explorative and exploitative learning have a significant positive impact on the novel and efficient business model innovation, and explorative learning has a stronger promoting effect. Therefore, in the practice of enterprise business model innovation, leaders need to establish a system that can promote the willingness of employees to share knowledge. Organizations need to pay attention to the effectiveness of explorative learning, consider the actual demand of employees as much as possible, and mobilize the initiative of employees in the learning process. Organizations also are required to pay attention to the balance between explorative learning and exploitative learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
The Role of Green Innovation in the Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility on Firm Performance
Economies 2022, 10(5), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10050117 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 4
Abstract
Indonesia’s government policy recommends that medium and large companies carry out corporate social responsibility programs. These programs provide sustainability for the company because they can involve community social relations, economic growth, and increasing environmental awareness. This study aimed to test corporate social responsibility [...] Read more.
Indonesia’s government policy recommends that medium and large companies carry out corporate social responsibility programs. These programs provide sustainability for the company because they can involve community social relations, economic growth, and increasing environmental awareness. This study aimed to test corporate social responsibility on firm performance with green innovation as a mediation. This study used PROPER companies in 2015–2019, which were chosen using a purposive sampling method involving annual reports and financial reports, yielding 253 companies as a sample. Data were obtained from the Indonesia Stock Exchange and tested using STATA. This study indicates that corporate social responsibility can increase green innovation in companies with the stability of environmentally friendly materials, emission reductions for the surrounding community, and saving energy use. Corporate social responsibility has a positive effect on firm performance because the company has maintained the continuity of the process. After all, it has a harmonious relationship with the community. Furthermore, green innovation positively affects firm performance because the company can reduce energy use and utilize environmentally friendly resources. Therefore, green innovation can mediate the influence of corporate social responsibility and firm performance. This research contributes to senior managers who are part of their company’s top management to understand the critical role of corporate social responsibility in maintaining the company’s sustainability by paying attention to the part of the company’s environment and implementing government regulations. Corporate social responsibility can maintain good stakeholder relations and increase green innovation and firm performance. Theoretical contributions can enrich research related to the context of sustainable performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Innovation Capability and Open Innovation for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Performance: Response in Dealing with the COVID-19 Pandemic
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 5874; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14105874 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
The current business environment requires every organization or company to achieve optimal performance and maintain it. Innovation capability and open innovation practices play a critical role in improving organizational performance. However, their role in improving Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)’s performance, especially during [...] Read more.
The current business environment requires every organization or company to achieve optimal performance and maintain it. Innovation capability and open innovation practices play a critical role in improving organizational performance. However, their role in improving Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)’s performance, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, still needs to be identified further. Thus, this study conducts empirical research elaborating intrinsic factors of innovation capability, as well as the influence of open innovation on organizational efforts, i.e., how SMEs achieve optimal performance during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this research model, 206 respondents were gathered and given a reearch questionnaire. The respondents are the owner of batik SMEs located in several regions in Indonesia. PLS-SEM is used to test the data, and the result of this study shows that all hypotheses developed in this study are accepted, i.e., SMEs’ innovation capability and open innovation practices significantly influence financial and operational performance. The results show that in batik SMEs, the ability to innovate and open innovation, especially open entry innovation, can facilitate greater organizational performance. Therefore, batik SMEs woud benefit from initiatives and opportunities that improve their abilities in open innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
The Effect of Cultural Orientations on Country Innovation Performance: Hofstede Cultural Dimensions Revisited?
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 5851; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14105851 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
Purpose. One of the perspectives that receives the most attention from studies in international business is cultural dimensions. This is due to the greater complexity and incidence of cultural aspects in economic performance. This paper explored the moderation effect of cultural orientations on [...] Read more.
Purpose. One of the perspectives that receives the most attention from studies in international business is cultural dimensions. This is due to the greater complexity and incidence of cultural aspects in economic performance. This paper explored the moderation effect of cultural orientations on the creation of innovation trajectories related to levels of innovation and their outcomes in countries from various geographical areas between 2011 and 2021. Design/Methodology/Approach. A growth trajectories model is conducted to achieve the research’s aim, considering the country’s cultural orientation, innovation inputs (institutions, human capital and research, infrastructure, market sophistication, and business sophistication), and impact on innovation output. The Global Innovation Index, Globe Project, and Global Entrepreneurship Index databases used this analysis, containing data from nations on different continents. The trajectories’ analysis approach is utilized to achieve the desired goal, which allows for the assessment of the variations in innovation trajectory across countries with cultural tendencies towards performance and humane orientation from 2011 to 2021. Findings. The literature affirms positive results for various innovation inputs, but the results show differences in innovation outputs. The difference is related to their inputs (institutions, human capital and research, infrastructure, market sophistication, business sophistication), institutions, and market sophistication. Additionally, a difference depends on the country’s performance culture, generating options to obtain higher outputs, such as knowledge and creative results. Research Limitations/Implications. Based on the results achieved, an attempt is made to provide a different perspective on innovation, especially evaluating the results over time and identifying decreasing trajectories that affect the innovation results in countries with different economic development conditions and cultural characteristics. Practical Implications. The results achieved make it possible to strengthen the analysis of the countries’ strategies regarding innovation, especially in the permanent evaluation of the results, which encourages changes in the execution of innovative activities to maintain their performance over time. Social Implications. The contributions allow us to understand the dynamics of innovation in countries’ knowledge and creative outputs over time. Originality/Value. The trajectory analysis used in the data analysis is perhaps one of the most robust techniques for a time series analysis. This allows for identifying trajectories for the study’s independent variables and their influence on a country’s innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Moderating Effect of Structural Holes on Absorptive Capacity and Knowledge-Innovation Performance: Empirical Evidence from Chinese Firms
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 5821; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14105821 - 11 May 2022
Abstract
Under open innovation, the position of the innovation subject in the knowledge network plays a vital role. The purpose of this paper was to identify the role of structural holes in the relationship between the knowledge-absorption capacity and the innovation performance. Previous studies [...] Read more.
Under open innovation, the position of the innovation subject in the knowledge network plays a vital role. The purpose of this paper was to identify the role of structural holes in the relationship between the knowledge-absorption capacity and the innovation performance. Previous studies have ignored the role of structural holes in this relationship. Moreover, there are differences between structural-hole theory and weak-relationship theory on the mechanism of the network location on the innovation performance. A hierarchical regression model was applied to test the hypothesis. The findings from a study of 74 Chinese-listed integrated-circuit companies confirm the positive effect that the absorptive capacity has on the innovation performance, as well as the moderating role of structural holes in this relationship. By benefiting from the advantages of information and control, structural-hole spanners often have stronger knowledge-absorption abilities, and they thus achieve higher innovation performances. The results suggest that the synergy of structural holes should be taken seriously by those enterprises that are trying to strengthen their knowledge-absorption abilities to improve their innovation performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Entrepreneurs’ Life Satisfaction Built on Satisfaction with Job and Work–Family Balance: Embedded in Society in China, Finland, and Sweden
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5721; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095721 - 09 May 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Entrepreneurs are known to be more satisfied than employees, with their life satisfaction being built on their satisfaction with their job and work–family balance. We argue that effects differ among societies, drawing on theories about self-determination and culture. Representative samples of 1276 entrepreneurs [...] Read more.
Entrepreneurs are known to be more satisfied than employees, with their life satisfaction being built on their satisfaction with their job and work–family balance. We argue that effects differ among societies, drawing on theories about self-determination and culture. Representative samples of 1276 entrepreneurs and 3821 employees in traditional China and modern Finland and Sweden were surveyed by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), which is amenable to multivariate analyses. The effects of occupation upon satisfaction were found to differ among the societies, consistent with their cultural differences. These findings contribute to contextualizing theories about satisfaction being embedded in society and culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Entrepreneurial Intention of Chinese Students Studying at Universities in the Community of Madrid
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5475; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095475 - 03 May 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Entrepreneurial intention is one of the most representative indicators of entrepreneurship action. The Chinese community has an increasing presence in the community of Madrid both in the educational field and in the business field. This paper studies the relationship between different socioeconomic and [...] Read more.
Entrepreneurial intention is one of the most representative indicators of entrepreneurship action. The Chinese community has an increasing presence in the community of Madrid both in the educational field and in the business field. This paper studies the relationship between different socioeconomic and cultural variables and the entrepreneurial intention of Chinese students studying at universities in the community of Madrid. As a methodology, an analysis based on the application of structural equation modeling (SEM) has been chosen, since it is an exploratory analysis where this type of data has not been previously identified. The results show that subjective norms, the perception of control, and the motives of entrepreneurship have a positive and significant relationship with entrepreneurial intention. In contrast, the attitude toward entrepreneurship, gender, previous work experiences, and the existence of entrepreneurial parents do not have a significant relationship with entrepreneurial intention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Banking Information Resource Cybersecurity System Modeling
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(2), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8020080 - 28 Apr 2022
Abstract
The rapid development of the process of informatization of modern society has necessitated cybersecurity in all spheres of human activity, as the implementation of deliberate or unintentional influences on the information sphere by both external and internal sources can damage security and lead [...] Read more.
The rapid development of the process of informatization of modern society has necessitated cybersecurity in all spheres of human activity, as the implementation of deliberate or unintentional influences on the information sphere by both external and internal sources can damage security and lead to moral, material, financial, reputational and other forms of damage. The purpose of the paper is to create functional cognitive models to assess the level of their protection. The method of building a fuzzy cognitive map of the state of cybersecurity of banks is used. There have been developed cognitive models to determine the level of protection of the computer network, information security system and critical infrastructure (banks). Scenarios have been developed that reflect the response of the system at the complex maximum attenuation of the impact of the most important cyber threats. In conclusion, the practical implementation of the method provides an opportunity to predict the state of cybersecurity of banks, and contributes to the implementation of the necessary mechanisms to prevent, protect and control access at the appropriate levels of network infrastructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Entrepreneurial Orientation and Venture Creation in Nigerian Context: Assessing Mediating and Moderating Roles of Self-Efficacy and Entrepreneurial Support among Graduates
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 4904; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14094904 - 19 Apr 2022
Abstract
Over-reliance on hired jobs in the public and private sectors of the Nigerian economy has discouraged most graduates from becoming entrepreneurs. This leads to unemployment, poverty and low economic growth that breed insecurity. Drawing from the formative perspective, this study analyzed the mediating [...] Read more.
Over-reliance on hired jobs in the public and private sectors of the Nigerian economy has discouraged most graduates from becoming entrepreneurs. This leads to unemployment, poverty and low economic growth that breed insecurity. Drawing from the formative perspective, this study analyzed the mediating role of self-efficacy (SELF) and the moderating effect of entrepreneurial support (ENTSP) in relation to individual-level entrepreneurial orientation (ILEO; innovativeness, risk taking and proactiveness) and venture creation (VC) among Nigerian graduates. A reflective/formative type II method was applied to test the model’s relationships using 291 survey responses. The result of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) reveals that the indirect relationship between ILEO and VC through SELF was positive and significant but negatively moderated by ENTSP, implying that not all instances of ILEO will result in VC through SELF because ILEO can directly lead to VC. The finding also indicates ENTSP did not have an impact on strengthening the relationship between SELF and VC. A limitation lies in the chosen method that weakens the generalizability of the result, but future studies considering a longitudinal survey are suggested. This study extends the entrepreneurial orientation model to enhance the venture creation literature theoretically and practically. We recommend intervention agencies to initiate effective ENTSP covering financial, non-financial and incubation services required to boost VC activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Analyzing the Level of Digitalization among the Enterprises of the European Union Member States and Their Impact on Economic Growth
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8020070 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
The dynamic development of information and communication technology (ICT) reported in recent years has caused significant changes in almost all areas of social and economic life. The digitalization process resulting from this development is now becoming a determinant of both progress and modernity. [...] Read more.
The dynamic development of information and communication technology (ICT) reported in recent years has caused significant changes in almost all areas of social and economic life. The digitalization process resulting from this development is now becoming a determinant of both progress and modernity. This issue has been addressed in this paper, and thereby we present a methodology developed to study the level of digitalization and the use of innovative technologies among the enterprises of the EU-27 countries. The research was conducted using selected indicators—determinants (10) characterizing the main digital technologies and infrastructure associated with their implementation in the enterprises under study. Based on these indicators, the Entropy-Multi-Objective Optimization on the basis of Ratio Analysis (MOORA) method was used to determine the index (level) of digitalization among the companies of the EU-27. The level of use of digital technologies and infrastructure for Industry 4.0 was also determined. Another important goal of the study was to determine a relationship between the values of the digitalization index for the EU-27 countries and the economic parameters characterizing their economies. For this analysis, non-parametric tests such as the Kendall’s Tau and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were applied. The results significantly enrich the knowledge of methodology for studying the level of digitalization and its status among the enterprises of the EU-27. These findings provide great opportunities for interpretation and practical application, especially in terms of building an innovative knowledge-based economy. They show great diversity of the EU-27 countries in the field of digitalization and poor results reported in this area by the so-called “new EU” countries. Among the many interesting findings, it is worth pointing out the positive impact of spending on research and development on the process of digitalization of enterprises. The results should be used when creating a digitalization strategy for individual countries and their groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Human Systematic Innovation Helix: Knowledge Management, Emotional Intelligence and Entrepreneurial Competency
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 4296; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074296 - 04 Apr 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study analyzes the relationship between the innovation capacity of Spanish companies through the ability to obtain their information through the integration of these three variables: knowledge management, emotional intelligence, and entrepreneurial competency of Spanish executives. The questionnaires were distributed to executives of [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the relationship between the innovation capacity of Spanish companies through the ability to obtain their information through the integration of these three variables: knowledge management, emotional intelligence, and entrepreneurial competency of Spanish executives. The questionnaires were distributed to executives of companies from different sectors of activity. The sample consists of 241 executives. The hypothesis was examined by structural equation modeling. Regarding the direct effects, the hypothesis testing result proves that the knowledge management of executives exerts a positive effect on Innovation, and, the entrepreneurial competency of executives exerts a positive effect on innovation. However, the influence of EI on innovation is not significant. The indirect effect shows that the integration of knowledge management, emotional intelligence and entrepreneurial competency of executives exert a positive statistical effect on Innovation at enterprises. This paper contributes with both, scientific and socio-economic impacts. Scientific impact, generating new knowledge that strengthens the value of executives as a catalyst for innovation; and, socio-economic impact, originating the human systematic innovation helix, a new socio-economic management tool to develop knowledge management capacity, socio-emotional abilities, and entrepreneurial competencies of executives, which acts as a lever to boost the results of innovation at companies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Cognitive Mechanisms in Entrepreneurship Competence: Its Implication for Open Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8020065 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
From the perspective of cognitive mechanisms, this research discusses the effects of cognitive flexibility, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and optimism on entrepreneurship competence. Qualitative interviews have revealed the general relationship between key concepts. SEM analysis further shows that cognitive flexibility has a positive direct effect [...] Read more.
From the perspective of cognitive mechanisms, this research discusses the effects of cognitive flexibility, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and optimism on entrepreneurship competence. Qualitative interviews have revealed the general relationship between key concepts. SEM analysis further shows that cognitive flexibility has a positive direct effect on entrepreneurial self-efficacy; entrepreneurial self-efficacy has a positive direct effect on entrepreneurship competence; cognitive flexibility has a positive direct effect on entrepreneurship competence; cognitive flexibility has a positive indirect effect on entrepreneurship competence through entrepreneurial self-efficacy; optimism moderates the relationship between cognitive flexibility and entrepreneurship competence, with an inverted U-shaped moderation effect. According to the results, this research offers some suggestions to improve entrepreneurs’ entrepreneurship competence from the perspective of cognition and positive psychology, hoping that through the overall improvement of entrepreneurs’ entrepreneurship competence, it can be beneficial to the open innovation atmosphere of the whole society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Blockchain Technology as a Game Changer for Green Innovation: Green Entrepreneurship as a Roadmap to Green Economic Sustainability in Peru
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8020062 - 29 Mar 2022
Abstract
Blockchain technology has been heralded as a game changer for addressing severe environmental and economic sustainability challenges. In response to rising environmental concerns, blockchain technology (BCT) is transforming green innovation, culminating in green economic practices and well-established business models. Recognizing this, we investigated [...] Read more.
Blockchain technology has been heralded as a game changer for addressing severe environmental and economic sustainability challenges. In response to rising environmental concerns, blockchain technology (BCT) is transforming green innovation, culminating in green economic practices and well-established business models. Recognizing this, we investigated the role of blockchain technology in green innovation practices and its impact on green economic sustainability, which has an impact on green environmental sustainability. Moreover, 184 small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) were surveyed in Lima, Peru. Data for this cross-sectional study were gathered using stratified random sampling. The positivist approach was implemented using a statistical induction method. Prior studies’ research constructs were measured using validated measurement scales. For quantitative data analysis, using the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) framework, this study provided two key findings. First, sustainability orientation and sustainability attitude have a positive and significant effect on the adoption of green innovation that employs green energy (solar) technology towards a sustainable green economy. Second, the intention to use blockchain technology mediates the relationship between sustainability orientation and social perception with the adoption of green innovation that employs green energy (solar) technology towards a sustainable green economy. We recommend that small- and medium-sized enterprises embrace green innovation and blockchain technology to protect the environment and boost community cohesiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Constructs of Project Programme Management Supporting Open Innovation at the Strategic Level of the Organisation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010058 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 5
Abstract
The main aim of the article is to fill the gap concerning the recognition of constructs of programme management supporting open innovations. Current knowledge on this subject is mainly limited to identifying success factors of open innovation and programme management. In the current [...] Read more.
The main aim of the article is to fill the gap concerning the recognition of constructs of programme management supporting open innovations. Current knowledge on this subject is mainly limited to identifying success factors of open innovation and programme management. In the current literature, there are few publications indicating the use of the programme as a tool supporting innovation. In order to fill the identified knowledge gap, common factors of programme success and open innovations were compared and assessed successively. A quantitative study was conducted on an international group of experts, including 578 experts in programme management. As a result of applying cluster analysis and operationalising the obtained results, four programme constructs supporting open innovations were dimensioned, such as cooperation with the environment, transfer of knowledge and technology, organisational maturity, and ensuring and maintaining implementation capacity. Moreover, the discussion and the research revealed that the impact and scope of the structured approach to programme management not only allow for the implementation of the assumed outcomes and benefits at the strategic level, but also influence the shaping and adjustment of the whole organisation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
The Comparative Advantage of Cities and Innovation Value Chain: Evidence from China
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3510; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063510 - 16 Mar 2022
Abstract
Cities are different in industrial structure; some are specialized while others are diversified. Based on the theory of the innovation value chain, this paper used the innovation data of industrial enterprises from 2008 to 2014 in China to test the comparative advantage of [...] Read more.
Cities are different in industrial structure; some are specialized while others are diversified. Based on the theory of the innovation value chain, this paper used the innovation data of industrial enterprises from 2008 to 2014 in China to test the comparative advantage of cities in innovation. Our empirical results proved that diversified cities are more suitable for the R&D process of innovation through the labor matching effect and the knowledge spillover effect, while specialized cities are more suitable for the commercialization process through cost-saving effect. Enterprises could choose suitable locations due to their positions in the innovation value chain to achieve sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Entrepreneurial Traits, Relational Capital, and Social Enterprise Performance: Regulatory Effects of Cognitive Legitimacy
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3336; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063336 - 12 Mar 2022
Cited by 5
Abstract
Social enterprises, as a new form of organization where public welfare and business coexist, are gradually becoming an important power in innovating social governance. However, the development of social enterprises in China is still in its infancy. Social entrepreneurs have a profound impact [...] Read more.
Social enterprises, as a new form of organization where public welfare and business coexist, are gradually becoming an important power in innovating social governance. However, the development of social enterprises in China is still in its infancy. Social entrepreneurs have a profound impact on the growth of social enterprises and may bring advantages to the development of enterprises, while barriers to legitimacy commonly faced by social enterprises hinder the development of the enterprise to some extent. Social enterprise performance has always been a research focus in social entrepreneurship, on which many studies have been reported, while it is seldom investigated from the perspective of entrepreneurial traits. The research aims to clarify how entrepreneurial traits influence the growth of social enterprises in an institutional scenario. Taking 208 social enterprises in China as samples, the relationship among entrepreneurial traits, relational capital, cognitive legitimacy, and social enterprise performance was verified using SPSS 22.0 and methods including correlation analysis and regression analysis based on trait theory and relational capital theory. The results indicate that: (1) entrepreneurial traits exert a significant positive effect on both the economic and social performance of social enterprises; (2) relational capital plays a mediating effect between entrepreneurial traits and social enterprise performance; (3) cognitive legitimacy only positively regulates the relationship between relational capital and economic performance. The conclusions may enrich the theory of traits and provide new ideas allowing social enterprises to overcome the dilemma of resource constraints and improve their performance. Social entrepreneurs need to pay close attention to cultivating their entrepreneurial traits and actively establishing relational capital; governments should create an institutional environment conducive to social entrepreneurship, to promote improvement in social enterprise performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Study on the Effect of Customer Psychological Ownership on Value Co-Creation under Service Ecosystem
Sustainability 2022, 14(5), 2660; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14052660 - 24 Feb 2022
Abstract
Recently, scholars have tended to study value co-creation from the perspective of service ecosystems, focusing more on the networked, dynamic, and interactive nature of service ecosystems. They believe that the foundation of value co-creation in the service ecosystem is user experience and deep [...] Read more.
Recently, scholars have tended to study value co-creation from the perspective of service ecosystems, focusing more on the networked, dynamic, and interactive nature of service ecosystems. They believe that the foundation of value co-creation in the service ecosystem is user experience and deep engagement. The deep experience and interaction in the process of value co-creation led to increased psychological ownership, thus increasing the value of users and companies. This study explores the effect of customer psychological ownership on value co-creation from the perspective of deep experience and interaction. The results show that customer psychological ownership and customer fit have a positive effect on the performance of value co-creation, and companies can enhance value co-creation by increasing customers’ sense of belonging and tacit understanding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Transforming the German Food System: How to Make Start-Ups Great!
Sustainability 2022, 14(4), 2363; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042363 - 18 Feb 2022
Abstract
The food system represents a key industry for Europe and Germany in particular. However, it is also the single most significant contributor to climate and environmental change. A food system transformation is necessary to overcome the system’s major and constantly increasing challenges in [...] Read more.
The food system represents a key industry for Europe and Germany in particular. However, it is also the single most significant contributor to climate and environmental change. A food system transformation is necessary to overcome the system’s major and constantly increasing challenges in the upcoming decades. One possible facilitator for this transformation are radical and disruptive innovations that start-ups develop. There are many challenges for start-ups in general and food start-ups in particular. Various support opportunities and resources are crucial to ensure the success of food start-ups. One aim of this study is to identify how the success of start-ups in the food system can be supported and further strengthened by actors in the innovation ecosystem in Germany. There is still room for improvement and collaboration toward a thriving innovation ecosystem. A successful innovation ecosystem is characterised by a well-organised, collaborative, and supportive environment with a vivid exchange between the members in the ecosystem. The interviewees confirmed this, and although the different actors are already cooperating, there is still room for improvement. The most common recommendation for improving cooperation is learning from other countries and bringing the best to Germany. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Marketing Communication and Creative Tourism: An Analysis of the Local Destination Management Organization
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010040 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Delivering a positive tourism experience is an expanding concern of destinations because of the growth of the tourism industry. The emergence of creative tourism has led to a continued necessity for local destination management organizations to pursue innovative and versatile strategies. This study [...] Read more.
Delivering a positive tourism experience is an expanding concern of destinations because of the growth of the tourism industry. The emergence of creative tourism has led to a continued necessity for local destination management organizations to pursue innovative and versatile strategies. This study aims to evaluate the organizational capabilities of local destination management organizations to promote a creative tourism context and develop related activities. The conceptual model was tested using a mixed-methods approach, combining a focus group with local destination management organizations with a quantitative study using multivariate statistical analysis through structural equational modeling. The findings showed that local destination management organizations ought to prioritize organizational culture by coordinating learning and effective knowledge training to strengthen marketing communication capabilities while focusing on potentiating their resources to develop the destination by implementing a local creative tourism destination, thereby generating value for a greater creative tourism local destination where tourists play an active role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Positive Performance Feedback and Innovation Search: New Ideas for Sustainable Business Development
Sustainability 2022, 14(4), 2086; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042086 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Although the literature suggests that firms tend to adopt “conservative” behavior in the face of positive performance feedback, there are also studies that take the opposite view on the impact of positive performance feedback. Based on the behavior theory of the firm and [...] Read more.
Although the literature suggests that firms tend to adopt “conservative” behavior in the face of positive performance feedback, there are also studies that take the opposite view on the impact of positive performance feedback. Based on the behavior theory of the firm and regulatory focus theory, this study explored the impact of positive performance feedback on innovation search behavior and the boundary effect of CEO regulatory focus to gain insight into the mechanisms of innovation search behavior and to promote innovation for sustainable development. Based on data from 230 biopharmaceutical companies in China, the analysis found that: (1) positive performance feedback had a significant positive effect on depth search behavior and a significant negative effect on breadth search behavior; (2) CEOs’ promotion focus had a negative moderating effect on the relationship between positive performance feedback and depth search behavior and a positive moderating effect on the relationship between positive performance feedback and breadth search behavior; and (3) CEOs’ prevention focus positively moderated the relationship between positive performance feedback in relation to depth search behavior. This study extends the behavior theory of the firm and reveals the mechanism of the differential impact of positive performance feedback on innovation search behavior, which has implications for the study of which innovation search practices should be conducted by high-performing firms to promote sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Start-Up Ecosystem (StUpEco): A Conceptual Framework and Empirical Research
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010035 - 07 Feb 2022
Cited by 4
Abstract
Start-up development, success, and sustainability are affected by contextual factors that constitute a regional entrepreneurship ecosystem. Based on previous literature, we propose the conceptual framework Start-Up Ecosystem (StUpEco) that highlights the contextual drivers of a start-up business affected by the entrepreneurial ecosystem entities [...] Read more.
Start-up development, success, and sustainability are affected by contextual factors that constitute a regional entrepreneurship ecosystem. Based on previous literature, we propose the conceptual framework Start-Up Ecosystem (StUpEco) that highlights the contextual drivers of a start-up business affected by the entrepreneurial ecosystem entities involved within the quadruple helix model. Furthermore, the proposed framework is tested according to the perceptions of Greek start-uppers through an empirical survey. According to our findings, the start-uppers’ motivation is explained mainly through opportunity rather than necessity. The study identifies government issues, such as tax incentives and acceleration of starting procedures, availability of funding opportunities, connectivity of stakeholders, entrepreneurship education, previous start-up experience, incubator support, as well as mentoring, as the most significant issues affecting the successful development of start-ups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Driving Factors for R&D Intensity: Evidence from Global and Income-Level Panels
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1854; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031854 - 06 Feb 2022
Cited by 3
Abstract
Research and development (R&D) has long been recognized as an important component of sustainable development, with a key role in the combatting of climate change. Moreover, R&D activity is increasingly acknowledged as an important contributing factor to global post-pandemic economic recovery. However, little [...] Read more.
Research and development (R&D) has long been recognized as an important component of sustainable development, with a key role in the combatting of climate change. Moreover, R&D activity is increasingly acknowledged as an important contributing factor to global post-pandemic economic recovery. However, little is known about the determinants of R&D intensity (the share of R&D expenditure in GDP) and countries have repeatedly missed their set targets for this indicator. This article tackles this issue for a global panel consisting of 62 countries over the period 2007–2015 by using a dynamic system-generalized method of moments (SYS-GMM) panel model to uncover driving factors for R&D intensity. We also perform investigations on two homogenous subpanels constructed based on the income level of sample countries (High-income, and Middle- and Low-income subpanels), which contributes to assuring the robustness of results, along with formal model diagnostics and employment of alternative explanatory variables. We mainly find that the number of researchers is the most important driving factor for R&D intensity. High-technology exports have a statistically significant effect on R&D intensity only in middle and low-income countries. Patents are conducive to R&D intensity only in the high-income panel. Trade-openness is a significant mitigating factor for R&D investments throughout the panels and model specifications. Policy implications of results are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Entrepreneurship Experiences among Vietnamese Marriage Immigrant Women in Taiwan
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1489; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031489 - 27 Jan 2022
Abstract
Since the 1990s, Taiwan has experienced growing numbers of commercially arranged marriages between Vietnamese women and socioeconomically disadvantaged Taiwanese men. Most Vietnamese marriage immigrant women proactively engage in the labor market due to the heavy financial burden of their Taiwanese and natal families. [...] Read more.
Since the 1990s, Taiwan has experienced growing numbers of commercially arranged marriages between Vietnamese women and socioeconomically disadvantaged Taiwanese men. Most Vietnamese marriage immigrant women proactively engage in the labor market due to the heavy financial burden of their Taiwanese and natal families. Employing a sociocultural and post-structural feminist approach, this study draws from life-story interviews of 13 married Vietnamese women to investigate the entrepreneurship experiences among Vietnamese marriage immigrant women in Taiwan. These women are pushed and pulled towards creating demanding micro-entrepreneurships based on their self-employed socialization, thereby fulfilling family obligations and achieving career goals. Targeting their host market, these women operate their businesses using Taiwanese customer networks and their institutionalized learning and sustainable resilience while negotiating self-identity. Running entrepreneurships empowers these women, facilitating their self-identity, social integration, family position within the boundaries of gender, family expectations, and business while they struggle with unexpected challenges. Clearly, these individuals and their significant others, homeland culture and socialization, and their life experiences and positions in Taiwan shape these immigrant women’s businesses and their sense of meaning. This study extends the feminist perspective of this topic, focusing on the sustainable agency and sense of competence of female marriage immigrants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
Article
Strategy for Sustainability of Social Enterprise in Indonesia: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031383 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 4
Abstract
Social enterprise (SE) is a significant global phenomenon that occurs when an organization with social concerns can grow concurrently with its commercial activities. However, the factors that influence the sustainability of SE remain relatively understudied. This study argues that innovation is a prerequisite [...] Read more.
Social enterprise (SE) is a significant global phenomenon that occurs when an organization with social concerns can grow concurrently with its commercial activities. However, the factors that influence the sustainability of SE remain relatively understudied. This study argues that innovation is a prerequisite for SE’s sustainability. Therefore, this study aims to find alternatives to SE’s sustainability strategy, considering the need for SE to have dynamic capabilities, to anticipate changes in the ecosystem, and to manage the company’s internal resources to build on SE’s innovation and sustainability. The dataset was obtained from a survey of 187 SEs in Indonesia, which was then processed using SEM. Results indicate that internal factors have no direct significant effect on sustainability, but the ecosystem and innovation have been shown to have a direct and significant positive effect on sustainability. Dynamic capabilities have a significant but negative direct relationship to sustainability. Internal and ecosystem factors cannot be mediated by dynamic capabilities when it comes to sustainability, whereas innovation can only mediate internal factors towards sustainability. Finally, serial mediation of dynamic capabilities and innovation are key elements that contribute to sustainability. It is proven that if dynamic capabilities are directed to foster innovation, it will increase sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Determinants for Successful Digital Transformation
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1215; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031215 - 21 Jan 2022
Abstract
The proliferation of innovative digital technology is changing the industrial ecosystem; thus, companies should have the ability to adapt to the new environment. However, the success rate of digital transformation (DT) is still low, and there is a need to know its success [...] Read more.
The proliferation of innovative digital technology is changing the industrial ecosystem; thus, companies should have the ability to adapt to the new environment. However, the success rate of digital transformation (DT) is still low, and there is a need to know its success determinant factors. This study aims to examine factors that affect DT’s personal and social acceptance and empirically verify whether they actually affect it. Success factors and risk factors affecting the adoption of DT were identified from the literature review. The study collected data from 100 employees working for Korean financial institutions to statistically analyze and identify the determinant factors affecting successful DT. The results show that planned behavioral factors and innovative characteristics have a positive effect on DT acceptance attitude and that DT acceptance attitude has a positive effect on personal acceptance of DT. This study makes both theoretical and practical contributions. It distinguishes acceptance of innovation in two ways: individual acceptance and social acceptance, which has not been done in previous studies. It presents useful insights and understanding for those interested in transforming their organization with new technology by suggesting successful DT determinant factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
E-Commerce and SME Performance: The Moderating Influence of Entrepreneurial Competencies
Adm. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci12010013 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 4
Abstract
This research aims to examine the mediating role of the use of the e-commerce and moderating influence of entrepreneurial competencies on the performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The study data were collected via a structured questionnaire comprised of a seven-point Likert [...] Read more.
This research aims to examine the mediating role of the use of the e-commerce and moderating influence of entrepreneurial competencies on the performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The study data were collected via a structured questionnaire comprised of a seven-point Likert scale from practitioners serving at the top and middle-level positions in Pakistani SMEs. The Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) technique was applied on 250 useable returned questionnaires. The results showed that the association between the use of e-commerce and firm performance is positively significant. Moreover, the use of e-commerce mediates the positive association between technological readiness, adoption cost, and firm performance. However, the moderating role of entrepreneurial competencies does not appear as significant between the use of e-commerce and manufacturing SMEs’ performance. The present study is the first to explore entrepreneurial competencies as a moderator between e-commerce adoption and firm performance. The empirical outcomes of this research provide useful theoretical and practical implications for the managers and practitioners to understand the underlying factors for the successful implementation of e-commerce in the SME sector to enhance firm performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Review
Characteristics of Lead Users in Different Stages of the New Product Development Process: A Systematic Review in the Context of Open Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010024 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 5
Abstract
Despite the promising ideas of lead users, the success rate of the open innovation process remains low if no proper personal characteristics are attached to the external contributor. The knowledge about the essential characteristic elements of lead users is crucial to select the [...] Read more.
Despite the promising ideas of lead users, the success rate of the open innovation process remains low if no proper personal characteristics are attached to the external contributor. The knowledge about the essential characteristic elements of lead users is crucial to select the right lead users in the early stage of the NPD. By filling the research gap, we performed a systematic literature review about the required personal characteristics of lead users. The resulting 45 studies demonstrated that diverse characteristics are required in different stages of an NDP which vary in the consumer and industrial context. According to our research results, we made a contribution to the theory by extending the lead user method in the form of a partial theory. We also found that in the case of incremental innovations, companies apply their technical knowledge and do not require additional expertise from users, while in the case of radical innovations, firms only involve external users with high technological competencies in the development stage of the NDP. We identified similarities and differences of the required lead users’ personal characteristics in the consumer and industrial contexts. Thus, our study provides a better awareness for business leaders on the selection of lead users for their NPD process, reducing the time-to-market ratio of the product and increasing profit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Operating Successfully on a New Technological Path: The Effect of External Search
Sustainability 2022, 14(2), 957; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14020957 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Switching to a new technological path is often a serious economic challenge for companies. Incumbents, in particular, are often led by their organizational routines, traditional technological orientation, and experience, and run the risk of losing contact with new technologies, which can decrease their [...] Read more.
Switching to a new technological path is often a serious economic challenge for companies. Incumbents, in particular, are often led by their organizational routines, traditional technological orientation, and experience, and run the risk of losing contact with new technologies, which can decrease their competitiveness. We analyze whether opening up the innovation process to external knowledge partners can help to overcome such path dependence and enable firms to operate successfully on a new technological path. We develop a theoretical concept that shows the potential of external knowledge sources for operating successfully on a new technological path and test it empirically using the example of green technologies. Green technologies are not only relevant for addressing the current environmental problems, but they are also an example of a new technological path that is proving difficult for companies to switch to. Overall, we find strong direct effects of external (green) knowledge on green innovation success. The results even indicate that the direct effect of external knowledge tends to be larger for green than for non-green innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Optimizing the Financial Performance of SMEs Based on Sharia Economy: Perspective of Economic Business Sustainability and Open Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010018 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 6
Abstract
Optimal financial performance based on the use of sharia fintech followed by the stability of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) will have an impact on economic growth. This study aims to analyze the financial performance of SMEs from a sharia economic perspective; analyzing [...] Read more.
Optimal financial performance based on the use of sharia fintech followed by the stability of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) will have an impact on economic growth. This study aims to analyze the financial performance of SMEs from a sharia economic perspective; analyzing the effect of using sharia fintech on the financial performance and sustainability of SMEs and strengthening human resource capacity, business diversification, business productivity, and product marketing to improve financial performance and business sustainability of SMEs. The study uses a quantitative survey approach. Data were obtained through questionnaires distributed to 350 respondents in 15 districts in the city of Makassar. The results of the study show that human resource capacity and business diversification affect the financial performance of SMEs by 41.8%. Sharia fintech, human resource capacity, business diversification, business productivity, and financial performance have a positive effect on SME business sustainability with a determination coefficient of 65.9%. This study recommends the management of SME businesses based on the use of sharia fintech in supporting the sustainability of SME businesses in Makassar, Indonesia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Nowcasting Entrepreneurship: Urban Third Place versus the Creative Class
Sustainability 2022, 14(2), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14020763 - 11 Jan 2022
Abstract
Researchers have long debated whether entrepreneurship policy should focus on place or people. In this paper, we extend the place-based versus people-based theories using contemporaneous and geographically granular web-user online activity data to predict a region’s proclivity for entrepreneurship. We compare two theoretical [...] Read more.
Researchers have long debated whether entrepreneurship policy should focus on place or people. In this paper, we extend the place-based versus people-based theories using contemporaneous and geographically granular web-user online activity data to predict a region’s proclivity for entrepreneurship. We compare two theoretical hypotheses: the urban third places—informal gathering locations—that facilitate social interaction and entrepreneurship, in contrast to the creative class which fosters entrepreneurial energy and opportunity in a region. Specifically, we assess whether business formation has a stronger statistical relationship with the browsing behavior of individuals visiting websites associated with third place locations—e.g., restaurants or bars—or the concentration of web browsing behavior associated with “the creative class”. Using U.S. county-level data, we find that both urban third places and the creative class can predict about 70% of the variations in regional business formation, with the creative class having a slight competitive edge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Muslim Clothing Online Purchases in Indonesia during COVID-19 Crisis
Economies 2022, 10(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies10010019 - 07 Jan 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Today, online Muslim clothing providers in Indonesia are faced with increasing competition in business openness. This condition requires online Muslim clothing providers to be more creative, innovative, effective and efficient by offering Muslim clothing products that are more valuable than competitors’. Therefore, a [...] Read more.
Today, online Muslim clothing providers in Indonesia are faced with increasing competition in business openness. This condition requires online Muslim clothing providers to be more creative, innovative, effective and efficient by offering Muslim clothing products that are more valuable than competitors’. Therefore, a sophisticated and smart technology planning concept is needed for Muslim fashion consumers and to continue to achieve the benefits obtained by online Muslim clothing providers. This study aims to determine: (1) the influence of attitudes on the online buying intention of Muslim clothing in Indonesia during the COVID-19 crisis (2) the influence of subjective norm on the online buying intention of Muslim clothing in Indonesia during the COVID-19 crisis (3) the influence of perceived behavioral control on the online buying intention of Muslim clothing in Indonesia during the COVID-19 crisis (4) the effect of attitudes on the online buying intention of Muslim clothing in Indonesia during the COVID-19 crisis moderated by religious belief, (5) the effect of subjective norm on the online buying intention of Muslim clothing in Indonesia during the COVID-19 crisis moderated by religious belief, and (6) the effect of perceived behavioral control on the online buying intention of Muslim clothing in Indonesia during the COVID-19 crisis moderated by religious belief. This study uses 1. independent variables, namely: attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. 2. The dependent variable is: Purchase intention. 3. The moderating variable is: religion. The data in this study are obtained from questionnaires distributed to 762 respondents. The method used is purposive sampling to all respondents who shopped online. The method is through the LISREL 8.7 program and t-test. These results indicate that the variables of attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control influence the online buying intention of Muslim clothing in Indonesia during the COVID-19 crisis. They also find that the religious belief variable can moderate the variable of attitude towards the online buying intention of Muslim clothing in Indonesia during the COVID-19 crisis but not the subjective norm and perceived behavioral control variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Holistic Approach to R&D Products’ Evaluation for Commercialization under Open Innovations
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010009 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 4
Abstract
A holistic approach to R&D products’ evaluation for commercialization under open innovations is developed. The approach is tested on the example of the device of the interferometric determination of the refractive index of crystalline materials in the optical range. The proposed approach will [...] Read more.
A holistic approach to R&D products’ evaluation for commercialization under open innovations is developed. The approach is tested on the example of the device of the interferometric determination of the refractive index of crystalline materials in the optical range. The proposed approach will allow setting a price that will satisfy all the parties of a transfer agreement with a higher level of accuracy and will meet market requirements. Unlike popular methods of evaluating the R&D product, a holistic approach will, on the one hand, be based on the actual costs and the break-even level of a R&D product and, on the other hand, will determine how much the consumer is receptive to a R&D product, and, then again, will show how the added value of the product will develop under the influence of market effects. It is noted that the application of a holistic approach to R&D products’ evaluation for commercialization should be supplemented by assessing the willingness of potential customers to purchase this R&D product at a specific price. It is proved that the proposed holistic approach to R&D products’ evaluation for commercialization is multifunctional. The approach can be applied to different types of economic activity, R&D products, and types of markets. The obtained prices based on the application of a holistic approach to R&D products’ evaluation for commercialization and the results of marketing research of the interferometry market testified to potential prospects of the commercialization of a R&D product of the interferometric determination of the refractive index of crystalline materials in the optical range and its long-term competitiveness. Based on the results, the key provisions of the concept of providing competitive benefits for the period of implementation of the analyzed R&D product are identified. Taking into account fundamental elements of the open innovation paradigm underpins the authors’ holistic approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
Article
Improving Education for Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Chinese Technical Universities: A Quest for Building a Sustainable Framework
Sustainability 2022, 14(2), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14020595 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 3
Abstract
The global economic trends and the winds of technological change have elevated the status of integration between industry and education for innovation and entrepreneurship to that of being a national strategic priority of China. However, for a long time prior to that, the [...] Read more.
The global economic trends and the winds of technological change have elevated the status of integration between industry and education for innovation and entrepreneurship to that of being a national strategic priority of China. However, for a long time prior to that, the many differences between the industrial and educational systems have caused a rift between education for innovation and entrepreneurship and professional education, a profound disconnection between professional education and the local industries, and the subsequent disinterest of entrepreneurial mentors. In this paper, we analyze the status of education for innovation and entrepreneurship in Chinese technical universities. It is pointed out that technical universities should deepen the integration between the industry and education for innovation and entrepreneurship in order to mitigate the imbalance between the supply side of the higher education talent training and the demand side of industrial development. It is also argued that technical universities should change their talent training paradigm, which includes a makeover of the organizational structure and of the curricular system, as well as make amends in the innovation ecosystem with respect to the organization of incubation platforms and of teacher–student teams, in order to promote national and regional economic development, as well as social progress. A method to evaluate the performance of the education for innovation and entrepreneurship in Chinese technical universities, based on specific performance indicators including patents filled, publications, awards in competitions, and acquired funding and on certain non-specific ones including organizational arrangements and satisfaction rates, is presented and then applied to the specific case of the Changzhou Institute of Technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Revisiting Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises’ Innovation and Resilience during COVID-19: The Tourism Sector
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2022, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc8010011 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 7
Abstract
Every day, companies are exposed to various risks arising from their environment, and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are the most affected. This study emphasizes innovation and resilience as the starting points to understand how SMEs are influenced by external factors which are [...] Read more.
Every day, companies are exposed to various risks arising from their environment, and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are the most affected. This study emphasizes innovation and resilience as the starting points to understand how SMEs are influenced by external factors which are independent of the managers’ will. To date, we have seen several extreme factors that have conditioned businesses and entrepreneurs of these types of companies, such as the financial crisis of 2008. However, last year, in 2020, we saw the beginning of a worldwide pandemic: COVID-19. Thus, this research seeks to understand the extent to which this pandemic influenced the resilience and innovation of SMEs in the tourism area. Thus, eight hypotheses were raised based on four independent variables: access to finance, risk taking, working conditions, and personal network. The study of these variables was developed from an online questionnaire and in-depth interviews. After analyzing the results, it is possible to infer that the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in consequences never observed in previous crises, to such an extent that the study showed that: (1) a company’s network positively influences its resilience; (2) risk taking influences innovation and resilience of these SMEs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Organizational and Personal Factors That Boost Innovation: The Case of Nurses during COVID-19 Pandemic Based on Job Demands-Resources Model
Sustainability 2022, 14(1), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010458 - 01 Jan 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Since 2019, the world has been experiencing a pandemic period due to the COVID-19 virus, which has brought the need for organizations in general, healthcare organizations and their professionals in particular, to focus on innovation as a way to fight an utterly unknown [...] Read more.
Since 2019, the world has been experiencing a pandemic period due to the COVID-19 virus, which has brought the need for organizations in general, healthcare organizations and their professionals in particular, to focus on innovation as a way to fight an utterly unknown virus. Thus, this study aims to understand how nurses and their personal factors (stress, anxiety, work engagement, organizational support) impact their innovative behaviour and innovation outputs, contributing to innovation in the current pandemic period through changes in thoughts, values, behaviours and relationships among healthcare professionals and their organizations. For this purpose, the Job Demands-Resources model was used as a reference, and the measurement instrument was applied to 738 nurses working in healthcare units in Portugal. Therefore, it was found that the nurses’ personal factors have a positive effect on the nurses’ innovative behaviour and innovation outputs, with the innovative behaviour having the most significant impact on innovation outputs, which will benefit healthcare organizations and the healthcare provided to patients during the pandemic, through innovative behaviours and products. It is also possible to understand how the available resources and the demands imposed on nurses interfere with their innovative behaviour (Job Demands-Resources model). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Assessment of Management Competencies According to Coherence with Managers’ Personalities
Sustainability 2022, 14(1), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010170 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
The objective of our investigation was to verify a questionnaire’s suitability in identifying managerial competencies concerning managers’ personality characteristics. Methods: For the content validity of the questionnaire assessment of managerial competencies (AMC23), we investigated its coherence with the appraisal of the management style [...] Read more.
The objective of our investigation was to verify a questionnaire’s suitability in identifying managerial competencies concerning managers’ personality characteristics. Methods: For the content validity of the questionnaire assessment of managerial competencies (AMC23), we investigated its coherence with the appraisal of the management style methodology, i.e., managerial grid (MG), with correlation analysis. The existence of statistically significant relationships between the assessment of managerial competencies and managers’ personality characteristics was determined using Pearson’s correlation coefficient concerning the BIG-5 model. Results: In total, 573 managers participated in this study. Our examination concludes that motivational competencies correlated positively with the compromise and cooperative style; performance competencies with the competitive and cooperative style; and social competencies with the cooperative, adaptive, and compromise style. Not least, target competencies positively correlated with the competitive and cooperative style. Further, neuroticism negatively correlated with social managerial competence, extraversion, and openness to experience, which positively correlated with motivational and target competence. Friendliness was positively associated with social competence, and diligentness positively correlated with motivational, performance, and target competence. Conclusion: We determined significant correlations between managerial competencies (AMC23) and managerial style (MG). Our findings might have implications for further investigation and the development of more comprehensive instruments to assess managerial competencies in connection with managers’ personalities. We point out the need for further research to verify, improve, and constitute a model that further elucidates and explains managerial competencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
Article
Do Individual Factors Affect the Relationship between Faculty Intrapreneurship and the Entrepreneurial Orientation of Their Organizations?
Economies 2021, 9(4), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies9040199 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Several colleges and universities in the Middle East have been undertaking significant initiatives to forge and foster corporate entrepreneurship. The viability and success of those initiatives rest upon the input of faculty, possessing to various degrees an entrepreneurial orientation that revolves around innovativeness, [...] Read more.
Several colleges and universities in the Middle East have been undertaking significant initiatives to forge and foster corporate entrepreneurship. The viability and success of those initiatives rest upon the input of faculty, possessing to various degrees an entrepreneurial orientation that revolves around innovativeness, risk-taking, and proactivity. This study investigates the extent to which individual-level factors moderate the influence of faculty entrepreneurial behavior on the entrepreneurial orientation of higher education institutions in Kuwait. These factors include gender, academic qualifications, teaching experience, school affiliation, scientific productivity, industrial experience, and professional certification. Data were collected using questionnaires filled by 291 faculty members, and the model was analyzed using structural equation modelling. The differences for each faculty characteristic in the structural path coefficients were tested using the Z-score statistics. The eight hypotheses that were partially validated as the most notable findings indicate that entrepreneurial orientation among male or business faculty has a greater impact on their institutions’ organizational, entrepreneurial orientation. In contrast, the differences for the rest of the moderating characteristics were insignificant. The originality of this study pertains to the fact that the scope of faculty intrapreneurship does not seem to be strongly affected by any individual-level characteristic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Self-Expansion or Internalization as the Two Processes of Vertical Integration: What Informs the Decision?
Economies 2021, 9(4), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies9040197 - 11 Dec 2021
Abstract
In vertical integration literature, the two processes leading to vertical integration, namely, (1) self-expansion of the scope of activities based on internal capabilities and (2) internalization of activities with external capabilities have not been distinguished. However, using internal capabilities or incorporating external capabilities [...] Read more.
In vertical integration literature, the two processes leading to vertical integration, namely, (1) self-expansion of the scope of activities based on internal capabilities and (2) internalization of activities with external capabilities have not been distinguished. However, using internal capabilities or incorporating external capabilities is an alternative decision for managers and distinguishing them is crucial in practice. The purpose of this study is to distinguish self-expansion separated from internalization and to explain systematically when they likely occur. This study develops a unique vertical integration model by integrating transaction cost economics and the capability approach. With the model, we systematically analyzed the occurrence of (1) self-expansion and (2) internalization. Results reveal that the firm prefers self-expansion to internalization if it is easy to build the capabilities internally or difficult to procure them from outside the firm and if the costs of acquiring a firm or business with the required capabilities or the governance costs of the activities with external capabilities are high and vice versa. Our model leads to more understanding of vertical integration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Willingness to Stay of Tourism Lifestyle Entrepreneurs: A Configurational Perspective
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 13519; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132413519 - 07 Dec 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Tourism lifestyle entrepreneurs play an essential role in the innovation, sustainability, and competitiveness of tourism destinations. Thus, the ability of a destination to attract and retain this type of entrepreneur is an essential factor in strategic decisions. The limited research on this class [...] Read more.
Tourism lifestyle entrepreneurs play an essential role in the innovation, sustainability, and competitiveness of tourism destinations. Thus, the ability of a destination to attract and retain this type of entrepreneur is an essential factor in strategic decisions. The limited research on this class of entrepreneurs implies that decision makers have little information about the factors that contribute to their willingness to stay in a particular destination. To address this challenge, this study employs a mixed-method approach, combining a quantitative survey-based study with a qualitative study by means of in-depth interviews. Based on survey data and using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis, this study identifies three equifinal configurations of antecedent factors (entrepreneurial self-efficacy, community-centered strategy, community attachment, and place attachment) that lead to a willingness to stay. Place attachment is the single-core condition. Moreover, the findings show that TLEs are not a homogeneous group. On the contrary, these entrepreneurs are driven by different motives and personal backgrounds. These results represent important insights for the definition of more sustainable strategies in destinations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
IS TWO ALWAYS BETTER THAN ONE? Customer Perception on the Merger of Startup Decacorn Companies
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2021, 7(4), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc7040239 - 03 Dec 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Recently, the two decacorn Startups in Indonesia decided to collaborate with a merger scheme and accumulate over 100 million monthly active users. The Merger triggers a new perception for customers and has an impact on the level of Brand Loyalty. However, no research [...] Read more.
Recently, the two decacorn Startups in Indonesia decided to collaborate with a merger scheme and accumulate over 100 million monthly active users. The Merger triggers a new perception for customers and has an impact on the level of Brand Loyalty. However, no research examines how customer perception to mergers between the startup with decacorn status. Therefore, this study intends to fill this gap. Using the mix method approach, this study investigates how customer perception of startups’ mergers decacorn status and examines its effect on customer behavior. The findings revealed that customer self-congruency successfully mediates the research gap between customer perceptions on merger scheme (sig. 0.000 < 0.05, β = 0.575) and purchase intention (sig. 0.000 < 0.005, β = 0.390) by combining impulse buying strategies (sig. 0.003 < 0.05, β = 0.329). The paper contributes theoretically to the body of knowledge in the customer’s perception of the merging company. The study also gives new insight that customers’ perception of the Merger of two decacorn companies cannot guarantee that customers will be loyal to the company without connecting the customer self-congruency in each partner. It is recommended that the manager gain stimulus in building conformity of company image with customer perceptions that create self-congruency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
A Thoughtful Insight on Women Entrepreneur’s Investment Attitude
Economies 2021, 9(4), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies9040187 - 01 Dec 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study endeavors to be cognizant of the investment paradigm of women entrepreneurs and reveal their ambitions, professionalism, and desire to form a robust framework in the context of economic development. These persistent attributes of women entrepreneurs for economic development persuaded us to [...] Read more.
This study endeavors to be cognizant of the investment paradigm of women entrepreneurs and reveal their ambitions, professionalism, and desire to form a robust framework in the context of economic development. These persistent attributes of women entrepreneurs for economic development persuaded us to investigate factors that influence women’s attitude to make a long-term investment decision in their business regardless of uncertainty. This study adopted a deductive approach and assessed data using the PLS-SEM technique through Smart PLS 3.3.3. Around 330 adequate responses from Karachi and Lahore using a self-designed structured questionnaire revealed that women’s investment attitude has a positive significant mediating effect on social, behavioral factors, and investment decisions. Whereas, women’s investment attitude did not depict a positive significant mediating effect on personal factors and investment decisions. It was quite interesting to know that uncertainty did not reveal a significant moderating effect between investment attitude and investment decision. The study highlights measures suggested empowering women entrepreneurs who strive to enhance their performance and achieve sustainable development goals without being discouraged by society. Moreover, focusing risk-taking attributes to set an example for those who do not come forth. The novelty of the study in the context of women entrepreneur’s investment attitude well contributes to the existing literature and recommends future scholars to expand the horizon of the existing area of the study in the context of cultural, demographic, and seasonal factors, which are also affecting women entrepreneur’s investment decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Business Model of Sustainable Robo-Advisors: Empirical Insights for Practical Implementation
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13009; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313009 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
The given research paper examines the characteristics of German private investors regarding the probability of using robo-advisory-services. The used data set was gathered for this purpose (N = 305) to address the research question by using a logistic regression approach. The presented logit [...] Read more.
The given research paper examines the characteristics of German private investors regarding the probability of using robo-advisory-services. The used data set was gathered for this purpose (N = 305) to address the research question by using a logistic regression approach. The presented logit regression model results indicate that the awareness of sustainable aspects make a significant difference in the probability of using a sustainable robo-service. Additionally, our findings show that being male and cost-aware are positively associated with the use of a sustainable robo-advisor. Furthermore, the probability of use is 1.53 times higher among young and experienced investors. The findings in this paper provide relevant research findings for banks, asset managers, FinTechs, policy makers and financial practitioners to increase the adoption rate of robo-advice by introducing a sustainable offering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
Article
Lessons Learnt: Changes in the Methodology of the Entrepreneurial Discovery Process in Defining the Priorities of Hungarian Smart Specialisation Strategies
Sustainability 2021, 13(22), 12695; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212695 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study shows how one of the fundamental methods of designing and implementing the Smart Specialisation Strategy (S3), the Entrepreneurial Discovery Process (EDP), was applied in the period of 2014–2020 and how, taking accrued experience into account, it has been adjusted in the [...] Read more.
This study shows how one of the fundamental methods of designing and implementing the Smart Specialisation Strategy (S3), the Entrepreneurial Discovery Process (EDP), was applied in the period of 2014–2020 and how, taking accrued experience into account, it has been adjusted in the new planning cycle in Hungarian practice. Based on Hungarian strategies and other policy documents, international and Hungarian literature, the study shows that although the involvement of relevant actors in strategic planning and prioritising was achieved in both cycles, the nature of the actors’ participation differed fundamentally in the two periods. We found that learning from the experience of planning the S3 for 2014–2020, the design of the 2021–2027 strategy required improving the focus of priorities, validating priorities and creating an institutional system capable of making EDP continuous during the cycle 2021–2027, in line with the European Commission’s expectations. We concluded that a well-functioning EDP methodology is an essential part of the substantive realisation of an S3 that can be dynamically shaped according to the challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Architecting an Advanced Maturity Model for Business Processes in the Gig Economy: A Platform-Based Project Standardization
Economies 2021, 9(4), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies9040176 - 10 Nov 2021
Abstract
The business continuity of the gig economy is strongly driven by the operator’s ability to manage the maturity of business processes. Moreover, projects in the gig economy are risky due to the lack of monitoring and involvement of actors’ profiles. When business processes [...] Read more.
The business continuity of the gig economy is strongly driven by the operator’s ability to manage the maturity of business processes. Moreover, projects in the gig economy are risky due to the lack of monitoring and involvement of actors’ profiles. When business processes become mature as the target, platform-based project results can satisfy actors’ expectations. To reach targeted maturity, operators need to standardize their business processes. This standardization is actualized in a maturity model as a benchmark and guideline tool. It exposes how mature the current business processes are and the required improvements. This research aims to construct a maturity model systematically and comprehensively to encourage operators in the gig economy (as the model user) to improve the products and services delivered. This research has constructed a new maturity model for business processes using the maturity model development phases initiated by de Bruin et al. It explores the gig economy ecosystem in Indonesia. This research initiates the maturity model by collecting 48 factors in the gig economy. It continues by composing 13 determinant candidates as representations of the factors. After an empirical test involving 200 people (consisting of gig worker, client, and operator) and two iterations of mixed-method validation involving 16 experts, this research generates ten determinants classified into three dimensions: actors, platforms, and transactions. The maturity level of each determinant is measured to indicate its position toward digital business continuity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
The Formation of Subsequent Entrepreneurial Intention: Happiness Matters
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 12323; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132112323 - 08 Nov 2021
Abstract
Subsequent entrepreneurial intention is a good predictor of serial entrepreneurial endeavors which facilitate the sustainability of economic growth. Previous research has investigated the influence of economic outcomes on continuous engagement in entrepreneurial activities. However, despite frequent calls by scholars, limited attention has been [...] Read more.
Subsequent entrepreneurial intention is a good predictor of serial entrepreneurial endeavors which facilitate the sustainability of economic growth. Previous research has investigated the influence of economic outcomes on continuous engagement in entrepreneurial activities. However, despite frequent calls by scholars, limited attention has been given to the psychological factors that could explain how economic performance influences intention. This study aims at answering some of these questions, including whether entrepreneurs are willing to continue creating new ventures after achieving positive economic feedback from their current business, and what the psychological drivers are behind such intentions. Borrowing insights from the field of positive psychology, this study develops a framework to understand the role of the performance of a firm and happiness in the subsequent intention formation process, testing the mediated moderation effect using data collected from 1019 entrepreneurs in China. The results show that current firm performance significantly enhances subsequent entrepreneurial intention, while the relationship is mediated by the happiness of the entrepreneurs. Family cohesion attenuates the influence of firm performance on happiness, which shows that for entrepreneurs, family issues play an important role in their mental state. The theoretical and practical implications of the framework are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Review
Multidimensional Aspect of Corporate Entrepreneurship in Family Business and SMEs: A Systematic Literature Review
Economies 2021, 9(4), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies9040156 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 7
Abstract
This study aimed to review and analyze corporate entrepreneurship (CE) within family businesses and small and medium enterprises (SMEs), providing a review of the current state of research and suggesting a future research agenda. In a systematic literature review, 1040 articles indexed in [...] Read more.
This study aimed to review and analyze corporate entrepreneurship (CE) within family businesses and small and medium enterprises (SMEs), providing a review of the current state of research and suggesting a future research agenda. In a systematic literature review, 1040 articles indexed in Scopus were initially subjected to bibliometric and qualitative analysis. Finally, 53 papers published in various academic journals, focusing on corporate entrepreneurship, family businesses, and SMEs, were subjected to bibliometric analysis and qualitative research to identify the new potential state of the art in corporate entrepreneurship. CE in family businesses and SMEs is not a general research trend in the entrepreneurial area. This research shows that the literature on CE models and tools in family businesses and SMEs is still sparse. The review results correlate the actors of CE, behavior, and activities, including entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial management, and entrepreneurial leadership and performance, as outcomes in family business and SMEs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Determinants of Social Entrepreneurs in Southeast Europe: GEM Data Analysis
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11513; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011513 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
With this paper, we aim to examine the relationship between cognitive, social, and demographical factors, as well as national culture and its relationship with social entrepreneurial activity in Southeast Europe (SEE). The empirical research employs a binary logistic regression model, utilizing data obtained [...] Read more.
With this paper, we aim to examine the relationship between cognitive, social, and demographical factors, as well as national culture and its relationship with social entrepreneurial activity in Southeast Europe (SEE). The empirical research employs a binary logistic regression model, utilizing data obtained from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. For the purpose of the empirical research, we selected a sample of early-stage entrepreneurs who founded their businesses in Hungary, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia, or North Macedonia. The research sample in these five countries includes 10,012 examinees, of which 615 are social entrepreneurs. A statistically significant relationship was identified between observed phenomena in terms of entrepreneurial networking, risk aversion, individualism, entrepreneurial social image, media impact, gender, work status, and education. The results can be explained by the specific entrepreneurial context of the SEE region. We also point out recommendations for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
Article
Evolution of the Industrial Innovation Ecosystem of Resource-Based Cities (RBCs): A Case Study of Shanxi Province, China
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11350; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011350 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
Constructing and exploring the evolution mechanism of an industrial innovation ecosystem in resource-based cities (RBCs) is the most effective way to solve the contradiction between economic development, energy shortage, and environmental degradation. Taking 10 typical RBCs in Shanxi Province as examples, this paper [...] Read more.
Constructing and exploring the evolution mechanism of an industrial innovation ecosystem in resource-based cities (RBCs) is the most effective way to solve the contradiction between economic development, energy shortage, and environmental degradation. Taking 10 typical RBCs in Shanxi Province as examples, this paper used the method of system dynamics (SD) to build a model of the industrial innovation ecosystem of RBCs and set up scenarios to simulate and predict the evolution of the industrial innovation ecosystem of RBCs. The results showed that the industrial innovation ecosystem of RBCs is a complex system composed of four subsystems: innovation players, innovation content, innovation resources, and innovation environment. In innovation players, the increase in the amount of talent has a more obvious effect on technology level and GDP than R&D funding. In innovation content, the improvement of management level has a slow and continuous positive impact on GDP. Technology achievements, once implemented, will improve GDP more than management progress does. In innovation resources, human capital has greater potential for an increase in GDP and per capita consumption expenditure. In innovation resources, technology level plays an important role in slowing down the deterioration of the ecological environment. This study enriched the theoretical paradigm of the research on the industrial innovation ecosystem, and provided effective strategies to solve the development problems of RBCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Effects of Total Quality Management (TQM) Dimensions on Innovation—Evidence from SMEs
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10095; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810095 - 09 Sep 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
This research study aims to study and identify which dimensions of TQM have influence on and support innovation strategies within the Portuguese small and medium enterprises (SMEs), in the context of products or services’ innovation and process innovation, as well as to analyze [...] Read more.
This research study aims to study and identify which dimensions of TQM have influence on and support innovation strategies within the Portuguese small and medium enterprises (SMEs), in the context of products or services’ innovation and process innovation, as well as to analyze the extent to which this relationship occurs. To examine the linkage between TQM dimensions and innovation strategies, concerning innovation products and innovation processes, a multiple linear regression analysis was chosen and an eight-predictor multiple linear regression model was proposed. The data was collected through a questionnaire sent by email. This research study allows to conclude that several dimensions of TQM, such as benchmarking, quality/conception and product design, and continuous improvement, have a significant and positive association with product innovation. Although the data analysis/measurement of the results dimension has a significant association with product innovation, this association is negative. Conversely, several TQM dimensions, such as leadership/management’s commitment, benchmarking, involvement/empowerment of employees, and continuous improvement, revealed a positive and significant association with process innovation. Our research is of crucial importance for the knowledge of Portuguese SMEs and the fundamental factors that companies must address to both improve their efficiency and be more competitive, thereby increasing profitability and ensuring financial sustainability in the medium and long term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Research on the Influence Mechanism and Configuration Path of Network Relationship Characteristics on SMEs’ Innovation—The Mediating Effect of Supply Chain Dynamic Capability and the Moderating Effect of Geographical Proximity
Sustainability 2021, 13(17), 9919; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179919 - 03 Sep 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Innovation is the continuous source of power for the survival and development of SMEs, but the complexity of innovation and the limitation of resources make SMEs trapped in the dilemma of “innovation difficulty”. A moderated mediating model was constructed based on social network [...] Read more.
Innovation is the continuous source of power for the survival and development of SMEs, but the complexity of innovation and the limitation of resources make SMEs trapped in the dilemma of “innovation difficulty”. A moderated mediating model was constructed based on social network theory and resource view, and fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) was used to empirically study the influence mechanism between network relationship characteristics and SMEs’ innovation and the configuration path to achieve SMEs’ high innovation performance. The results show that the characteristics of network relationships positively affect the innovation performance of SMEs. Supply chain dynamic capability plays an intermediary role between network relationships and SMEs’ innovation relationships. Different geographical proximity levels of the supply chain lead to different coordination interaction and knowledge sharing efficiency between upstream and downstream, which not only positively moderates the relationship between supply chain dynamic capability and SMEs’ innovation performance, but also moderates its mediating effect. Furthermore, the fs QCA analysis results show three configurations for SMEs’ high innovation performance based on the characteristics of network relations: geographic proximity regulating type, network relationship dominant type, and dynamic coordination and integration type. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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Article
Knowledge Management Process, Entrepreneurial Orientation, and Performance in SMEs: Evidence from an Emerging Economy
Sustainability 2021, 13(17), 9791; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179791 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
Knowledge management (KM), a process of acquiring, converting, applying, and protecting knowledge assets, is crucial for value creation. The purpose of this research is to empirically test the relationship between KM processes (knowledge acquisition, knowledge conversion, knowledge application, and knowledge protection), entrepreneurial orientation [...] Read more.
Knowledge management (KM), a process of acquiring, converting, applying, and protecting knowledge assets, is crucial for value creation. The purpose of this research is to empirically test the relationship between KM processes (knowledge acquisition, knowledge conversion, knowledge application, and knowledge protection), entrepreneurial orientation (EO), and firm performance. Data were collected from 159 small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia using a cross-sectional survey. This research uses partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and WarpPLS version 7.0 to test the model. The results show that three of four KM dimensions: knowledge acquisition, knowledge conversion, and knowledge protection are positively related to performance. Moreover, EO has been found to moderate the relationship between knowledge application and performance positively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship)
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